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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020609/overview-of-pat-process-analysers-applicable-in-monitoring-of-film-coating-unit-operations-for-manufacturing-of-solid-oral-dosage-forms
#1
REVIEW
Klemen Korasa, Franc Vrečer
Over the last two decades, regulatory agencies have demanded better understanding of pharmaceutical products and processes by implementing new technological approaches, such as process analytical technology (PAT). Process analysers present a key PAT tool, which enables effective process monitoring, and thus improved process control of medicinal product manufacturing. Process analysers applicable in pharmaceutical coating unit operations are comprehensibly described in the present article. The review is focused on monitoring of solid oral dosage forms during film coating in two most commonly used coating systems, i...
October 8, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017073/noninvasive-detection-of-focal-brain-hyperthermia-related-to-continuous-epileptic-activities-using-proton-mr-spectroscopy
#2
Daichi Sone, Naoki Ikegaya, Akio Takahashi, Kaoru Sumida, Miho Ota, Takashi Saito, Yukio Kimura, Hiroshi Matsuda, Noriko Sato
Recent studies using rat models suggested that epileptic discharges (EDs) can induce focal brain hyperthermia, but such ED-related hyperthermia has not been confirmed in humans. We examined hyperthermia of the focus of epilepsy using noninvasive proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) thermometry. We recruited six pediatric patients with refractory daily seizures, continuous interictal epileptic discharges, and concordant focus lesions on MRI who had undergone comprehensive presurgical exams. (1)H-MRS thermometry calculated the temperatures of the presumed epileptogenic lesions, and we examined the contralateral counterparts in each patient as controls...
October 6, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991695/monozygotic-twins-with-a-new-compound-heterozygous-spg11-mutation-and-different-disease-expression
#3
Christiane Schneider-Gold, Gabriele Dekomien, Martin Regensburger, Ruth Schneider, Nadine Trampe, Christos Krogias, Carsten Lukas, Barbara Bellenberg
BACKGROUND: A pair of monozygotic 22-year-old twins with complicated hereditary spastic paraplegia caused by a novel SPG11 mutation is described. METHODS: Genetic testing and thorough clinical examination, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MR-spectroscopy were performed. RESULTS: The twins were compound heterozygous for a known frameshift as well as a novel splice site mutation in the SPG11 gene. Clinically the patients showed a similar spectrum of symptoms but different disease presentation...
October 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988573/alcohol-s-effects-on-the-brain-neuroimaging-results-in-humans-and-animal-models
#4
Natalie M Zahr, Adolf Pfefferbaum
Brain imaging technology has allowed researchers to conduct rigorous studies of the dynamic course of alcoholism through periods of drinking, sobriety, and relapse and to gain insights into the effects of chronic alcoholism on the human brain. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have distinguished alcohol-related brain effects that are permanent from those that are reversible with abstinence. In support of postmortem neuropathological studies showing degeneration of white matter, MRI studies have shown a specific vulnerability of white matter to chronic alcohol exposure...
2017: Alcohol Research: Current Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987196/overview-of-neuroradiology
#5
Elna-Marie Larsson, Johan Wikström
Neuroradiology with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is essential for the initial evaluation of patients with a clinical suspicion of brain and spine disorders. Morphologic imaging is required to obtain a probable diagnosis to support the treatment decisions in pre- and perinatal disorders, vascular diseases, traumatic injuries, metabolic disorders, epilepsy, infection/inflammation, neurodegenerative disorders, degenerative spinal disease, and tumors of the central nervous system...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984458/pr2fecro6-a-type-i-multiferroic
#6
Nibedita Das, Satyendra Singh, Amish G Joshi, Meganathan Thirumal, V Raghavendra Reddy, Laxmi Chand Gupta, Ashok Kumar Ganguli
We synthesized double perovskite Pr2FeCrO6 by solid-state method. Analysis of its X-ray powder diffraction shows that the compound crystallizes in a centrosymmetric structure with space group Pbnm. Our X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies show that all the cations are present in +3 oxidation state. Magnetization studies of Pr2FeCrO6 show that the material is paramagnetic at room temperature and undergoes a magnetic transition below TCM = 250 K. We observe clear magnetic hysteresis loop, for example, below 150 K...
