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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30118634/attachment-and-non-suicidal-self-injury-among-young-adolescents-the-indirect-role-of-behavioral-problems
#1
Matthew Cassels, Imke Baetens, Paul Wilkinson, Karel Hoppenbrouwers, Jan R Wiersema, Karla Van Leeuwen, Glenn Kiekens
OBJECTIVE: Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) often occurs before age 15, yet the majority of research on risk factors for this dangerous behavior has focused on older samples. Insecure attachment has been previously identified as a risk factor for both NSSI and behavioral problems, and behavioral problems appear to be particularly associated with NSSI among young populations. Redressing the lack of young adolescent NSSI research, the present study uses longitudinal data from a sample of young adolescents to test a model in which insecure attachment acts as a prospective risk factor for NSSI via emotional and behavioral problems...
August 17, 2018: Archives of Suicide Research: Official Journal of the International Academy for Suicide Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30117231/validating-go4kidds-as-a-brief-measure-of-adaptive-skills-in-special-education-settings-for-children-with-severe-intellectual-disability
#2
Xinyu Pan, Vasiliki Totsika, Gemma Nicholls, Andreas Paris
BACKGROUND: Adaptive skills measures tend to be lengthy. The GO4KIDDS (Great Outcomes for Kids Impacted by Severe Developmental Disabilities; (Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 58, 2015 and 594)) Brief Adaptive Behaviour Scale was developed to provide a brief assessment of adaptive skills. Our study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of G04KIDDS Brief Adaptive Scale in a large sample of children in special education. METHODS: Teachers reported on 361 students with severe to profound intellectual disability...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30116778/a-mouse-model-of-22q11-2-deletions-molecular-and-behavioral-signatures-of-parkinson-s-disease-and-schizophrenia
#3
Akiko Sumitomo, Kouta Horike, Kazuko Hirai, Nancy Butcher, Erik Boot, Takeshi Sakurai, Frederick C Nucifora, Anne S Bassett, Akira Sawa, Toshifumi Tomoda
Individuals with chromosome 22q11.2 deletions are at increased risk of developing psychiatric conditions, most notably, schizophrenia (SZ). Recently, clinical studies have also implicated these recurrent 22q11.2 deletions with the risk of early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD). Thus far, the multiple mouse models generated for 22q11.2 deletions have been studied primarily in the context of congenital cardiac, neurodevelopmental, and psychotic disorders. One of these is the Df1 /+ model, in which SZ-associated and developmental abnormalities have been reported...
August 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30115770/the-long-term-cognitive-consequences-of-adolescent-exposure-to-recreational-drugs-of-abuse
#4
Sean M Mooney-Leber, Thomas J Gould
During adolescence, the brain continues to undergo vital developmental processes. In turn, complex behavioral and cognitive skills emerge. Unfortunately, neurobiological development during adolescence can be influenced by environmental factors such as drug exposure. Engaging in drug use during adolescence has been a long-standing health concern, especially how it predicts or relates to drug using behavior later in life. However, recent findings suggest that other behavioral domains, such as learning and memory, are also vulnerable to adolescent drug use...
September 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30114932/autism-at-a-glance-a-pilot-study-optimizing-thin-slice-observations
#5
Lauren H Hampton, Philip R Curtis, Megan Y Roberts
Borrowing from a clinical psychology observational methodology, thin-slice observations were used to assess autism characteristics in toddlers. Thin-slices are short observations taken from a longer behavior stream which are assigned ratings by multiple raters using a 5-point scale. The raters' observations are averaged together to assign a "thin-slice" value for each observation. In this study, a total of 60 toddlers were selected from a video archive: 20 children with typical development, 20 children with developmental language disorder, and 20 children with autism...
August 16, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30114344/alterations-in-hub-organization-in-the-white-matter-structural-network-in-toddlers-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-2-year-follow-up-study
#6
Lu Qian, Yao Wang, KangKang Chu, Yun Li, ChaoYong Xiao, Ting Xiao, Xiang Xiao, Ting Qiu, YunHua Xiao, Hui Fang, XiaoYan Ke
Little is currently known about the longitudinal developmental patterns of hubs in the whole-brain white matter (WM) structural networks among toddlers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study utilized diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and deterministic tractography to map the WM structural networks in 37 ASD toddlers and 27 age-, gender- and developmental quotient-matched controls with developmental delay (DD) toddlers aged 2-3 years old at baseline (Time 1) and at 2-year follow-up (Time 2). Furthermore, graph-theoretical methods were applied to investigate alterations in the network hubs in these patients at the two time points...
August 16, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30114331/expression-of-hbs-kirre-and-rst-during-drosophila-ovarian-development
#7
Felipe Berti Valer, Maiaro Cabral Rosa Machado, Rui Milton Patrício Silva-Junior, Ricardo Guelerman Pinheiro Ramos
The Irre Cell-Recognition Module (IRM) is a group of evolutionarily conserved and structurally related transmembrane glycoproteins of the immunoglobulin superfamily. In Drosophila melanogaster it comprises the products of the genes roughest (rst; also known as irreC-rst), kin-of-irre (kirre; also known as duf), stick-and-stones (sns) and hibris (hbs). In this model organism, the behavior of this group of proteins as a partly redundant functional unit mediating selective cell recognition was demonstrated in a variety of developmental contexts, but their possible involvement in ovarian development and oogenesis has not been investigated, notwithstanding the fact that some rst mutant alleles are also female sterile...
