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Dual energy CT

Kohei Aoki, Yotaro Izumi, Wataru Watanabe, Yuji Shimizu, Hisato Osada, Norinari Honda, Toshihide Itoh, Mitsuo Nakayama
BACKGROUND: While many studies have evaluated the change in lung volume before and after lung resection and correlated this with pulmonary function test results, there is very little evidence on the changes in ventilation perfusion ratio (V/Q) before versus after lung resection. In the present pilot study, we evaluated if V/Q mapping can be constructed using dual energy CT images. METHODS: Thirty-one lung cancer patients planned for pulmonary resection were included in this study...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
Daniela Pfeiffer, Anushri Parakh, Manuel Patino, Avinash Kambadakone, Ernst J Rummeny, Dushyant V Sahani
PURPOSE: To determine the diagnostic potential of Material Density (MD) iodine images in dual-energy CT (DECT) for visualization and quantification of arterial phase hyperenhancement and washout in hepatocellular carcinomas compared to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study complied with HIPAA guidelines and was approved by the ethics committee of the institutional review board. Thirty-one patients (23 men, 8 women; age range, 36-87 years) with known or suspected Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) were included...
May 17, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Munemasa Okada, Takafumi Nomura, Yoshiteru Nakashima, Yoshie Kunihiro, Shoji Kido
PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate the usefulness of histograms of lung perfused blood volume (HLPBV) based on the presence of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) and the pulmonary embolic burden. METHODS: A total of 168 patients (55 males; mean age, 62.9 years) underwent contrast-enhanced dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) between January 1 2012 and October 31 2014. Initial DECT images were three-dimensionally reconstructed, and the HLPBV patterns were divided into three types, including the symmetric type (131 patients, 78...
May 2018: Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology: Official Journal of the Turkish Society of Radiology
Geneviève B Marchand, Anne-Marie Carreau, Sofia Laforest, Julie-Anne Côté, Marleen Daris, Katherine Cianflone, Cornelia Prehn, Jerzy Adamski, André Tchernof
Background Obesity-related alterations in the circulating steroid hormone profile remain equivocal in women. Our objective was to identify circulating steroid levels that relate to increased adiposity and altered adipose phenotype in premenopausal women. Materials and methods In a sample of 42 premenopausal women [age 46 ± 3 years; body mass index (BMI) 27.1 ± 4.2 kg/m2], 19 plasma steroids were quantified by electrospray ionization-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (ESI-LC-MS/MS). Body composition and fat distribution were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and computed tomography (CT), respectively...
May 11, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Zaiyang Long, Michael R Bruesewitz, David R DeLone, Jonathan M Morris, Kimberly K Amrami, Mark C Adkins, Katrina N Glazebrook, James M Kofler, Shuai Leng, Cynthia H McCollough, Joel G Fletcher, Ahmed F Halaweish, Lifeng Yu
OBJECTIVES: Both projection and dual-energy (DE)-based methods have been used for metal artifact reduction (MAR) in CT. The two methods can also be combined. The purpose of this work was to evaluate these three MAR methods using phantom experiments for five types of metal implants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five phantoms representing spine, dental, hip, shoulder, and knee were constructed with metal implants. These phantoms were scanned using both single-energy (SE) and DE protocols with matched radiation output...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
K Li, P Wang, R Y Yan, S J Song
Objective: To explore a simple method for early detection of osteoporosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), by analyzing the correlation between computed tomography (CT) values of the thoracolumbar vertebrae and dual energy X ray absorptiometry (DXA). Methods: 86 patients with acute exacerbation of COPD were included in this study. The average age of the patients, including 57 males and 29 females, was 74±10 years. They all received chest CT and DXA examination within 1 month after admission...
May 12, 2018: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
Min Kyun Na, Yu Deok Won, Choong Hyun Kim, Jae Min Kim, Jin Hwan Cheong, Je Il Ryu, Myung-Hoon Han
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Osteoporosis is one of the most common chronic metabolic diseases, but detection and treatment rates are low. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the correlation between frontal skull Hounsfield unit (HU) values from brain computed tomography (CT) scans and T-scores of the lumbar spine and femoral neck from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans. METHODS: Patients with < 1 year between brain CT and DXA scans were included in the study...
