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Developmental behavior

Bharathi Geetha, Chinnaraju Sukumar, Eswaran Dhivyadeepa, Janardhana Kumar Reddy, Vellingiri Balachandar
Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder and the cause of autism is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of socioeconomic, environmental, pregnancy and newborn-related risk factors among children with autism spectrum disorders. This was a population-based case-control study. The study included 55 children with autism spectrum disorder and 55 age and sex matched typically developing normal children (TD) between 3 and 12 years. Several socio-economic factors, environmental factors, pregnancy related, natal, post-natal factors and the first noticed signs by the parents were analyzed...
December 15, 2018: Acta Neurologica Belgica
Yoewon Yoon, Julie A Cederbaum, Ferol E Mennen, Dorian E Traube, Chih-Ping Chou, Jungeun Olivia Lee
BACKGROUND: Experiences of childhood adversity are consistently associated with compromised behavioral health later in life. Less clear is the intergenerational influence of maternal childhood adversity on developmental outcome in children. Completely unknown are the mechanisms linking teen mother's childhood adversity to child developmental outcomes. OBJECTIVE: The present study tested whether aspects of parenting (parenting stress, physical discipline, and disagreement with grandparents) served as the pathways between teen mother's childhood adversity and the externalizing behaviors of their offspring at age 11, by gender...
December 13, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Huarong Wang, David C Schwebel, Dingliang Tan, Licheng Shi, Lvqing Miao
INTRODUCTION: All child pedestrians are vulnerable to road traffic injuries, but there is evidence that boys may be at greater risk than girls, at least among some age groups. METHOD: To create effective intervention programs, research on how boys and girls of particular ages behave as pedestrians, and whether there are gender differences that increase risk for particular genders at particular ages, is needed. In this study, 255 boys and 235 girls in grade 1 through 6 from two primary schools in Nantong city, China, were unobtrusively videotaped when walking to school in the morning...
December 2018: Journal of Safety Research
Olushola M Awoyemi, Naveen Kumar, Cassandra Schmitt, Seenivasan Subbiah, Jordan Crago
Pyrethroids are potent neurotoxicants that may elicit multiple pathways of toxicity in non-target organisms. Comparative studies on the mechanistic and developmental effects of types I and II pyrethroids against non-target aquatic species are limited. This study assessed the effects of the two pyrethroid types against embryo-larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) at environmentally relevant and laboratory concentrations. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to type-I (permethrin, bifenthrin) and type-II (deltamethrin, λ-cyhalothrin, fenvalerate, esfenvalerate) pyrethroids at 1000, 10, 0...
December 6, 2018: Chemosphere
Noa Sadigurschi, Hava M Golan
Individuals with autism constitute a variable population whose members are spread along the autism spectrum. Sub-populations within that spectrum exhibit other conditions, such as anxiety, intellectual disabilities, hyperactivity and epilepsy, with different severities and co-occurrences. Among the genes associated with the increased risk for autism is the methylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T polymorphism, which impairs one-carbon metabolic pathway efficiency. The frequency of the MTHFR677TT homozygote is markedly higher among autism patients and their mothers than in the general population...
December 15, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Mikahl Banwarth-Kuhn, Ali Nematbakhsh, Kevin W Rodriguez, Stephen Snipes, Carolyn G Rasmussen, G Venugopala Reddy, Mark Alber
One of the central problems in animal and plant developmental biology is deciphering how chemical and mechanical signals interact within a tissue to produce organs of defined size, shape, and function. Cell walls in plants impose a unique constraint on cell expansion since cells are under turgor pressure and do not move relative to one another. Cell wall extensibility and constantly changing distribution of stress on the wall are mechanical properties that vary between individual cells and contribute to rates of expansion and orientation of cell division...
December 14, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Tamara Vanderwal, Jeffrey Eilbott, F Xavier Castellanos
The use of movie-watching as an acquisition state for functional connectivity (FC) MRI has recently enabled multiple groups to obtain rich data sets in younger children with both substantial sample sizes and scan durations. Using naturalistic paradigms such as movies has also provided analytic flexibility for these developmental studies that extends beyond conventional resting state approaches. This review highlights the advantages and challenges of using movies for developmental neuroimaging and explores some of the methodological issues involved in designing pediatric studies with movies...
