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Medical and biological complex systems

Roy Freeman, Robert Edwards, Ralf Baron, Stephen Bruehl, Giorgio Cruccu, Robert H Dworkin, Simon Haroutounian
Peripheral neuropathic pain is among the most prevalent types of neuropathic pain. No comprehensive peripheral neuropathic pain classification system that incorporates contemporary clinical, diagnostic, biological, and psychological information exists. To address this need, this article covers the taxonomy for 4 focal or segmental peripheral neuropathic pain disorders, as part of the Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations, Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks (ACTTION) public-private partnership and the American Pain Society (APS) collaborative to develop a standardized, evidence-based taxonomy initiative: the ACTTION-APS Pain Taxonomy (AAPT)...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
Evgeny N Imyanitov, Grigoriy A Yanus
Neoadjuvant therapy (NAT) is widely utilized in the routine management of cancer patients and various clinical trials for the treatment of breast, ovarian, rectal, esophageal, head and neck, lung, prostate and many other cancer types. There is a number of potential benefits of applying systemic treatment before the operation. NAT may significantly reduce the tumor burden thus allowing less traumatic surgery. NAT is often considered as personalized in vivo drug sensitivity test, as it allows rapid evaluation of tumor response to a given therapy and consequent adjustment of further treatment planning...
December 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Nathalie Y Pauwen, Edouard Louis, Corey Siegel, Jean-Frederic Colombel, Jean Macq
Evolution in the management of Crohn's disease [CD] has been characterized by recent paradigm changes. First, new biological therapies induce intestinal healing and full disease control in a substantial number of patients, particularly when introduced early in the disease course. However, they are expensive and associated with potentially severe side effects, raising the question of optimal treatment duration. Secondly, progress in biomarkers and medical imaging performance has enabled better refinement of the definition and prediction of remission or relapse of the disease through monitoring [tight control]...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Javier Del Hoyo, Pilar Nos, Raquel Faubel, Diana Muñoz, David Domínguez, Guillermo Bastida, Bernardo Valdivieso, Marisa Correcher, Mariam Aguas
BACKGROUND: The reported efficacy of telemedicine in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is inconsistent among studies, and data for complex IBD are lacking. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the impact of remote monitoring using a Web system-Telemonitorización de la Enfermedad de Crohn y Colitis Ulcerosa or Telemonitoring of Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis (TECCU)-as compared to standard care and telephone care on health outcomes and health care in patients with complex IBD...
November 27, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Marinka Zitnik, Francis Nguyen, Bo Wang, Jure Leskovec, Anna Goldenberg, Michael M Hoffman
New technologies have enabled the investigation of biology and human health at an unprecedented scale and in multiple dimensions. These dimensions include myriad properties describing genome, epigenome, transcriptome, microbiome, phenotype, and lifestyle. No single data type, however, can capture the complexity of all the factors relevant to understanding a phenomenon such as a disease. Integrative methods that combine data from multiple technologies have thus emerged as critical statistical and computational approaches...
October 2019: An International Journal on Information Fusion
Peter O Fedichev
Age is the most important single factor associated with chronic diseases and ultimately, death. The mortality rate in humans doubles approximately every eight years, as described by the Gompertz law of mortality. The incidence of specific diseases, such as cancer or stroke, also accelerates after the age of about 40 and doubles at a rate that mirrors the mortality-rate doubling time. It is therefore, entirely plausible to think that there is a single underlying process, the driving force behind the progressive reduction of the organism's health leading to the increased susceptibility to diseases and death; aging...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Min Zheng, Jan Claassen, Samantha Kleinberg
Causal inference is often taken to mean finding links between individual variables. However in many real-world cases, such as in biological systems, relationships are more complex, with groups of factors needed to produce an effect, or some factors only modifying other relationships rather than producing outcomes alone. For instance, weight may alter the efficacy of a drug without causing side effects itself. Such moderating factors may change the timing, intensity, or probability of a causal relationship. Distinguishing moderators from genuine causes can lead to more effective medical interventions, and better strategies for bringing about a desired effect, since a moderator alone is ineffective...
