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H Kishikawa, T Kinoshita, M Hashimoto, S Fukae, A Taniguchi, K Yamanaka, M Nakagawa, K Nishimura
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the correlation between class II HLA epitope mismatch and antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) episodes in kidney transplant recipients. In patients with AMR, epitope mismatch was also examined for each class II HLA mismatch to determine development of de novo donor-specific antibodies (DSAs). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of 167 kidney recipients. The numbers of eplet mismatches were compared between those with (n = 12) and without (n = 155) AMR, and the numbers of eplet mismatches for each type of mismatch in class II HLA among the AMR patients was also compared...
October 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
Fanggang Ren, Na Zhang, Zhifang Xu, Jing Xu, Yaofang Zhang, Xiuhua Chen, Yanhong Tan, Jianmei Chang, Hongwei Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the immunophenotypic characteristics of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and explore the sensitivity and specificity of various antibody combinations for the timely and accurate diagnosis APL. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed using morphological, immunological, genetic, and molecular biological data from 92 patients diagnosed with APL and 190 controls diagnosed with non-APL acute myeloid leukemia. RESULTS: For APL diagnosis, the CD9/CD11b/human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR antibody combination had 85% sensitivity and 95% specificity, AUC = 0...
October 13, 2018: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology
Hanna Grauers Wiktorin, Malin S Nilsson, Roberta Kiffin, Frida Ewald Sander, Brianna Lenox, Anna Rydström, Kristoffer Hellstrand, Anna Martner
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are immature monocytes and granulocytes that impede immune-mediated clearance of malignant cells by multiple mechanisms, including the formation of immunosuppressive reactive oxygen species (ROS) via the myeloid cell NADPH oxidase (NOX2). Histamine dihydrochloride (HDC), a NOX2 inhibitor, exerts anti-cancer efficacy in experimental tumor models but the detailed mechanisms are insufficiently understood. To determine effects of HDC on the MDSC compartment we utilized three murine cancer models known to entail accumulation of MDSC, i...
October 12, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Massimiliano Lanzafame, Stefano Nicole, Sebastiano Rizzardo, Daniela Piacentini, Sheila Chiesi, Emanuela Lattuada, Erica Diani, Maria Carelli, Sandro Vento, Davide Gibellini
Combination abacavir/lamivudine/dolutegravir (ABC/3TC/DTG) is approved as a first-line treatment for antiretroviral naïve patients. This report investigated the immunovirological outcome and total HIV-1 DNA decay in a small cohort of naïve HIV-1-positive patients treated with this regimen. In the presence of viral suppression and increased lymphocyte T CD4+ cells, the quantitative analysis of total HIV-1 DNA content revealed a significant decay after 12 months of treatment. Subsequently, we deintensificated the treatment of these patients from (ABC/3TC/DTG) to lamivudine plus dolutegravir (3TC/DTG) after 12 months of virological suppression, as a strategy of "induction-maintenance" therapy...
October 12, 2018: New Microbiologica
Yoshiko Atsuta, Shunichi Kato, Yasuo Morishima, Kazuteru Ohashi, Takahiro Fukuda, Yasuyuki Ozawa, Tetsuya Eto, Koji Iwato, Naoyuki Uchida, Shuichi Ota, Makoto Onizuka, Tatsuo Ichinohe, Junya Kanda, Yoshinobu Kanda
We compared the effect of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) single-antigen- and single-allele-mismatched unrelated bone marrow transplantation (UBMT) without in-vivo/ex-vivo T-cell depletion. Since a single DRB1 mismatch is preferred among one-allele- or one-antigen-mismatched donors, we performed mismatched allele- or antigen-specific analyses, with a single DRB1 mismatch as the reference. In adjusted comparison by multivariate analyses, an HLA-DRB1 single-allele mismatch resulted in a decreased risk of non-relapse mortality (relative risk [RR], 1...
October 8, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Norma C Segovia-Gamboa, Martha E Rodríguez-Arellano, Andrés Muñoz-Solís, Jorge E Retana-Jiménez, Germán Vargas-Ayala, Julio Granados, Marisela Jiménez-Sánchez, Carmen Sanchez-Torres
AIMS: To assess the prevalence of autoantibodies (Aab) to insulin (IAA), glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GADA) and insulinoma antigen 2 (IA-2A), as well as human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II alleles, in first degree relatives (FDR) of Mexican patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D), and to explore whether these parameters mirror the low incidence of T1D in the Mexican population. METHODS: Aab titers were determined by ELISA in 425 FDR, 234 siblings, 40 offspring and 151 parents of 197 patients with T1D...