October 6, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983683/in-vivo-metabolic-profiles-as-determined-by-31-p-and-short-te-1-h-mr-spectroscopy-no-difference-between-patients-with-idh-wildtype-and-idh-mutant-gliomas
#7
Katharina J Wenger, Elke Hattingen, Kea Franz, Joachim Steinbach, Oliver Bähr, Ulrich Pilatus
PURPOSE: Previous ex vivo spectroscopic data from tissue samples revealed differences in phospholipid metabolites between isocitrate dehydrogenase mutated (IDHmut) and IDH wildtype (IDHwt) gliomas. We investigated whether these changes can be found in vivo using (1)H-decoupled (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) with 3D chemical shift imaging (CSI) at 3 T in patients with low and high-grade gliomas. METHODS: The study included 33 prospectively enrolled, mostly untreated patients who met spectral quality criteria according to the World Health Organization (WHO II n = 7, WHO III n = 17, WHO IV n = 9; 25 patients IDHmut, 8 patients IDHwt)...
October 5, 2017: Clinical Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969000/magnetic-resonance-metabolic-profiling-of-estrogen-receptor-positive-breast-cancer-correlation-with-currently-used-molecular-markers
#8
Ji Soo Choi, Dahye Yoon, Ja Seung Koo, Siwon Kim, Vivian Youngjean Park, Eun-Kyung Kim, Suhkmann Kim, Min Jung Kim
Estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancers overall have a good prognosis, however, some patients suffer relapses and do not respond to endocrine therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are any correlations between high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) metabolic profiles of core needle biopsy (CNB) specimens and the molecular markers currently used in patients with ER-positive breast cancers. The metabolic profiling of CNB samples from 62 ER-positive cancers was performed by HR-MAS MRS...
September 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961382/characterization-and-stratification-of-prostate-lesions-based-on-comprehensive-multiparametric-mri-using-detailed-whole-mount-histopathology-as-a-reference-standard
#9
Olga Starobinets, Jeffry P Simko, Kyle Kuchinsky, John Kornak, Peter R Carroll, Kirsten L Greene, John Kurhanewicz, Susan M Noworolski
The purpose of this study was to characterize prostate cancer (PCa) based on multiparametric MR (mpMR) measures derived from MRI, diffusion, spectroscopy, and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI, and to validate mpMRI in detecting PCa and predicting PCa aggressiveness by correlating mpMRI findings with whole-mount histopathology. Seventy-eight men with untreated PCa received 3 T mpMR scans prior to radical prostatectomy. Cancerous regions were outlined, graded, and cancer amount estimated on whole-mount histology...
September 29, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943412/magnetic-resonance-microdynamic-imaging-reveals-distinct-tissue-microenvironments
#10
Dan Benjamini, Peter J Basser
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides a powerful set of tools with which to investigate biological tissues noninvasively and in vivo. Tissues are heterogeneous in nature; an imaging voxel contains an ensemble of different cells and extracellular matrix components. A long-standing challenge has been to infer the content of and interactions among these microscopic tissue components within a macroscopic imaging voxel. Spatially resolved multidimensional relaxation-diffusion correlation (REDCO) spectroscopy holds the potential to deliver such microdynamic information...
September 22, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942218/characterization-of-metabolic-diffusion-and-perfusion-properties-in-gbm-contrast-enhancing-versus-non-enhancing-tumor
#11
Adam Autry, Joanna J Phillips, Stojan Maleschlijski, Ritu Roy, Annette M Molinaro, Susan M Chang, Soonmee Cha, Janine M Lupo, Sarah J Nelson
BACKGROUND: Although the contrast-enhancing (CE) lesion on T1-weighted MR images is widely used as a surrogate for glioblastoma (GBM), there are also non-enhancing regions of infiltrative tumor within the T2-weighted lesion, which elude radiologic detection. Because non-enhancing GBM (Enh-) challenges clinical patient management as latent disease, this study sought to characterize ex vivo metabolic profiles from Enh- and CE GBM (Enh+) samples, alongside histological and in vivo MR parameters, to assist in defining criteria for estimating total tumor burden...