August 2018: Proceedings of machine learning research
Marco Moscatelli, Andrea Manconi, Mauro Pessina, Giovanni Fellegara, Stefano Rampoldi, Luciano Milanesi, Andrea Casasco, Matteo Gnocchi
BACKGROUND: Nowadays, the increasing availability of omics data, due to both the advancements in the acquisition of molecular biology results and in systems biology simulation technologies, provides the bases for precision medicine. Success in precision medicine depends on the access to healthcare and biomedical data. To this end, the digitization of all clinical exams and medical records is becoming a standard in hospitals. The digitization is essential to collect, share, and aggregate large volumes of heterogeneous data to support the discovery of hidden patterns with the aim to define predictive models for biomedical purposes...
October 15, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
Ugo Carraro
Since the first 2018 issue, the European Journal of Translational Myology expanded its authorship and readership from the strict topics of biology, physiology, diagnostic, management and rehabilitation of skeletal muscle to the more clinically relevant fields of human mobility to those of general medicine. This third issue opens with a review on Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, a very complex medical problem, as its other names testify (Myalgic Encephalomyelitis or Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease). A more typical molecular myology original article follows (Increasing autophagy does not affect neurogenic muscle atrophy), but then several Rapid Reports cover different Medical Specialties fields, related or unrelated to neuromyology, mobility problems and their potential solutions...
July 10, 2018: European Journal of Translational Myology
Benjamin Abelson, Daniel Sun, Lauren Que, Rebecca A Nebel, Dylan Baker, Patrick Popiel, Cindy L Amundsen, Toby Chai, Clare Close, Michael DiSanto, Matthew O Fraser, Stephanie J Kielb, George Kuchel, Elizabeth R Mueller, Mary H Palmer, Candace Parker-Autry, Alan J Wolfe, Margot S Damaser
Females and males differ significantly in gross anatomy and physiology of the lower urinary tract, and these differences are commonly discussed in the medical and scientific literature. However, less attention is dedicated to investigating the varied development, function, and biology between females and males on a cellular level. Recognizing that cell biology is not uniform, especially in the lower urinary tract of females and males, is crucial for providing context and relevance for diverse fields of biomedical investigation...
October 22, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
Sydney E Liang, Jeffrey M Cohen, Roger S Ho
Psoriasis is a chronic systemic inflammatory skin disease, which has been associated with an increased risk of numerous medical and psychiatric comorbidities, including suicidality. Suicidality, which can be divided into the categories of suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, and completed suicide, is highly prevalent in the psoriasis population, and multiple studies have been published on the subject of psoriasis and suicidal ideation and behavior (SIB), including two recent meta-analyses. However, the available literature is limited and inconsistent, and the association between the two remains incompletely understood...
October 12, 2018: Dermatologic Therapy
Francesco Chiappelli
Health care is optimized when the best evidence base (BEB) is translated into policies whose effectiveness can be verified. Bioinformation disseminates BEB and is critical to translational health care. The survival of all prokaryotes and eukaryotes, including mammals, and ultimately our species, depends upon their ability to adapt to changes in their micro-environmental milieu and to the challenges of their surrounding macro-environment. Disturbances in the organism's macro-environment, such as the stressful stimuli derived from environmental changes akin to the current climate crisis, alter its physiological, cytological, biological, epigenetic and molecular microenvironment, and trigger concerted allostatic responses to regain homeostasis...
2018: Bioinformation
Aref Trigui, Sami Hached, Ahmed Ammari, Yvon Savaria, Mohamad Sawan
Due to the constantly growing geriatric population and the projected increase of the prevalence of chronic diseases that are refractory to drugs, Implantable Medical Devices (IMDs) such as neurostimulators, endoscopic capsules, artificial retinal prostheses, and brain-machine interfaces are being developed. According to many business forecast firms, the IMD market is expected to grow and they are subject to much research aiming to overcome the numerous challenges of their development. One of these challenges consists of designing a wireless power and data transmission system that has high power efficiency, highdata rates, low power consumption, and high-robustness against noise...
October 4, 2018: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Kevin Neumann, Alessia Gambardella, Annamaria Lilienkampf, Mark Bradley
The selective and biocompatible activation of prodrugs within complex biological systems remains a key challenge in medical chemistry and chemical biology. Herein we report, for the first time, a dual prodrug activation strategy that fully satisfies the principle of bioorthogonality by the symbiotic formation of two active drugs. This dual and traceless prodrug activation strategy takes advantage of the INV DA chemistry of tetrazines (here a prodrug), generating a pyridazine-based miR21 inhibitor and the anti-cancer drug camptothecin and offers a new concept in prodrug activation...
