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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30341757/spatio-temporal-dynamics-of-water-quality-and-their-linkages-with-the-watershed-landscape-in-highly-disturbed-headwater-watersheds-in-china
#1
Wangshou Zhang, Dongqiang Chen, Hengpeng Li
The water quality of headwater streams is a worldwide concern because of their critical roles in supplying clean water for drinking and other consumptive uses. Here, we evaluate temporal trends and spatial dynamics of the permanganate index (COD), ammonia-nitrogen (AN), and total phosphorus (TP) for 31 sites in headwater watersheds of the Huai River Basin, China. The seasonal Mann-Kendall test and correlation and variance analyses were applied to long-term time series (2003-2010) of water quality data in order to investigate the patterns of water quality trends, as well as their linkages with the watershed landscape...
October 19, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30341313/soil-organic-carbon-increases-in-semi-arid-regions-while-it-decreases-in-humid-regions-due-to-woody-plant-encroachment-of-grasslands-in-south-africa
#2
Admore Mureva, David Ward, Tiffany Pillay, Pauline Chivenge, Michael Cramer
Grasslands and savannas are experiencing intensive land-cover change due to woody plant encroachment. This change in land cover is thought to alter soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) storage in these ecosystems. Some studies have reported a negative correlation between soil C and N and mean annual precipitation while others have indicated that there is no relationship with mean annual precipitation. We quantified the changes in C and N pools and δ13 C and δ15 N values to a depth of 1 m in pairs of encroached and adjacent open grassland sites along a precipitation gradient from 300 mm to 1500 mm per annum in South Africa...
October 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30340256/land-use-change-from-arable-lands-to-orchards-reduced-soil-erosion-and-increased-nutrient-loss-in-a-small-catchment
#3
Zhujun Chen, Lei Wang, Ansheng Wei, Jingbo Gao, Yongli Lu, Jianbin Zhou
China has been undergoing dramatic land-use change since the1980s. More arable lands have been converted to orchards to produce high-value fruits. There is an urgent need to assess the effects of these land-use changes on soil erosion and nutrient loss in the country. In this study, the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation model, geographical information systems, and, remote sensing data were used to evaluate the effects of land-use change on soil erosion and nutrient loss in the Yujiahe Catchment, where a significant portion of the arable land that grew wheat and maize between1957 and 1989 was converted to kiwifruit orchards between 1990 and 2013...
January 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30338996/steady-state-land-cover-but-non-steady-state-major-ion-chemistry-in-urban-streams
#4
Darcy L Bird, Peter M Groffman, Christopher Salice, Joel Moore
Sources of many major ions in urban streams remain ambiguous, particularly for ions unrelated to deicing salt use, and temporal patterns in concentrations are unstudied. We used 16 years of water chemistry data based on weekly samples from the Baltimore, MD, USA metropolitan area and the Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season approach to investigate connections between major ions, land cover, and time. All watersheds were underlain by silicate bedrock, contained no regulated point sources, and had stable land cover...
October 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30336437/evaluating-dynamic-hydrological-connectivity-of-a-floodplain-wetland-in-north-bihar-india-using-geostatistical-methods
#5
Manudeo Singh, Rajiv Sinha
Spatio-temporal connectivity patterns of a wetland as a function of the land use/land cover (LULC) of its catchment have been analysed in a GIS environment. An innovative method has been implemented for mapping 'dynamic hydrological connectivity' for a water-stressed wetland of Kosi-Ganga interfluve area in the middle Ganga Plains, India for pre- and post-monsoon seasons over a time-span of 29 years (1989 to 2017). It was accomplished by using the time-series NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) data and the connectivity response unit (CRU) approach by applying geostatistical methods namely the Getis-Ord Gi* and Mann-Kendall trend test statistics...