September 21, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941767/a-proton-mr-spectroscopy-study-of-the-thalamus-in-twins-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#12
John P Hegarty, Meng Gu, Daniel M Spielman, Sue C Cleveland, Joachim F Hallmayer, Laura C Lazzeroni, Mira M Raman, Thomas W Frazier, Jennifer M Phillips, Allan L Reiss, Antonio Y Hardan
Multiple lines of research have reported thalamic abnormalities in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) that are associated with social communication impairments (SCI), restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRB), or sensory processing abnormalities (SPA). Thus, the thalamus may represent a common neurobiological structure that is shared across symptom domains in ASD. Same-sex monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs with and without ASD underwent cognitive/behavioral evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging to assess the thalamus...
September 20, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936429/clinical-pet-mri-in-neurooncology-opportunities-and-challenges-from-a-single-institution-perspective
#13
REVIEW
Lisbeth Marner, Otto M Henriksen, Michael Lundemann, Vibeke Andrée Larsen, Ian Law
PURPOSE: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a key role in neurooncology, i.e., for diagnosis, treatment evaluation and detection of recurrence. However, standard MRI cannot always separate malignant tissue from other pathologies or treatment-induced changes. Advanced MRI techniques such as diffusion-weighted imaging, perfusion imaging and spectroscopy show promising results in discriminating malignant from benign lesions. Further, supplemental imaging with amino acid positron emission tomography (PET) has been shown to increase accuracy significantly and is used routinely at an increasing number of sites...
2017: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934527/proton-mr-spectroscopy-in-patients-with-sleep-related-hypermotor-epilepsy-she-evidence-of-altered-cingulate-cortex-metabolism
#14
Ilaria Naldi, Francesca Bisulli, Claudia Testa, Giovanni Rizzo, Lorenzo Ferri, Laura L Gramegna, Laura Licchetta, Raffaele Lodi, Caterina Tonon, Paolo Tinuper
Study Objectives: To identify structural and/or metabolic alterations in patients with sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy (SHE) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and proton MR spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Methods: Nineteen SHE patients (seven males; 34.7 ± 9.7 years, mean age ± standard deviation) and 17 matched healthy volunteers (seven males; 34.0 ± 8.9 years) were included in the study. In all patients, the diagnosis of SHE was confirmed by video-polysomnographic recording of seizures...
September 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934366/early-metabolite-changes-after-melatonin-treatment-in-neonatal-rats-with-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-studied-by-in-vivo1h-mr-spectroscopy
#15
Hester Rijkje Berger, Axel K G Nyman, Tora Sund Morken, Riyas Vettukattil, Ann-Mari Brubakk, Marius Widerøe
Melatonin is a promising neuroprotective agent after perinatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury. We used in-vivo 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy to investigate effects of melatonin treatment on brain metabolism after HI. Postnatal day 7 Sprague-Dawley rats with unilateral HI brain injury were treated with either melatonin 10 mg/kg dissolved in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) with 5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or vehicle (5% DMSO and/or PBS) directly and at 6 hours after HI. 1H MR spectra from the thalamus in the ipsilateral and contralateral hemisphere were acquired 1 day after HI...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927296/in%C3%A2-vivo-mr-spectroscopy-predicts-high-tumor-grade-in-endometrial-cancer
#16
Sigmund Ytre-Hauge, Morteza Esmaeili, Torill E Sjøbakk, Renate Grüner, Kathrine Woie, Henrica M Werner, Camilla Krakstad, Line Bjørge, Øyvind O Salvesen, Ingunn M Stefansson, Jone Trovik, Tone F Bathen, Ingfrid S Haldorsen
Background In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) enables non-invasive measurements of tumor metabolites. Choline-containing metabolites play a key role in tumor metabolism. Purpose To explore whether preoperative MRS-derived tumor choline levels are associated with clinical and histological features in endometrial carcinomas. Material and Methods Preoperative pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (1.5T), including structural and diffusion-weighted imaging and localized multivoxel proton MR (1H-MR) spectroscopy, was performed in 77 prospectively included patients with histologically confirmed endometrial carcinomas...