November 20, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Ahmad Abu-Akel, Laura Baxendale, Christine Mohr, Sarah Sullivan
Difficulties in social functioning have been linked to schizotypy, which may reflect vulnerability to psychotic disorders. We investigated these links in early adolescence, a developmental stage when many mental illnesses first emerge. Using the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire and The Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences, we examined the association of peer-relationship problems and prosocial behavior with positive and negative schizotypy in a sample of 149 school children (70 girls, 79 boys) between 12 and 15 years old...
December 2018: Psychiatry Research
Cedric Jackson, Moira van Staaden
Although scientific research using mammalian models has made great strides in uncovering the enigmatic neural and molecular mechanisms orchestrating the state of drug addiction, a complete understanding has thus far eluded researchers. The complexity of the task has led to the use of invertebrate model systems to complement the research of drug-induced reward in mammalian systems. Invertebrates, such as crayfish, offer excellent model systems to help reveal the underlying mechanisms of drug addiction as they retain the ancestral neural reward circuit that is evolutionarily conserved across taxa, and they possess relatively few, large neurons, laid out in an accessible, modularly organized nervous system...
December 11, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Nicole F Kahn, Carolyn T Halpern
The goal of this article was to examine gender-typed behavior longitudinally and to consider its relationship with sexual orientation in adulthood. Data were from 10,624 respondents who completed Wave 1 (adolescence), Wave 3 (emerging adulthood), and Wave 4 (early adulthood) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. First, we described the distributions of gender-typed behavior by adult sexual orientation at each of the three developmental stages. Next, we performed multilevel mixed regression models to assess longitudinal variation in gender-typed behavior from adolescence to adulthood within sexual orientation groups...
December 13, 2018: Developmental Psychology
Vanessa A Jimenez, Xiaojie Wang, Natali Newman, Nicole A R Walter, Steven Gonzales, Jamie O Lo, Mathew M Ford, Verginia C Cuzon Carlson, Kathleen A Grant, Christopher D Kroenke
INTRODUCTION: Gestational ethanol exposure is associated with multiple developmental abnormalities, collectively termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). While the majority of women abstain from ethanol following knowledge of pregnancy, one contributing factor to the high FASD prevalence is that pregnancy is not detected until 4-6 weeks. Thus, ethanol consumption continues during the initial stages of fetal development. METHODS: An experimental protocol is described in which rhesus macaques self-administer 1...
December 14, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Xiaole Yang, Qiaolei Yang, Guiwen Zheng, Shuhong Han, Fenghui Zhao, Qinglian Hu, Zhengwei Fu
Graphene oxide (GO) has emerged as the worldwide promising candidate for biomedical application, such as for drug delivery, bio-sensing and anti-cancer therapy. This study was focused on the zebrafish and RAW264.7 cell line as in vivo and in vitro models to assess the potential developmental neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity of GO. No obvious acute developmental toxicity was observed upon treatments with 0.01, 0.1, and 1 μg/mL GO for five consecutive days. However, decreased hatching rate, increased malformation rate, heart beat rate and hypoactivity of locomotor behavior were detected when exposed to 10 μg/mL GO...
December 13, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Catharina Giudice, Elizabeth E Rogers, Bridget C Johnson, Hannah C Glass, Kevin A Shapiro
AIM: Our aim was to characterize the sensory processing outcome following neonatal arterial ischemic stroke (NAIS) and identify neuroanatomical correlates of abnormal sensory processing. METHOD: We evaluated children with NAIS longitudinally at 12 months, 18 months, and/or 30 months in areas of cognitive, motor, and language development. We gathered sensory processing data using the Sensory Profile-2 Caregiver Questionnaire. These data were analyzed against early magnetic resonance imaging using a voxel-based approach...