October 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30335845/the-impact-of-protected-area-governance-and-management-capacity-on-ecosystem-function-in-central-america
#6
Carlos L Muñoz Brenes, Kelly W Jones, Peter Schlesinger, Juan Robalino, Lee Vierling
Protected areas (PAs) are a prominent approach to maintaining and enhancing biodiversity and ecosystem services. A critical question for safeguarding these resources is how PA governance processes and management structures influence their effectiveness. We conduct an impact evaluation of 12 PAs in three Central American countries to assess how processes in management restrictions, management capacity, and decentralization affect the annual change in the satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30335794/effects-of-vegetation-terrain-and-soil-layer-depth-on-eight-soil-chemical-properties-and-soil-fertility-based-on-hybrid-methods-at-urban-forest-scale-in-a-typical-loess-hilly-region-of-china
#7
Xinping Zhang, Fangfang Zhang, Dexiang Wang, Junxi Fan, Youning Hu, Haibin Kang, Mingjie Chang, Yue Pang, Yang Yang, Yang Feng
Although the spatial mapping and fertility assessment of soil chemical properties (SCPs) are well studied in the Loess Plateau region of China at farmland scale, little is known about spatial mapping the SCPs and their fertility and their influence factors at urban forest scale. The objectives of this study were to (1) compare the performance of two spatial interpolation methods, Ordinary kriging (OK) and regression kriging (RK), and (2) explain the relationships of the vegetation, terrain, and soil layer depth between the eight SCPs and their fertility, and (3) find the limiting factors of soil comprehensive fertility in this study area? The Yan'an urban forest was taken as study case, used hybrid spatial interpolation methods based on OK and RK to mapping eight SCPs and the soil fertility in each soil layer (0-20 cm, 20-40 cm, and 40-60 cm) for 285 soil samples...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325176/land-use-and-land-cover-change-in-agro-pastoral-ecotone-in-northern-china-a-review
#8
Xu Liang Li, Li Xiao Yang, Wei Tian, Xue Feng Xu, Chan Sheng He
Land use/cover change (LUCC) is the most direct manifestation of the interaction between human activities and natural ecosystems. In recent years, due to the increasing human activities, regional environment has been dramatically changed. As one of heavily influenced and fragile and vulnerable ecosystems, the agro-pastoral ecotone in Northern China is a "hot spot" for land use/cover change research. Based on a literature review of LUCC in the agro-pastoral ecotone in Northern China, we first systematically summarized the progress of the boundary definitions of the agro-pastoral ecotone, and then synthesized the current findings, methods, procedures, topics, environmental impacts and adaption of LUCC in the region...
October 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325159/assessment-of-ecological-conditions-over-china-s-coastal-areas-based-on-land-use-cover-change
#9
Zi Qi Meng, Ling Bo Long, Qian Nan She, Dan Yang Cheng, Min Liu
Studying the changes of land use and its impacts on ecological condition in coastal areas is of great significance for understanding the evolution of the regional ecological conditions and even global change. In this study, the study area encompassed 10 provincial administrative units of China's coastal areas, covering a total of 56 cities. Based on the land use and land cover data in 1980, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015 and the corresponding elevation data, we assessed ecological conditions and its temporal dynamic evolution and spatial differentiation characteristics with the ecological grade index method...
October 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30319714/greening-of-the-land-surface-in-the-world-s-cold-regions-consistent-with-recent-warming
#10
T F Keenan, W J Riley
Global ecosystem function is highly dependent on climate and atmospheric composition, yet ecosystem responses to environmental changes remain uncertain. Cold, high-latitude ecosystems in particular have experienced rapid warming1 , with poorly understood consequences2-4 . Here, we use a satellite observed proxy for vegetation cover - the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation5 - to identify a decline in the temperature limitation of vegetation in global ecosystems between 1982 and 2012. We quantify the spatial functional response of maximum annual vegetation cover to temperature and show that the observed temporal decline in temperature limitation is consistent with expectations based on observed recent warming...
2018: Nature Climate Change
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316094/global-warming-potential-and-total-material-requirement-in-metal-production-identification-of-changes-in-environmental-impact-through-metal-substitution
#11
Shoki Kosai, Eiji Yamasue
In view of the increasing demand for metal use, it is of significant importance to evaluate the environmental impact of metal production. The global warming potential (GWP) in the process of metal production has often been focused upon as a major indicator for evaluating the burden on the environment. Moreover, the environmental impact and mineral exploitation arising from metal ore mining activities, which generate unavoidable mine wastes and have an impact on the ecological biodiversity, cannot be ignored...
October 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30315220/influence-of-tibetan-plateau-snow-cover-on-east-asian-atmospheric-circulation-at-medium-range-time-scales
#12
Wenkai Li, Weidong Guo, Bo Qiu, Yongkang Xue, Pang-Chi Hsu, Jiangfeng Wei
The responses of atmospheric variability to Tibetan Plateau (TP) snow cover (TPSC) at seasonal, interannual and decadal time scales have been extensively investigated. However, the atmospheric response to faster subseasonal variability of TPSC has been largely ignored. Here, we show that the subseasonal variability of TPSC, as revealed by daily data, is closely related to the subsequent East Asian atmospheric circulation at medium-range time scales (approximately 3-8 days later) during wintertime. TPSC acts as an elevated cooling source in the middle troposphere during wintertime and rapidly modulates the land surface thermal conditions over the TP...
October 12, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30312519/testing-the-effects-of-four-urbanization-filters-on-forest-plant-taxonomic-functional-and-phylogenetic-diversity
#13
Bianca E Lopez, Dean Urban, Peter S White
Ongoing urban development has significant effects on ecosystems, including changes to land cover, environmental conditions, and species' distributions. These various impacts may have opposing or interacting effects on plant communities, making it difficult to predict how plant biodiversity will respond to urban development. A commonly cited conceptual framework predicts how urban development influences plant taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic diversity by simplifying multiple coincident effects of urbanization into four primary filters of biodiversity: habitat transformation, fragmentation, the urban environment, and human preferences...
