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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30121031/biophysical-effect-of-conversion-from-croplands-to-grasslands-in-water-limited-temperate-regions-of-china
#1
Zhengjia Liu, Yansui Liu, Muhammad Hasan Ali Baig
The biophysical effect of land use and land cover change (LUCC) on regional climatic regulation is currently of growing interest. However, in water-limited temperate regions, the net biophysical effect of conversion from croplands to grasslands on regional climatic regulation remains poorly understood to date. To answer this concern, a modified land surface model (mEASS) and two different land use scenarios in a typical study area of the Loess Plateau of China were used in this study. We first validated the performances of mEASS model by using observations from six flux tower sites with different land cover and three metrics of the coefficient of determination (R2 ), the root mean square error (RMSE) and the difference between the simulated and observed data (bias)...
August 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30120499/people-centered-and-ecosystem-based-knowledge-co-production-to-promote-proactive-biodiversity-conservation-and-sustainable-development-in-namibia
#2
Axel Schick, Christina Sandig, Anja Krause, Peter R Hobson, Stefan Porembski, Pierre L Ibisch
Growing levels of uncertainty and vulnerability generated by land use conversion and climate change set demands on local communities and national institutions to build synergies between the diverse array of knowledge systems in order to provide policy makers and practitioners with the best available information to decide what urgent actions must be taken. Science policy arenas and agreements such as the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) and the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) recognize the importance of different types of knowledge and the need for broad stakeholder involvement, yet the use of indigenous and local knowledge (ILK) in environmental decision-making processes is still underdeveloped...
August 17, 2018: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30118474/how-ecological-feedbacks-between-human-population-and-land-cover-influence-sustainability
#3
Kirsten Henderson, Michel Loreau
It is estimated that the Earth's biocapacity is unable to meet current demands, which begs the question: is a sustainable future possible for both humans and the environment? The UN projects a human population of approximately 11 billion by the end of the 21st century; requiring additional agricultural land, greater demands for natural resources, and technological advancements. We model human population over the next century, emphasizing feedbacks between natural and agricultural resource availability and human demography...
August 17, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30117012/impact-of-land-cover-types-on-soil-aggregate-stability-and-erodibility
#4
Remzi İlay, Yasemin Kavdir
Gökçeada is the biggest island, and it is also known as the organic island of Turkey. Approximately 65% of the Gökçeada lands have slope > 12%. Climate, topography, land cover, and soil characteristics are considered to be the main natural factors affecting soil erosion severity in the Gökçeada. Prevention of soil degradation, hence the preservation or improvement of the overall quality of the soil, is directly related to the presence of stable soil aggregates. In addition, the resistance to weathering and replacement of soil particles are also relevant aspects in terms of sustainability...
August 16, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30116856/a-new-modeling-approach-to-prioritize-riparian-restoration-to-reduce-sediment-loading-in-two-virginia-river-basins
#5
Lisa N Scott, Amy M Villamagna, Paul L Angermeier
Human impact, particularly land cover changes (e.g., agriculture, construction) increase erosion and sediment loading into streams. Benthic species are negatively affected by silt deposition that coats and embeds stream substrate. Given that riparian buffers are effective sediment filters, riparian restoration is increasingly implemented by conservation groups to protect stream habitats. Limited funding and a multitude of impaired streams warrant the need for cost-effective prioritization of potential restoration actions...
August 16, 2018: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30113109/the-value-of-protected-areas-to-avian-persistence-across-20-years-of-climate-and-land-use-change
#6
Michelle A Peach, Jonathan B Cohen, Jacqueline L Frair, Benjamin Zuckerberg, Patrick Sullivan, William F Porter, Corey Lang
Establishing protected areas, where human activities and land cover changes are restricted, is one of the most widely used strategies for biodiversity conservation. This practice is based on the assumption that protected areas buffer species from processes that drive extinction. However, the ability of protected areas to maintain biodiversity in the face of climate change and subsequent shifts in distributions has been questioned. Our goal was to evaluate the degree to which protected areas influenced colonization and extinction patterns for 97 avian species over 20 years in the northeastern United States...
August 16, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30110451/a-new-terrestrial-palaeoenvironmental-record-from-the-bering-land-bridge-and-context-for-human-dispersal
#7
Matthew J Wooller, Émilie Saulnier-Talbot, Ben A Potter, Soumaya Belmecheri, Nancy Bigelow, Kyungcheol Choy, Les C Cwynar, Kimberley Davies, Russell W Graham, Joshua Kurek, Peter Langdon, Andrew Medeiros, Ruth Rawcliffe, Yue Wang, John W Williams
Palaeoenvironmental records from the now-submerged Bering Land Bridge (BLB) covering the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to the present are needed to document changing environments and connections with the dispersal of humans into North America. Moreover, terrestrially based records of environmental changes are needed in close proximity to the re-establishment of circulation between Pacific and Atlantic Oceans following the end of the last glaciation to test palaeo-climate models for the high latitudes. We present the first terrestrial temperature and hydrologic reconstructions from the LGM to the present from the BLB's south-central margin...
