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Developmental behavior

Jacob Kuint, Basil Porter
Community pediatrics in Israel is based on service by pediatricians who have been trained in hospitals in Israel or elsewhere. At the same time, the field of community pediatrics is changing its nature from the management of common acute diseases, to a field dealing with a variety of chronic problems, behavioral issues, family and social issues, developmental delays, problems relating to nutrition and growth' sleep problems, learning disabilities, and of late, excessive exposure to a host of digital media. In addition, lifestyle issues such as adequate physical activity, addictions, accidents and various types of abuse are increasingly part of the pediatric role...
October 2018: Harefuah
Molly Mishler Thomason, John McCarthy, Robin P Goin-Kochel, Lauren R Dowell, Christian P Schaaf, Leandra N Berry
Truncating variants of the MAGEL2 gene, one of the protein-coding genes within the Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) critical region on chromosome 15q11, cause Schaaf-Yang syndrome (SYS)-a neurodevelopmental disorder that shares several clinical features with PWS. The current study sought to characterize the neurobehavioral phenotype of SYS in a sample of 9 patients with molecularly-confirmed SYS. Participants received an assessment of developmental/intellectual functioning, adaptive functioning, autism symptomatology, and behavioral/emotional functioning...
October 20, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Barbara Maughan, Edward D Barker
Is earlier intervention always superior? Using two complementary forms of meta-analysis, Gardner and colleagues find no support for the "earlier is better" hypothesis in outcomes of parenting programs for child behavior problems across the 2-11 year age range. This commentary explores possible methodological and substantive reasons for the pattern of their findings. We need additional careful analyses of this kind, assessing age variations in intervention effects across broader age ranges, and in other developmental domains, for strong tests of the "earlier is better" hypothesis...
October 20, 2018: Child Development
Jamie K Capal, Christopher Carosella, Elora Corbin, Paul S Horn, Rebecca Caine, Patricia Manning-Courtney
OBJECTIVES: The association between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and epilepsy is well-known. Abnormalities on electroencephalography (EEG) results have been reported in patients with ASD without a history of seizures. However, little is known about the relationship between abnormalities on EEG results and the core features of ASD. The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between the presence of epilepsy and/or abnormalities on EEG results and disease-associated impairments in young children with ASD...
October 16, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Joana Baptista, Joana R Silva, Sofia Marques, Carla Martins, Isabel Soares
The present study is focused on child socioemotional problems 6 months after institutionalization, by considering the putative predictive role of child maltreatment, of developmental functioning at admission and the following months, and of the quality of institutional relational care. Fifty institutionalized infants and toddlers participated in this study. Child developmental functioning (i.e., cognitive, language, and motor development) was assessed at admission to the institution (Wave 0), and 3 (Wave 1) and 6 months (Wave 2) thereafter...