October 12, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30310737/targeting-restoration-sites-to-improve-connectivity-in-a-tiger-conservation-landscape-in-india
#14
Trishna Dutta, Sandeep Sharma, Ruth DeFries
Background: Maintaining and restoring connectivity between source populations is essential for the long term viability of wide-ranging species, many of which occur in landscapes that are under pressure to meet increasing infrastructure needs. Identifying barriers in corridors can help inform conservation and infrastructure development agencies so that development objectives can be achieved without compromising conservation goals. Here, we use the tiger landscape in central India as a case study to identify barriers, associate them with existing infrastructure, and quantify the potential improvement by restoring or mitigating barriers...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30308830/quantifying-ecosystem-services-supply-and-demand-shortfalls-and-mismatches-for-management-optimisation
#15
Junyu Chen, Bo Jiang, Yang Bai, Xibao Xu, Juha M Alatalo
Research on ecosystem services (ESs) has increased substantially in recent decades, but the findings have been slow to affect actual management, perhaps because most studies to date have neglected ESs supply and demand coupling mechanisms. Human reliance on ESs is due to the capacity of the landscape to supply services, but also to a societal need for these services. Sustainable land management requires supply and demand mismatches to be reconciled and the needs of different stakeholders to be balanced. Explicit spatial mapping of ESs supply and demand associated with land use changes can provide relevant insights for enhancing land management in urban areas...
February 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30306103/change-of-permanent-grasslands-extent-1996-2015-and-national-grassland-dataset-of-switzerland
#16
Simon Schmidt, Christine Alewell, Katrin Meusburger
So far, neither a grassland map, temporal analysis of the conversion of permanent grassland (PG) to other land uses nor the differentiation of permanent and temporal grassland exists for Switzerland. For the first time in Switzerland, we present a Swiss national grassland map for the year 2015 capturing the extent of both, permanent and temporal grasslands (here called grasslands) by intersecting the information of three datasets. We blended the high temporal resolution Climate Change Initiate (CCI) Land Cover of 2015 (processed by the European Space Agency (ESA)), with the high spatial resolution Swiss topographical landscape model "SwissTLM3D" and the landscape model "vector25" both provided by Swisstopo...
October 2018: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30305744/trade-offs-in-using-european-forests-to-meet-climate-objectives
#17
Sebastiaan Luyssaert, Guillaume Marie, Aude Valade, Yi-Ying Chen, Sylvestre Njakou Djomo, James Ryder, Juliane Otto, Kim Naudts, Anne Sofie Lansø, Josefine Ghattas, Matthew J McGrath
The Paris Agreement promotes forest management as a pathway towards halting climate warming through the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emissions1 . However, the climate benefits from carbon sequestration through forest management may be reinforced, counteracted or even offset by concurrent management-induced changes in surface albedo, land-surface roughness, emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds, transpiration and sensible heat flux2-4 . Consequently, forest management could offset CO2 emissions without halting global temperature rise...
October 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30301172/a-novel-sampling-method-to-measure-socioeconomic-drivers-of-aedes-albopictus-distribution-in-mecklenburg-county-north-carolina
#18
Ari Whiteman, Eric Delmelle, Tyler Rapp, Shi Chen, Gang Chen, Michael Dulin
Climate change, urbanization, and globalization have facilitated the spread of Aedes mosquitoes into regions that were previously unsuitable, causing an increased threat of arbovirus transmission on a global scale. While numerous studies have addressed the urban ecology of Ae. albopictus , few have accounted for socioeconomic factors that affect their range in urban regions. Here we introduce an original sampling design for Ae. albopictus , that uses a spatial optimization process to identify urban collection sites based on both geographic parameters as well as the gradient of socioeconomic variables present in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, encompassing the city of Charlotte, a rapidly growing urban environment...
October 5, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30298103/assimilation-of-modis-snow-cover-fraction-observations-into-the-nasa-catchment-land-surface-model
#19
Ally M Toure, Rolf H Reichle, Barton A Forman, Augusto Getirana, Gabrielle J M De Lannoy
The NASA Catchment land surface model (CLSM) is the land model component used for the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA). Here, the CLSM versions of MERRA and MERRA-Land are evaluated using snow cover fraction (SCF) observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Moreover, a computationally-efficient empirical scheme is designed to improve CLSM estimates of SCF, snow depth, and snow water equivalent (SWE) through the assimilation of MODIS SCF observations...
2018: Remote Sensing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30297620/spatiotemporal-changes-in-pm-2-5-and-their-relationships-with-land-use-and-people-in-hangzhou
#20
Li Tian, Wei Hou, Jiquan Chen, Chaonan Chen, Xiaojun Pan
Increases in the extent and level of air pollution in Chinese cities have become a major concern of the public and burden on the government. While ample literature has focused on the status, changes and causes of air pollution (particularly on PM2.5 and PM10 ), significantly less is known on their effects on people. In this study we used Hangzhou, China, as our testbed to assess the direct impact of PM2.5 on youth populations that are more vulnerable to pollution. We used the ground monitoring data of air quality and Aerosol optical thickness (AOT) product from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for the spatiotemporal changes of PM2...
October 8, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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