2018: PloS One
Astrid Ellen Grams, Tanja Djurdjevic, Rafael Rehwald, Thomas Schiestl, Florian Dazinger, Ruth Steiger, Michael Knoflach, Elke Ruth Gizewski, Bernhard Glodny
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate whether dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) reconstructions optimised for oedema visualisation (oedema map; EM) facilitate an improved detection of early infarctions after endovascular stroke therapy (EST). METHODS: Forty-six patients (21 women; 25 men; mean age: 63 years; range 24-89 years) were included. The brain window (BW), virtual non-contrast (VNC) and modified VNC series based on a three-material decomposition technique optimised for oedema visualisation (EM) were evaluated...
May 4, 2018: European Radiology
Kai Roman Laukamp, Simon Lennartz, Victor-Frederic Neuhaus, Nils Große Hokamp, Robert Rau, Markus Le Blanc, Nuran Abudullayev, Anastasios Mpotaris, David Maintz, Jan Borggrefe
OBJECTIVES: This study compares metal artifact (MA) reduction in imaging of total hip replacements (THR) using virtual monoenergetic images (VMI), for MA-reduction-specialized reconstructions (MAR) and conventional CT images (CI) from detector-based dual-energy computed tomography (SDCT). METHODS: Twenty-seven SDCT-datasets of patients carrying THR were included. CI, MAR and VMI with different energy-levels (60-200 keV) were reconstructed from the same scans. MA width was measured...
May 3, 2018: European Radiology
E Biver, C Durosier-Izart, F Merminod, T Chevalley, B van Rietbergen, S L Ferrari, R Rizzoli
A longitudinal analysis of bone microstructure in postmenopausal women of the Geneva Retirees Cohort indicates that age-related cortical bone loss is attenuated at non-bearing bone sites in fermented dairy products consumers, not in milk or ripened cheese consumers, independently of total energy, calcium, or protein intakes. INTRODUCTION: Fermented dairy products (FDP), including yogurts, provide calcium, phosphorus, and proteins together with prebiotics and probiotics, all being potentially beneficial for bone...
May 3, 2018: Osteoporosis International
Zhange Yu, Tianli Mao, Yaping Xu, Tengqi Li, Yanhua Wang, Fuqiang Gao, Wei Sun
OBJECTIVE: Dual-energy CT (DECT) is being widely used in suspected gout patients in recent years. Many clinicians tend to use DECT instead of aspiration biopsy in the diagnosis of gout, but its accuracy has shown controversial results. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we sought to evaluate the accuracy of DECT in the diagnosis of gout. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a systematic review of the literature published in Medline, Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane databases...
May 3, 2018: Skeletal Radiology
Yingzhen Zhang, Kathryn J Fowler, Gavin Hamilton, Jennifer Cui, Ethan Z Sy, Michelle Balanay, Jonathan C Hooker, Nikolaus M Szeverenyi, Claude B Sirlin
Hepatic steatosis is a frequently encountered imaging finding that may indicate chronic liver disease, the most common of which is nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD is implicated in the development of systemic diseases and its progressive phenotype, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), leads to increased liver-specific morbidity and mortality. With the rising obesity epidemic and advent of novel therapeutics aimed at altering metabolism, there is a growing need to quantify and monitor liver steatosis...
May 3, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Hillary W Garner, Daniel E Wessell
Gout is the most common inflammatory arthritis and is increasing in relevance due to its rising prevalence and incidence. Dual-energy CT (DECT) and ultrasound (US) are the most frequently used imaging modalities for the diagnosis of gout and for the follow-up of patients receiving therapy. Although DECT has the highest diagnostic accuracy for gout and shows consistently excellent reader agreement in the assessment of urate deposition change after therapy, US also performs well and remains just as important an imaging tool in these realms due to its practical advantages in cost, availability, and safety...