August 16, 2018: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30113118/accounting-for-the-shared-environment-in-cognitive-abilities-and-academic-achievement-with-measured-socioecological-contexts
#8
Laura E Engelhardt, Jessica A Church, K Paige Harden, Elliot M Tucker-Drob
Behavioral and molecular genetic research has established that child cognitive ability and academic performance are substantially heritable, but genetic variation does not account for all of the stratification of cognitive and academic outcomes across families. Which specific contexts and experiences contribute to these shared environmental influences on cognitive ability and academic achievement? Using an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of N = 1728 twins ages 7-20 from the Texas Twin Project, we identified specific measured family, school, and neighborhood socioecological contexts that statistically accounted for latent shared environmental variance in cognitive abilities and academic skills...
August 16, 2018: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30112814/time-frequency-approaches-to-investigating-changes-in-feedback-processing-during-childhood-and-adolescence
#9
M E Bowers, G A Buzzell, E M Bernat, N A Fox, T V Barker
Processing feedback from the environment is an essential function during development to adapt behavior in advantageous ways. One measure of feedback processing, the feedback negativity (FN), is an ERP observed following the presentation of feedback. Findings detailing developmental changes in the FN have been mixed, possibly due to limitations in traditional ERP measurement methods. Recent work shows that both theta and delta frequency activity contribute to the FN; utilizing time-frequency methods to measure change in power and phase in these frequency bands may provide more accurate representation of feedback processing development in childhood and adolescence...
August 15, 2018: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30111823/peripubertal-stress-increases-play-fighting-at-adolescence-and-modulates-nucleus-accumbens-cb1-receptor-expression-and-mitochondrial-function-in-the-amygdala
#10
Aurélie Papilloud, Isabelle Guillot de Suduiraut, Olivia Zanoletti, Jocelyn Grosse, Carmen Sandi
Play fighting is a highly rewarding behavior that helps individuals to develop social skills. Early-life stress has been shown to alter play fighting in rats and hamsters as well as to increase aggressive behaviors at adulthood. However, it is not known whether individual differences in stress-induced play fighting are related to differential developmental trajectories towards adult aggression. To address this question, we used a rat model of peripubertal stress (PPS)-induced psychopathology that involves increased aggression at adulthood...
August 15, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30110922/lethal-and-sublethal-effects-of-three-microbial-biocontrol-agents-on-spodoptera-litura-and-its-natural-predator-rhynocoris-kumarii
#11
Kitherian Sahayaraj, Natarajan Subash, Robert W Allingham, Vivek Kumar, Pasco B Avery, Lucky K Mehra, Cindy L McKenzie, Lance S Osborne
Entomopathogenic microbes such as Spodoptera litura nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpltNPV), Metarhizium anisopliae , and Pseudomonas fluorescens are biological agents used for the control of multiple arthropod pests. The objective of this study was to assess their effects on the biological parameters of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae, and its natural reduviid predator Rhynocoris kumarii (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) under laboratory conditions. Results suggested that P. fluorescens reduced the food consumption index, relative growth rate, approximate digestibility, the efficiency of conversion of ingested food, and the efficiency of conversion of digested food of S...
August 14, 2018: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109024/recent-advances-in-understanding-the-mechanisms-of-cerebellar-granule-cell-development-and-function-and-their-contribution-to-behavior
#12
REVIEW
Elizabeth P Lackey, Detlef H Heck, Roy V Sillitoe
The cerebellum is the focus of an emergent series of debates because its circuitry is now thought to encode an unexpected level of functional diversity. The flexibility that is built into the cerebellar circuit allows it to participate not only in motor behaviors involving coordination, learning, and balance but also in non-motor behaviors such as cognition, emotion, and spatial navigation. In accordance with the cerebellum's diverse functional roles, when these circuits are altered because of disease or injury, the behavioral outcomes range from neurological conditions such as ataxia, dystonia, and tremor to neuropsychiatric conditions, including autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30108536/who-is-the-rightful-owner-young-children-s-ownership-judgments-in-different-transfer-contexts
#13
Zhanxing Li, Minli Qi, Jing Yu, Liqi Zhu
This study aimed to examine whether Chinese preschoolers understand that ownership can be transferred in different contexts. The study participants were 3- to 5-year-old Chinese children ( n = 96) and adults ( n = 34). With four scenarios that contained different transfer types (giving, stealing, losing, and abandoning), participants were asked four questions about ownership. The results indicated that preschoolers' ability to distinguish legitimate ownership transfers from illegitimate ownership transfers improved with age...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30108477/diet-can-impact-microbiota-composition-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#14
Kirsten Berding, Sharon M Donovan
Diet is one of the most influential environmental factors in determining the composition of the gastrointestinal microbiota. Microbial dysbiosis in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and the impact of some bacterial taxa on symptoms of ASD has been recognized. Children with ASD are often described as picky eaters with low intake of fiber-rich foods, including fruits and vegetables. However, the impact of diet on the microbiota composition in children with ASD is largely unknown. Herein, fecal samples, 3 day food diaries and the Youth and Adolescence Food Frequency questionnaire (YAQ) were collected from children with ASD (ASD; n = 26) and unaffected controls (CONT; n = 32)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30107586/using-a-social-marketing-approach-to-develop-healthy-me-healthy-we-a-nutrition-and-physical-activity-intervention-in-early-care-and-education
#15
Amber E Vaughn, Rachel Bartlett, Courtney T Luecking, Heidi Hennink-Kaminski, Dianne S Ward
Although social marketing principles have been successfully employed in school-based interventions to prevent obesity, use in early care and education (ECE) settings has been limited. This paper describes the use of the social marketing approach to develop an ECE-based intervention that encourages an ECE provider-parent partnership to improve the quality of preschool children's diets and their level of physical activity. A six-step social marketing approach for public health interventions guided the development of this ECE-based intervention...