June 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30108240/lake-sediment-fecal-and-biomass-burning-biomarkers-provide-direct-evidence-for-prehistoric-human-lit-fires-in-new-zealand
#8
E Argiriadis, D Battistel, D B McWethy, M Vecchiato, T Kirchgeorg, N M Kehrwald, C Whitlock, J M Wilmshurst, C Barbante
Deforestation associated with the initial settlement of New Zealand is a dramatic example of how humans can alter landscapes through fire. However, evidence linking early human presence and land-cover change is inferential in most continental sites. We employed a multi-proxy approach to reconstruct anthropogenic land use in New Zealand's South Island over the last millennium using fecal and plant sterols as indicators of human activity and monosaccharide anhydrides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, charcoal and pollen as tracers of fire and vegetation change in lake-sediment cores...
August 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30106391/a-spatio-temporal-land-use-and-land-cover-reconstruction-for-india-from-1960-2010
#9
Simon Moulds, Wouter Buytaert, Ana Mijic
In recent decades India has undergone substantial land use/land cover change as a result of population growth and economic development. Historical land use/land cover maps are necessary to quantify the impact of change at global and regional scales, improve predictions about the quantity and location of future change and support planning decisions. Here, a regional land use change model driven by district-level inventory data is used to generate an annual time series of high-resolution gridded land use/land cover maps for the Indian subcontinent between 1960-2010...
August 14, 2018: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30103482/evolution-characteristics-of-surface-water-quality-due-to-climate-change-and-lucc-under-scenario-simulations-a-case-study-in-the-luanhe-river-basin
#10
Wuxia Bi, Baisha Weng, Zhe Yuan, Mao Ye, Cheng Zhang, Yu Zhao, Dengming Yan, Ting Xu
It is of great significance to study the effects and mechanisms of the key driving forces of surface water quality deterioration-climate change and LUCC (land use and land cover change). The Luanhe River Basin (LRB) in north-eastern China was examined for qualitatively and quantitatively assessing the responses of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loads on different climate scenarios and LUCC scenarios. The results show that from 1963 to 2017, the TN and TP loads basically presented a negative correlation with the temperature change (except for winter), while showing a significant positive correlation with the precipitation change...
August 11, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30100623/satellite-observations-and-modeling-to-understand-the-lower-mekong-river-basin-streamflow-variability
#11
Ibrahim Nourein Mohammed, John D Bolten, Raghavan Srinivasan, Venkat Lakshmi
In this work, we have used the Soil & Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to examine streamflow variability of the Lower Mekong River Basin (LMRB) associated with changes in the Upper Mekong River Basin (UMRB) inflows. Two hypothetical experiments were formulated and evaluated for the LMRB, where we conducted runoff simulations with multiple inflow changes that include upstream runoff yield increase and decrease scenarios. Streamflow variability of the LMRB was quantified by two streamflow metrics that explain flow variability and predictability, and high flow disturbance...
September 2018: Journal of Hydrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098496/hydrological-responses-to-land-degradation-in-the-northwest-benin-owena-river-basin-nigeria
#12
Olabanji Odunayo Aladejana, Ayobami Taofeek Salami, Olusola-Ige O Adetoro
Adequate insights into how land degradation alters the hydrology of river basins will help forecast the hydrological impacts of land cover change dynamics, thereby providing unique information required for sustainable river basin management. This study attempts to utilize a multi-dimensional methodology involving the application of the physically based Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) hydrological model and Partial Least Square regression (PLSR) statistical model to evaluate the response of the hydrological components within the Northwest Benin Owena River Basin (NWBORB) in Nigeria to land degradation...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094764/land-use-land-cover-change-and-its-impacts-on-protected-areas-in-mengla-county-xishuangbanna-southwest-china
#13
Yuan Jin, Hui Fan
Land use/land cover change (LUCC) in tropical areas threatens biodiversity and protected area integrity and then affects global ecosystem functions and services. In this study, the spatiotemporal patterns and processes of LUCC in Mengla County, Xishuangbanna, which is located on the northern edge of tropical Asia, were examined using a modified post-classification change detection technique based on random forest classifiers and Landsat images acquired at a 5-year time interval (e.g., 1994, 1999, 2004, 2009, and 2014) from 1994 to 2014, with a special focus on protected areas and their surroundings...
August 10, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30093837/adaptation-of-land-management-in-the-mediterranean-under-scenarios-of-irrigation-water-use-and-availability
#14
Žiga Malek, Peter H Verburg
Meeting the growing demand for food in the future will require adaptation of water and land management to future conditions. We studied the extent of different adaptation options to future global change in the Mediterranean region, under scenarios of water use and availability. We focused on the most significant adaptation options for semiarid regions: implementing irrigation, changes to cropland intensity, and diversification of cropland activities. We used Conversion of Land Use on Mondial Scale (CLUMondo), a global land system model, to simulate future change to land use and land cover, and land management...