May 2, 2018: Rheumatology International
Jinyan Wei, Jianhong Zhao, Xueling Zhang, Dan Wang, Wenjuan Zhang, Zhiping Wang, Junlin Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To discuss the dual energy spectral computer tomography (CT) imaging features of the pathological grading of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and the correlation between spectral CT imaging features and pathology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed analyses of 62 patients with confirmed diagnosis of ccRCC. All patients underwent non-enhanced CT and dual-phase (cortex phase, CP and parenchyma phase, PP) contrast-enhanced CT with dual energy spectral mode...
2018: PloS One
Wei Li, Aiyin Li, Bin Wang, Xiuyuan Niu, Xin Cao, Xinyi Wang, Hao Shi
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of automatic spectral imaging protocol selection (ASIS) and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) technique in the reduction of radiation and contrast medium dose in typical hepatic hemangioma (HH) dual-energy spectral CT (DEsCT). METHODS: 62 patients with suspected HH were randomly divided into two groups equally: group A, conventional 120-kVp CT with standard iodine load; group B, DEsCT with ASIS technique and reduced iodine load, two sets of monochromatic spectral images were reconstructed: 69keV level with 30% ASiR (group B1 ) and 52keV level with 50%ASiR (group B2 )...
May 1, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
L M Coheley, J M Kindler, E M Laing, A Oshri, K M Hill Gallant, S J Warden, M Peacock, C M Weaver, R D Lewis
Eggs contain bioactive compounds thought to benefit pediatric bone. This cross-sectional study shows a positive link between childhood egg intake and radius cortical bone. If randomized trials confirm our findings, incorporating eggs into children's diets could have a significant impact in preventing childhood fractures and reducing the risk of osteoporosis. INTRODUCTION: This study examined the relationships between egg consumption and cortical bone in children. METHODS: The cross-sectional study design included 294 9-13-year-old black and white males and females...
April 30, 2018: Osteoporosis International
S Strobl, E J Halpern, M Abd Ellah, C Kremser, J Gruber, R Bellmann-Weiler, C Deml, A Schmalzl, S Rauch, A S Klauser
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare findings of ultrasound (US) with dual-energy CT (DECT) findings in patients presenting with suspected gouty knee arthritis. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This prospective study included 65 patients (52 men and 13 women; median age, 61.7 years [range, 38-87 years]) with an initial clinical diagnosis of acute gouty knee arthritis who underwent DECT performed using a 128-MDCT scanner and US performed using a 5-18-MHz transducer...
April 27, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
D Mera Fernández, E Santos Armentia, A Bustos Fiore, A M Villanueva Campos, E Utrera Pérez, M Souto Bayarri
OBJECTIVE: To assess the ability of dual-energy CT (DECT) to reduce metal-related artifacts in patients with clips and coils in head CT angiography, and to analyze the differences in this reduction between both type of devices. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirteen patients (6 clips, 7 coils) were selected and retrospectively analized. Virtual monoenergetic images (MEI) with photon energies from 40 to 150 keV were obtained. Noise was measured at the area of maximum artifact...
April 23, 2018: Radiología
Li Yang, Yong Li, Gao-Feng Shi, Tao Zhou, Bi-Bo Tan
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore the association between iodine concentration (IC) in perigastric adipose tissue (PAT), quantified by dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) and serosal invasion (SI) in patients with gastric cancer post-neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). METHODS: Forty-three patients with T4-staged gastric cancer were enrolled. IC and standardized IC in PAT (ICPAT and SICPAT) were quantified by DECT pre and post NAC. A postoperative pathologic examination was performed to stage gastric cancer...
April 26, 2018: Digestion
Andréanne Lapointe, Arthur Lalonde, Houda Bahig, Jean-François Carrier, Stéphane Bedwani, Hugo Bouchard
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to develop and validate accurate methods for determining iodine content and virtual non contrast maps of physical parameters, such as electron density, in the context of radiotherapy. METHODS: A simulation environment is developed to compare three methods allowing extracting iodine content and virtual non-contrast composition: 1) two-material decomposition, 2) three-material decomposition with the conservation of volume constraint, and 3) eigentissue decomposition...
April 26, 2018: Medical Physics
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