October 19, 2018: Infant Mental Health Journal
Dana C Won, Heidi M Feldman, Lynne C Huffman
OBJECTIVE: To determine the percentage of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and combined ASD + ADHD who had sleep problems documented by developmental-behavioral pediatricians at diagnostic and follow-up visits at 12 US academic medical centers comprising the Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics Research Network (DBPNet) and to identify the predictors of sleep problem documentation. METHODS: Developmental-behavioral pediatricians completed encounter forms that covered sociodemographic, medical, clinician, and visit factors...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Michael S Boroughs, Peter P Ehlinger, Abigail W Batchelder, Steven A Safren, Conall O'Cleirigh
Emerging adulthood (EA) is a developmental period marked by unique challenges that affect health including burgeoning occupational, relational, and financial stability; and increased risk taking in terms of sexual behavior(s) and substance use. Data were collected from 296 HIV-uninfected sexual minority men with childhood sexual abuse (CSA) histories. We analyzed baseline assessment data from a multisite randomized controlled trial that tested the efficaciousness of an experimental psychosocial treatment and examined vulnerabilities known to be linked with CSA...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Cristina Oana Mǎrginean, Claudiu Mǎrginean, Lorena Elena Meliţ
Introduction: Childhood obesity is occurring at alarming rates in both developed and developing countries. "Obesogenic" environmental factors must be associated with variants of different risk alleles to determine polygenic or common obesity, and their impact depends on different developmental stages.The interaction between obesogenic environment and genetic susceptibility results in the so-called polygenic forms of obesity. In contrast, monogenic and syndromic obesity are not influenced by environmental events...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Olga I Dadalko, Brittany G Travers
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition that affects one in 59 children in the United States. Although there is a mounting body of knowledge of cortical and cerebellar contributions to ASD, our knowledge about the early developing brainstem in ASD is only beginning to accumulate. Understanding how brainstem neurotransmission is implicated in ASD is important because many of this condition's sensory and motor symptoms are consistent with brainstem pathology. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to integrate epidemiological, behavioral, histological, neuroimaging, and animal evidence of brainstem contributions to ASD...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
April Meier, Ralph Nelson, Victoria P Connaughton
Zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) is a model organism for vertebrate developmental processes and, through a variety of mutant and transgenic lines, various diseases and their complications. Some of these diseases relate to proper function of the visual system. In the US, the National Eye Institute indicates >140 million people over the age of 40 have some form of visual impairment. The causes of the impairments range from refractive error to cataract, diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma, plus heritable diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa and color vision deficits...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Adam Shellard, András Szabó, Xavier Trepat, Roberto Mayor
Collective cell chemotaxis, the directed migration of cell groups along gradients of soluble chemical cues, underlies various developmental and pathological processes. We use neural crest cells, a migratory embryonic stem cell population whose behavior has been likened to malignant invasion, to study collective chemotaxis in vivo. Studying Xenopus and zebrafish, we have shown that the neural crest exhibits a tensile actomyosin ring at the edge of the migratory cell group that contracts in a supracellular fashion...
October 19, 2018: Science
Jessica P Lougheed, Lizbeth Benson, Pamela M Cole, Nilam Ram
The timing of events (e.g., how long it takes a child to exhibit a particular behavior) is often of interest in developmental science. Multilevel survival analysis (MSA) is useful for examining behavioral timing in observational studies (i.e., video recordings) of children's behavior. We illustrate how MSA can be used to answer 2 types of research questions. Specifically, using data from a study of 117 children 36 months old (SD = .38) during a frustration task, we examined the timing of their recurring anger expressions, and how this is related to (a) negative affectivity, a dimension of temperament related to the ability to regulate emotions, and (b) children's strategy use (distraction, bids to their mother)...
October 18, 2018: Developmental Psychology
Rebecca L Stephens, Benjamin Langworthy, Sarah J Short, Barbara D Goldman, Jessica B Girault, Jason P Fine, J Steven Reznick, John H Gilmore
The study of executive function (EF) has become increasingly popular in multiple areas of research. A wealth of evidence has supported the value of EF in shaping notable outcomes across typical and atypical development; however, little evidence has supported the cognitive contributors to early EF development. The current study used data from a large longitudinal sample of healthy children to investigate the differential influence of verbal and nonverbal cognition on later EF. Participants were assessed at 2 years of age using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, and Mullen scores were used to calculate nonverbal and verbal developmental quotients...
2018: Journal of Cognition and Development: Official Journal of the Cognitive Development Society
Grazioli Silvia, Mauri Maddalena, Crippa Alessandro, Maggioni Eleonora, Molteni Massimo, Brambilla Paolo, Nobile Maria
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in self-controlling attention, behavior, and emotions. In recent years, noninvasive optical techniques, such as near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), have been used to measure the neural correlates of pharmacological-therapy outcomes in children and adolescents with ADHD. METHODS: We reviewed a short series of articles that investigated the results of functional NIRS (fNIRS) on developmental-age ADHD...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Yuehui Zhao, Lijiang Long, Wen Xu, Richard F Campbell, Edward E Large, Joshua S Greene, Patrick T McGrath
The standard reference Caenorhabditis elegans strain, N2, has evolved marked behavioral changes in social feeding behavior since its isolation from the wild. We show that the causal, laboratory-derived mutations in two genes, npr-1 and glb-5 , confer large fitness advantages in standard laboratory conditions. Using environmental manipulations that suppress social/solitary behavior differences, we show the fitness advantages of the derived alleles remained unchanged, suggesting selection on these alleles acted through pleiotropic traits...