December 12, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Wei-Chih Chin, Hsin-Mei Li, Kuo-Yu Chao, Hsueh-Ling Chang
Autism spectrum disorder has only recently been recognized as a developmental disability in Taiwan. We conducted an exploratory qualitative descriptive study with children (n = 14, mean age = 13.57 years) and their parents to understand stressors experienced by children with autism spectrum disorder in Taiwan. An analysis of face-to-face interviews revealed that children with autism spectrum disorder experienced stressors of daily living, which included environmental stimuli, academic and behavioral expectations, deviations in routine, behavioral expectations, and emotional control, and stressors of socializing, which included bullying, communication, personal interactions, conflict resolution, and difficulty understanding others' emotions...
December 11, 2018: Nursing & Health Sciences
Steven B Cogill, Anand K Srivastava, Mary Qu Yang, Liangjiang Wang
BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is the umbrella term for a group of neurodevelopmental disorders convergent on behavioral phenotypes. While many genes have been implicated in the disorder, the predominant focus of previous research has been on protein coding genes. This leaves a vast number of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) not characterized for their role in the disorder although lncRNAs have been shown to play important roles in development and are highly represented in the brain...
December 14, 2018: BMC Systems Biology
Darcey M Allan, Christopher J Lonigan
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a complex and heterogeneous disorder consisting of inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive behaviors. Although, the multidimensionality of ADHD is widely accepted, questions remain regarding the extent to which the components of this disorder are overlapping or distinct. Further, although the same measures are generally used to assess inattentive, hyperactive, and impulsive behaviors across childhood, it has been argued that the structure and measurement of inattentive, hyperactive, and impulsive behaviors may be susceptible to developmental influences...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
A Natisha Nabbijohn, Anna I R van der Miesen, Alanna Santarossa, Diana Peragine, Annelou L C de Vries, Arne Popma, Meng-Chuan Lai, Doug P VanderLaan
Gender variance (GV) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently co-occur in clinical populations. We investigated GV in association with ASD characteristics in nonclinical children and in children with developmental/mental health diagnoses. In 6-12-year-olds (N = 2445; 51% birth-assigned boys), the Gender Identity Questionnaire for Children measured GV and the Children's Social Behavior Questionnaire measured six subdomains of ASD characteristics. Among nonclinical children, GV was associated with parent-reported difficulties orienting socially and stereotyped behaviors...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Christina B Johns, Cheryl Lacadie, Betty Vohr, Laura R Ment, Dustin Scheinost
Survivors of preterm birth experience long-lasting behavioral problems characterized by increased risk of depression, anxiety, and impairments in social functioning. The amygdala is a key region for social functioning and alterations in amygdala structure and connectivity are thought to underlie social functioning deficits in many disorders, including preterm birth. However, functional connectivity of the amygdala and its association with social impairments is not well-studied in preterm participants (PTs)...
December 3, 2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Hildi Hagedorn, Marie Kenny, Adam J Gordon, Princess E Ackland, Siamak Noorbaloochi, Wei Yu, Alex H S Harris
BACKGROUND: In the US, emergency room visits and overdoses related to prescription opioids have soared and the rates of illicit opioid use, including heroin and fentanyl, are increasing. Opioid use disorder (OUD) is associated with higher morbidity and mortality, higher HIV and HCV infection rates, and criminal behavior. Opioid agonist therapy (OAT; methadone and buprenorphine) is proven to be effective in treating OUD and decreasing its negative consequences. While the efficacy of OAT has been established, too few providers prescribe OAT to patients with OUD due to patient, provider, or system factors...
December 13, 2018: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
Sayyed Ali Samadi, Ghasem Abdollahi-Boghrabadi, Roy McConkey
Parents of children with developmental disabilities face many challenges. Those who are less satisfied with the care-giving that their children receive may require extra support. This paper reports the development of a Parental Satisfaction with Caring for a child with Developmental Disability Index (PSCDDI), with items derived from literature reviews and pilot testing in Iran. The index was field tested with 256 parents caring for children with a diagnosis of intellectual disability, autism, or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and who were attending centres in four locations across Iran...
December 11, 2018: Children
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