August 10, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30107510/host-plant-adaptation-in-cactophilic-species-of-the-drosophila-buzzatii-cluster-fitness-and-transcriptomics
#16
Esteban Hasson, Diego De Panis, Juan Hurtado, Julián Mensch
Host plant shifts in herbivorous insects often involve facing new environments that may speed up the evolution of oviposition behavior, performance related traits, morphology and, incidentally, reproductive isolation. In the genus Drosophila, cactophilic species of the repleta group include emblematic species in the study of the evolution of host plant utilization. The South American D. buzzatii and its sibling D. koepferae are a model system for the study of differential host plant use. Though these species exhibit a certain degree of niche overlap, the former breeds primarily on decaying cladodes of Opuntia cacti while the D...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30107257/volumetric-development-of-the-zebra-finch-brain-throughout-the-first-200-days-of-post-hatch-life-traced-by-in-vivo-mri
#17
Julie Hamaide, Geert De Groof, Lisbeth Van Ruijssevelt, Kristina Lukacova, Johan Van Audekerke, Marleen Verhoye, Annemie Van der Linden
The first months of life are characterized by massive neuroplastic processes that parallel the acquisition of skills and abilities vital for proper functioning in later life. Likewise, juvenile songbirds learn the song sung by their tutor during the first months after hatching. To date, most studies targeting brain development in songbirds exclusively focus on the song control and auditory pathways. To gain a comprehensive insight into structural developmental plasticity of the entire zebra finch brain throughout the different subphases of song learning, we designed a longitudinal study in a group of male (16) and female (19) zebra finches...
August 11, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30107083/oral-microbiome-activity-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#18
Steven D Hicks, Richard Uhlig, Parisa Afshari, Jeremy Williams, Maria Chroneos, Cheryl Tierney-Aves, Kayla Wagner, Frank A Middleton
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with several oropharyngeal abnormalities, including buccal sensory sensitivity, taste and texture aversions, speech apraxia, and salivary transcriptome alterations. Furthermore, the oropharynx represents the sole entry point to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. GI disturbances and alterations in the GI microbiome are established features of ASD, and may impact behavior through the "microbial-gut-brain axis." Most studies of the ASD microbiome have used fecal samples...
August 14, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30106381/activity-dependent-neuroprotective-protein-deficiency-models-synaptic-and-developmental-phenotypes-of-autism-like-syndrome
#19
Gal Hacohen-Kleiman, Shlomo Sragovich, Gidon Karmon, Andy Y L Gao, Iris Grigg, Metsada Pasmanik-Chor, Albert Le, Vlasta Korenková, R Anne McKinney, Illana Gozes
Previous findings showed that in mice, complete knockout of activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP) abolishes brain formation, while haploinsufficiency (Adnp+/-) causes cognitive impairments. We hypothesized that mutations in ADNP lead to a developmental/autistic syndrome in children. Indeed, recent phenotypic characterization of children harboring ADNP mutations (ADNP syndrome children) revealed global developmental delays and intellectual disabilities, including speech and motor dysfunctions. Mechanistically, ADNP includes a SIP motif embedded in the ADNP-derived snippet, drug candidate NAP (NAPVSIPQ also known as CP201), which binds to microtubule end binding protein 3, essential for dendritic spine formation...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30105861/socioemotional-and-behavioral-problems-in-toddlers-with-language-delay
#20
Audrey Thurm, Stacy S Manwaring, Cecilia Cardozo Jimenez, Lauren Swineford, Cristan Farmer, Renee Gallo, Mika Maeda
Toddlers with language delay are at risk for persistent developmental and behavioral difficulties; however, the association between socioemotional/behavior problems and language in young children is not well understood. This study explored socioemotional/behavior problems in a unique sample of toddlers with language delays using a measure developed explicitly for this age group. Toddlers identified by 18 months with receptive and expressive language delay (LD; n = 30) or typical development (TD; n = 61) were evaluated at 18 and 24 months of age using the Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (ITSEA) and the Mullen Scales of Early Learning...
August 14, 2018: Infant Mental Health Journal
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