January 1, 2017: Acta Radiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921630/metabolic-assessment-of-a-migraine-model-using-relaxation-enhanced-1-h-spectroscopy-at-ultrahigh-field
#17
Nastaren Abad, Jens T Rosenberg, Tangi Roussel, Dillon C Grice, Michael G Harrington, Samuel C Grant
PURPOSE: This study evaluates biochemical imbalances in a rat model that reflects dysfunctional pathways in migraine. The high sensitivity and spectral dispersion available to (1) H MRS at 21.1 T expands metabolic profiling in this migraine model to include lactate (Lac), taurine (Tau), aspartate, and Gly-a mixture of glycine, glutamine, and glutamate. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley male rats were administered in situ an intraperitoneal injection of nitroglycerin (NTG) to induce the migraine analogue or saline as a control...
September 17, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915103/mr-spectroscopy-derived-proton-density-fat-fraction-is-superior-to-controlled-attenuation-parameter-for-detecting-and-grading-hepatic-steatosis
#18
Jurgen Henk Runge, Loek Pieter Smits, Joanne Verheij, Annekatrien Depla, Sjoerd Douwe Kuiken, Bert Cornelis Baak, Aart Johannes Nederveen, Ulrich Beuers, Jaap Stoker
Purpose To prospectively compare the diagnostic accuracy of controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) obtained with transient elastography and proton density fat fraction (PDFF) obtained with proton magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy with results of liver biopsy in a cohort of adult patients suspected of having nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Materials and Methods The institutional review board approved this study. Informed consent was obtained from all patients. The authors evaluated 55 patients suspected of having NAFLD (40 men, 15 women)...
September 15, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914407/association-of-fetuin-b-with-markers-of-liver-fibrosis-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#19
Thomas Ebert, Nicolas Linder, Alexander Schaudinn, Harald Busse, Joachim Berger, Ralf Lichtinghagen, Volker Keim, Johannes Wiegand, Thomas Karlas
OBJECTIVE: The liver-derived plasma protein fetuin B is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and impaired glucose homeostasis in mice. However, its association with non-invasive ultrasound- and magnetic resonance (MR)-based markers of liver fibrosis and steatosis, the enhanced liver fibrosis (ELF) score, liver biopsy, as well as rs738409 in PNPLA3, has not been elucidated in NAFLD, so far. DESIGN AND METHODS: The association of circulating fetuin B and transient elastography (TE), controlled attenuation parameter (CAP), (1)H-MR-spectroscopy, the ELF score, liver biopsy, as well as risk alleles in rs738409 in PNPLA3, was studied in 101 NAFLD patients as compared to 15 healthy controls...
September 15, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904843/synthesis-and-functionalization-of-nagdf4-yb-er-nagdf4-core-shell-nanoparticles-for-possible-application-as-multimodal-contrast-agents
#20
Dovile Baziulyte-Paulaviciene, Vitalijus Karabanovas, Marius Stasys, Greta Jarockyte, Vilius Poderys, Simas Sakirzanovas, Ricardas Rotomskis
Upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) are promising, new imaging probes capable of serving as multimodal contrast agents. In this study, monodisperse and ultrasmall core and core-shell UCNPs were synthesized via a thermal decomposition method. Furthermore, it was shown that the epitaxial growth of a NaGdF4 optical inert layer covering the NaGdF4:Yb,Er core effectively minimizes surface quenching due to the spatial isolation of the core from the surroundings. The mean diameter of the synthesized core and core-shell nanoparticles was ≈8 and ≈16 nm, respectively...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
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