October 10, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
Xiu-Hao Guan, Yu-Xiao Hong, Rui-Qun Qi, Xing-Hua Gao
Candida albicans (C. albicans) is an opportunistic human fungal pathogen that colonises the skin. Both keratinocytes and macrophages play crucial roles in host defence against C. albicans. However, the interaction of keratinocytes with macrophages during C. albicans colonisation has not been well studied. In this study, macrophages were cultured in conditioned medium from keratinocytes treated with heat-inactivated C. albicans (CM-C. albicans), macrophage migration and polarised activation and were then assessed by a Transwell assay, flow cytometry, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), Western blot and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
September 30, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Xuchun He, Jiadi Chen
OBJECTIVE: To explore the genetic and clinical features of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and near-tetraploidy/tetraploidy (NT/T) karyotype. METHODS: Cytogenetic findings of 1836 cases of primary AML were retrospectively analyzed. Karyotypes of the identified cases were confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Clinical data including gender, age, morphology, immunophenotype, genetics, and prognosis were reviewed. RESULTS: Nine male and two female patients with NT/T were identified with a median age of 63 years...
October 10, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
Parvez Singh Slathia, Preeti Sharma
Chagas disease caused by protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi is endemic disease in South and Central American countries but due to migrating human populations it has shown emergence in Europe, North America and Australia. With only two drugs, benznidazole and nifurtimox for its treatment there is need for newer therapies. In the current study, we have tried to analyse the potential of amastin, a major surface protein as a vaccine target using bioinformatics tools. Using 282 variants of this protein available in NCBI protein database we have found out five conserved potential Tc cell and two TH cell epitopes...
October 5, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Barbara Lattanzi, Silvia Baroncelli, Adriano De Santis, Clementina Maria Galluzzo, Gianluca Mennini, Zuleika Michelini, Marinella Lupo, Stefano Ginanni Corradini, Massimo Rossi, Lucia Palmisano, Manuela Merli
BACKGROUND: Microbial translocation from the gut lumen has been involved in the pathogenesis of liver damage in hepatitis C virus infection. AIM: To investigate the impact of direct-acting antiviral treatment on microbial translocation and T-cell activation, in patients with hepatitis C-related liver disease. METHODS: We enrolled two groups of HCV patients undergoing direct-acting antiviral treatment: patients with fibrosis ≥F3 according to Metavir (Group ≥F3); patients with hepatitis C recurrence after liver transplantation and Metavir ≥F2 (Group Liver Transplantation + ≥F2)...
October 8, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Manu Shankar-Hari, Deepankar Datta, Julie Wilson, Valentina Assi, Jacqueline Stephen, Christopher J Weir, Jillian Rennie, Jean Antonelli, Anthony Bateman, Jennifer M Felton, Noel Warner, Kevin Judge, Jim Keenan, Alice Wang, Tony Burpee, Alun K Brown, Sion M Lewis, Tracey Mare, Alistair I Roy, John Wright, Gillian Hulme, Ian Dimmick, Alasdair Gray, Adriano G Rossi, A John Simpson, Andrew Conway Morris, Timothy S Walsh
PURPOSE: Reliable biomarkers for predicting subsequent sepsis among patients with suspected acute infection are lacking. In patients presenting to emergency departments (EDs) with suspected acute infection, we aimed to evaluate the reliability and discriminant ability of 47 leukocyte biomarkers as predictors of sepsis (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score ≥ 2 at 24 h and/or 72 h following ED presentation). METHODS: In a multi-centre cohort study in four EDs and intensive care units (ICUs), we standardised flow-cytometric leukocyte biomarker measurement and compared patients with suspected acute infection (cohort-1) with two comparator cohorts: ICU patients with established sepsis (cohort-2), and ED patients without infection or systemic inflammation but requiring hospitalization (cohort-3)...
October 5, 2018: Intensive Care Medicine
Elsa du Bruyn, Nashied Peton, Hanif Esmail, Patrick J Howlett, Anna K Coussens, Robert J Wilkinson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tuberculosis is the leading infectious cause of death worldwide, and HIV-1 the best recognized risk factor for active TB. This review focuses on immune complex formation; the interplay of type I and II interferon signaling; and T-cell activation in HIV-TB pathogenesis. RECENT FINDINGS: Circulating immune complexes and complement, and Fcγ signaling in whole blood act as early markers of TB disease in HIV-1-infected persons. HIV-1 is associated with a type I interferon response in whole blood, reducing the specificity of TB biomarkers dependent on type I and II interferon genes...