October 17, 2018: ELife
Christen M Deveney, Margaret J Briggs-Gowan, David Pagliaccio, Christopher R Estabrook, Elvira Zobel, James L Burns, Elizabeth S Norton, Daniel S Pine, Melissa A Brotman, Ellen Leibenluft, Lauren S Wakschlag
Irritability is a prominent feature of chronic mental disorders and a developmental marker of their early emergence. The most salient feature of irritability in early childhood is temper tantrums. While temper tantrums are normative in young children, they can be clinically concerning when they are dysregulated, very frequent, and/or occur in unexpected contexts. The present study uses behavioral and event-related brain potential (ERP) measures to characterize the relationship between irritability and neural markers of response inhibition in very young children...
October 17, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
Samantha C Butler, Anjali Sadhwani, Christian Stopp, Jayne Singer, David Wypij, Carolyn Dunbar-Masterson, Janice Ware, Jane W Newburger
OBJECTIVE: Mortality rates for children with congenital heart disease (CHD) have significantly declined, resulting in a growing population with associated neurodevelopmental disabilities. American Heart Association guidelines recommend systematic developmental screening for children with CHD. The present study describes results of inpatient newborn neurodevelopmental assessment of infants after open heart surgery. OUTCOME MEASURES: We evaluated the neurodevelopment of a convenience sample of high-risk infants following cardiac surgery but before hospital discharge using an adaptation of the Newborn Behavioral Observation...
October 15, 2018: Congenital Heart Disease
María Florencia Ercoli, Rodrigo Vena, Camila Goldy, Javier F Palatnik, Ramiro E Rodríguez
The regulatory mechanisms involved in plant development include many signals, some of them acting as graded positional cues regulating gene expression in a concentration-dependent manner. These regulatory molecules, that can be considered similar to animal morphogens, control cell behavior in developing organs. A suitable experimental approach to study expression gradients in plants is quantitative laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) using Arabidopsis thaliana root tips as a model system. In this chapter, we outline a detailed method for image acquisition using LSCM, including detailed microscope settings and image analysis using FIJI as software platform...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Chun-Chih Hu, Gong-Her Wu, Sheng-Feng Lai, Muniesh Muthaiyan Shanmugam, Y Hwu, Oliver I Wagner, Ta-Jen Yen
We utilized size-tunable gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) to investigate the toxicogenomic responses of the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. We demonstrated that the nematode C. elegans can uptake Au NPs coated with or without 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA), and Au NPs are detectable in worm intestines using X-ray microscopy and confocal optical microscopy. After Au NP exposure, C. elegans neurons grew shorter axons, which may have been related to the impeded worm locomotion behavior detected. Furthermore, we determined that MUA to Au ratios of 0...
October 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Huiyan Huang, Dustin J Hayden, Chen-Tseh Zhu, Heather L Bennett, Vivek Venkatachalam, Lukas L Skuja, Anne C Hart
An essential characteristic of sleep is heightened arousal threshold, with decreased behavioral response to external stimuli. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying arousal threshold changes during sleep are not fully understood. We report that loss of UNC-7 or UNC-9 innexin function dramatically reduced sleep and decreases arousal threshold during C. elegans developmentally-timed sleep. UNC-7 function was required in premotor interneurons and UNC-9 function was required in motor neurons in this paradigm...
October 15, 2018: Genetics
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