September 28, 2018: Chemical Science
Jörg Thomas Hartmann
Soft tissue sarcomas are a diagnostically and therapeutically complex disease. This is due to the pronounced heterogeneity, characterized by biologically very different histological subtypes and the resulting clinical progressions. The term encompasses more than 80 different pathologically defined tumors of the soft tissue. Every year, nearly 4000 patients are affected in Germany. The diversity and rarity of the disease make progress difficult. The average 5-year mortality is around 40 %. Therapy is stage-adapted based on size, grading, localization, involvement of lymph nodes or distant metastasis...
October 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Wendy Page, Jenni A Judd, Richard S Bradbury
Strongyloides stercoralis has one of the most complex life cycles of the human-infecting nematodes. A common misconception in medical and public health professions is that S. stercoralis in its biology is akin to other intestinal nematodes, such as the hookworms. Despite original evidence provided by medical and veterinary research about this unique helminth, many assumptions have entered the scientific literature. This helminth is set apart from others that commonly affect humans by (a) the internal autoinfective cycle with autoinfective larvae randomly migrating through tissue, parthenogenesis, and the potential for lifelong infection in the host, the profound pathology occurring in hyperinfection and systemic manifestations of strongyloidiasis, and (b) a limited external cycle with a single generation of free-living adults...
May 25, 2018: Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease
Jing Yao Leong, Yeo Joo Guan, Salvatore Albani, Thaschawee Arkachaisri
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) comprises systemic and non-systemic forms of chronic childhood arthritis diagnosed prior to age 16. Significant improvement in treatment outcomes has been witnessed since the introduction of biologics. In particular, advances in research in the area of multidimensional interrogation and network analysis have facilitated understanding of the complex cacophony of components orchestrating disease immunopathogenesis. Areas covered: In this review, we will examine the scientific advances that have augmented our understanding of JIA pathogenesis, focusing on the progress made in systemic, poly, and oligo JIA in four major aspects: (a) unraveling the pathogenic mechanisms, (b) disease classification, (c) therapeutic selection, and (d) decision for withdrawal of medications after achieving remission...
November 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Daniela Rodrigues-Amorim, Tania Rivera-Baltanás, João Bessa, Nuno Sousa, María de Carmen Vallejo-Curto, Cynthia Rodríguez-Jamardo, María Elena de Las Heras, Roberto Díaz, Roberto Carlos Agís-Balboa, J M Olivares, Carlos Spuch
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is associated with patterns of aberrant neurobiological circuitry. The disease complexity is mirrored by multiple biological interactions known to contribute to the disease pathology. One potential contributor is the family of neurotrophins which are proteins involved in multiple functional processes in the nervous system, with crucial roles in neurodevelopment, synaptogenesis and neuroplasticity. With these roles in mind, abnormal neurotrophin profiles have been hypothesized to contribute to the pathology of schizophrenia...
November 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Hans-Peter Kapfhammer
Traumata, by definition, refer to exterior events that expose a person to experiences of overwhelming threat and catastrophe and elicit feelings of death anxiety, panic, horror, helplessness, loss of personal control, and intractability. Most affected persons respond with at least some distressing symptoms of trauma-related memory intrusions, autonomic hyperarousal, dissociation, and depression in the acute aftermath. Fortunately, the majority of traumatized individuals succeed in coping with this major stress quite well during the following weeks and months unless the process of recovery is hampered by additional adverse psychosocial circumstances, psychological disposition or biological vulnerability...
September 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Florian Primavesi, Eckhard Klieser, Benno Cardini, Katharina Marsoner, Uwe Fröschl, Sabine Thalhammer, Ines Fischer, Andreas Hauer, Romana Urbas, Tobias Kiesslich, Daniel Neureiter, Matthias Zitt, Reinhold Klug, Helwig Wundsam, Franz Sellner, Josef Karner, Reinhold Függer, Fergül Cakar-Beck, Peter Kornprat, Dietmar Öfner, Stefan Stättner
INTRODUCTION: Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasia (pNEN) show increasing incidence and management is complex due to biological heterogeneity. Most publications report isolated high-volume single-centre data. This Austrian multi-centre study on surgical management of pNENs provides a comprehensive real-life picture of quality indicators, recurrence-patterns, survival factors and systemic treatments. METHODS: Retrospective, national cohort-study from 7 medium-/high-volume centres in Austria, coordinated under the auspices of the Austrian Society of Surgical Oncology (ASSO)...
September 3, 2018: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
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