November 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Chidchamai Kewcharoenwong, Satria A Prabowo, Gregory J Bancroft, Helen A Fletcher, Ganjana Lertmemongkolchai
Tuberculosis (TB) is a global public health problem, which is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the leading predisposing factors for development of TB after HIV/AIDS. Glibenclamide is a widely used anti-diabetic drug in low and middle-income countries where the incidence of TB is very high. In a human macrophage cell line, glibenclamide, a K+ ATP-channel blocker, promoted alternative activation of macrophages by enhancing expression of the M2 marker CD206 during M2 polarization...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Shinya Chihara, Yoshiki Masuda, Hiroomi Tatsumi, Michiaki Yamakage
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the differences in biocompatibility pre- and post-dilution during continuous veno-venous hemofiltration in patients with sepsis, focusing on leukocyte and platelet function. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Subjects were 12 patients with septic shock who underwent veno-venous hemofiltration for acute kidney injury between March 2016 and September 2017. The first six patients received pre-dilution veno-venous hemofiltration, and the next six patients received post-dilution veno-venous hemofiltration...
October 2, 2018: International Journal of Artificial Organs
Enrico Ammirati, Francesco Moroni, Marco Magnoni, Elena Busnardo, Simona Di Terlizzi, Chiara Villa, Federico Sizzano, Isabella Scotti, Alessio Palini, Luca Presotto, Valentino Bettinardi, Pietro Spagnolo, Francesca Besana, Luigi Gianolli, Ornella E Rimoldi, Paolo G Camici
Background: We explored the relation between blood concentrations of monocyte/lymphocyte subsets and carotid artery plaque macrophage content, measured by positron emission tomography (PET) with 11 C-PK11195. Methods and results: In 9 patients with carotid plaques we performed 11 C-PK11195-PET/computed tomography angiography imaging and measurement of absolute concentrations and frequencies of circulating monocytes and T-cell subsets. Plaque standardized uptake value (SUV) for 11 C-PK11195 was negatively correlated with concentrations of total monocytes (r = -0...
December 2018: IJC Heart & Vasculature
Janis Casper, Jessica Schmitz, Jan Hinrich Bräsen, Abedalrazag Khalifa, Bernhard M W Schmidt, Gunilla Einecke, Hermann Haller, Sibylle von Vietinghoff
Loop diuretics deplete the renal cortico-medullary salt gradient that has recently been established as a major modulator of immune responses. Renal transplant recipients suffer from a markedly increased rate of urinary tract infections (UTIs). Whether diuretic therapy affects renal macrophage polarization in the human kidney graft and the incidence of UTI have not been reported. In a cohort of 112 adult renal allograft recipients, loop diuretic therapy significantly correlated with the rate of UTI during five years after transplantation in uni- and multivariable regression analysis...
September 22, 2018: Kidney International
Masako Kurashige, Masaharu Kohara, Kenji Ohshima, Shinichiro Tahara, Yumiko Hori, Satoshi Nojima, Naoki Wada, Jun-Ichiro Ikeda, Koichi Miyamura, Masafumi Ito, Eiichi Morii
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in tumor stroma play a key role in disease progression. Recent studies using mice models suggest that CAFs are partly derived from bone marrow and TAMs primarily originate from bone marrow-derived inflammatory monocytes. However, the origin of these cells in humans remains unclear. Hence, we investigated their human origin, using specimens from human secondary tumors that developed after sex-mismatched bone marrow transplantation, by modified immunofluorescent in situ hybridization analysis and triple immunostaining...
2018: Communications biology
Mamdooh H Ghoneum, Takeshi Ogura, James K Gimzewski, Aya D Ghoneum, Michael C Henary, Sudhanshu Agrawal
Marina crystal minerals (MCM) are a mixture that contains crystallized minerals along with trace elements extracted from seawater. It is a nutritional supplement that is capable of enhancing natural killer (NK) cell activity and increasing T and B cell proliferation in humans post ingestion. However, its effect on dendritic cells (DCs), the cells that bridge innate and adaptive immunity, is not yet known. In this study, we examine the stimulatory effects of MCM on DCs' maturation and function in vitro. Human monocyte-derived DCs were treated with MCM at two different concentrations (10 and 20 µg/mL) for 24 h...
January 2018: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
Zhijiang Qi, Le An, Bo Liu, Qiang Zhang, Wenpeng Yin, Han Yu, Chunsheng Li
Immune disorders are an important feature of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). However, the precise immune alterations in patients with OHCA that occur immediately after ROSC are unclear. In this study, we investigated human leucocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR) expression on circulatory monocytes and B and T lymphocytes. Sixty-eight consecutive patients with OHCA with ROSC >12 hours were enrolled. Clinical data and 28-day survival were recorded...
October 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Esther Fernández-Grande, Carmen María Cabrera, Blanca González, Carolina Varela, José Miguel Urra
INTRODUCTION: Early detection of sepsis is a critical step to improve patient's survival and cellular markers effective diagnosis tools. The aim of this work was to evaluate HLA-DR expression on peripheral T-lymphocytes (CD3+ ), a marker associate to T-cell activation, as an early sepsis detection tool. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in twenty-six patients with confirmed sepsis by blood culture, eighteen healthy individuals and four patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome...
September 25, 2018: Medicina Clínica
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