2018: Mitigation and adaptation strategies for global change
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30093830/indonesia-s-forest-conversion-moratorium-assessed-with-an-agent-based-model-of-land-use-change-and-ecosystem-services-luces
#15
Aritta Suwarno, Meine van Noordwijk, Hans-Peter Weikard, Desi Suyamto
The Indonesian government recently confirmed its Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) to mitigate global climate change. A forest moratorium policy that protects forest and peatland is a significant part of the INDCs; however, its effectiveness is unclear in the face of complex land-use and land-cover change. This study aims to assess the dynamics of land-use change and ecosystem service supply as a function of local decision-making. We developed an agent-based model, Land-Use Change and Ecosystem Services (LUCES), and used it to explore the possible effects of the forest moratorium policy on the land-use decisions of private companies and communities...
2018: Mitigation and adaptation strategies for global change
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30089903/global-land-change-from-1982-to-2016
#16
Xiao-Peng Song, Matthew C Hansen, Stephen V Stehman, Peter V Potapov, Alexandra Tyukavina, Eric F Vermote, John R Townshend
Land change is a cause and consequence of global environmental change1,2 . Changes in land use and land cover considerably alter the Earth's energy balance and biogeochemical cycles, which contributes to climate change and-in turn-affects land surface properties and the provision of ecosystem services1-4 . However, quantification of global land change is lacking. Here we analyse 35 years' worth of satellite data and provide a comprehensive record of global land-change dynamics during the period 1982-2016. We show that-contrary to the prevailing view that forest area has declined globally5 -tree cover has increased by 2...
August 8, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30082407/natural-and-managed-watersheds-show-similar-responses-to-recent-climate-change
#17
Darren L Ficklin, John T Abatzoglou, Scott M Robeson, Sarah E Null, Jason H Knouft
Changes in climate are driving an intensification of the hydrologic cycle and leading to alterations of natural streamflow regimes. Human disturbances such as dams, land-cover change, and water diversions are thought to obscure climate signals in hydrologic systems. As a result, most studies of changing hydroclimatic conditions are limited to areas with natural streamflow. Here, we compare trends in observed streamflow from natural and human-modified watersheds in the United States and Canada for the 1981-2015 water years to evaluate whether comparable responses to climate change are present in both systems...
August 6, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30081278/markov-chains-and-cellular-automata-to-predict-environments-subject-to-desertification
#18
Kelly de Oliveira Barros, Carlos Antonio Alvares Soares Ribeiro, Gustavo Eduardo Marcatti, Alexandre Simões Lorenzon, Nero Lemos Martins de Castro, Getulio Fonseca Domingues, José Romário de Carvalho, Alexandre Rosa Dos Santos
The foremost objective of this study was to analyze the performance of a Markov chain/cellular automata model for predicting land use/land cover changes in environments predisposed to desertification. The study area is the Vieira river basin, located in Montes Claros (MG, Brazil). Land use/land cover prognosis was performed for the year 2005 so that this result could be compared with the ranked image for the same year, taken as ground truth. Kappa indices were used to evaluate the change level that occurred between these two cases...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30078910/poor-plant-performance-under-simulated-climate-change-is-linked-to-mycorrhizal-responses-in-a-semiarid-shrubland
#19
Lupe León-Sánchez, Emilio Nicolás, Marta Goberna, Iván Prieto, Fernando T Maestre, José Ignacio Querejeta
Warmer and drier conditions associated with ongoing climate change will increase abiotic stress for plants and mycorrhizal fungi in drylands worldwide, thereby potentially reducing vegetation cover and productivity and increasing the risk of land degradation and desertification. Rhizosphere microbial interactions and feedbacks are critical processes that could either mitigate or aggravate the vulnerability of dryland vegetation to forecasted climate change.We conducted a four-year manipulative study in a semiarid shrubland in the Iberian Peninsula to assess the effects of warming (~2...
May 2018: Journal of Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30073066/ecosystem-engineering-by-foxes-is-mediated-by-the-landscape-context-a-case-study-from-steppic-burial-mounds
#20
Laura Godó, Béla Tóthmérész, Orsolya Valkó, Katalin Tóth, Réka Kiss, Szilvia Radócz, András Kelemen, Péter Török, Eva Švamberková, Balázs Deák
In intensively used landscapes, remnant grassland fragments are often restricted to places unsuitable for agricultural cultivation. Such refuges are the ancient burial mounds called "kurgans," which are typical landscape elements of the Eurasian steppe and forest steppe zone. Due to their hill-like shape, loose soil structure and undisturbed status kurgans provide proper habitats for burrowing mammals. Accordingly, grassland vegetation on kurgans is often exposed to bioturbation, which can influence the habitat structure and plant species pool...
July 2018: Ecology and Evolution
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