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Medical and biological complex systems

Ramsia Sreij, Sylvain François Prévost, Rajeev Dattani, Carina Dargel, Yvonne Hertle, Oliver Wrede, Thomas Hellweg
The understanding of the interaction of drugs with biologically active compounds in biological membranes is of fundamental importance for the evaluation of physiological effects and the development and improvement of medicinal formulations. In the present study we investigate the interaction of the saponin aescin, a biosurfactant which is derived from the horse chestnut tree aesculus hippocastanum, with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) ibuprofen in 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) model membranes...
August 13, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Ana Oleaga, Prosper Obolo-Mvoulouga, Raúl Manzano-Román, Ricardo Pérez-Sánchez
Ticks are hematophagous vectors of great medical and veterinary importance because they transmit numerous pathogenic microorganisms to humans and animals. The argasid Ornithodoros erraticus is the main vector of tick-borne human relapsing fever and African swine fever in the Mediterranean Basin. Tick enterocytes express bioactive molecules that perform key functions in blood digestion, feeding, toxic waste processing and pathogen transmission. To explore new strategies for tick control, in this work we have obtained and compared the midgut transcriptomes of O...
August 2, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Francois Iris, Athanasios Beopoulos, Manuel Gea
It is becoming generally accepted that the current diagnostic system often guarantees, rather than diminishes, disease heterogeneity. In effects, syndrome-dominated conceptual thinking has become a barrier to understanding the biological causes of complex, multifactorial diseases characterized by clinical and therapeutic heterogeneity. Furthermore, not only is the flood of currently available medical and biological information highly heterogeneous, it is also often conflicting. Together with the entire absence of functional models of pathogenesis and pathological evolution of complex diseases, this leads to a situation where illness activity cannot be coherently approached and where therapeutic developments become highly problematic...
August 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Byungjin Hwang, Ji Hyun Lee, Duhee Bang
Rapid progress in the development of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies in recent years has provided many valuable insights into complex biological systems, ranging from cancer genomics to diverse microbial communities. NGS-based technologies for genomics, transcriptomics, and epigenomics are now increasingly focused on the characterization of individual cells. These single-cell analyses will allow researchers to uncover new and potentially unexpected biological discoveries relative to traditional profiling methods that assess bulk populations...
August 7, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
Kilian Horatz, Marco Giampà, Yevhen Karpov, Karin Sahre, Hanna Bednarz, Anton Kiriy, Brigitte Voit, Karsten Niehaus, Nikos Hadjichristidis, Dominik L Michels, Franziska Lissel
Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry MALDI MS and MALDI MS Imaging are ubiquitous analytical methods in medical, pharmaceutical, biological and environmental research. Currently, there is a strong interest in the investigation of low molecular weight compounds (LMWCs), especially to trace and understand metabolic pathways, requiring the development of new matrix systems which have favorable optical properties, a high ionization efficiency, and are MALDI silent in the LMWC area. In this paper, five conjugated polymers, poly[naphthalene-diimide-bithiophene] (PNDI(T2)), poly[3-dodecylthiophene] (P3DDT), poly[2,3-bis-(3-octyloxyphenyl)quinoxaline-5,8-diyl-alt-thiophene-2,5-diyl] (PTQ1), poly[isoindigo-bithiophene] (PII(T2)), and poly[9,9-octylfluorene] (P9OFl) are investigated as matrices...
August 8, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
María Elena Álvarez-Buylla Roces, Juan Carlos Martínez-García, José Dávila-Velderrain, Elisa Domínguez-Hüttinger, Mariana Esther Martínez-Sánchez
Being concerned by the understanding of the mechanism underlying chronic degenerative diseases , we presented in the previous chapter the medical systems biology conceptual framework that we present for that purpose in this volume. More specifically, we argued there the clear advantages offered by a state-space perspective when applied to the systems-level description of the biomolecular machinery that regulates complex degenerative diseases. We also discussed the importance of the dynamical interplay between the risk factors and the network of interdependencies that characterizes the biochemical, cellular, and tissue-level biomolecular reactions that underlie the physiological processes in health and disease...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Claudia R Sotomayor, Colleen M Gallagher
The biopsychosocial model is characterized by the systematic consideration of biological, psychological, and social factors and their complex interactions in understanding health, illness, and health care delivery. This model opposes the biomedical model, which is the foundation of most current clinical practice. In the biomedical model, quest for evidence based medicine, the patient is reduced to molecules, genes, organelles, systems, diseases, etc. This reduction has brought great advances in medicine, but it lacks a holistic view of the person...
August 3, 2018: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
Joachim D Pleil, M Ariel Geer Wallace, Matthew A Stiegel, William E Funk
Human biomonitoring is the foundation of environmental toxicology, community public health evaluation, preclinical health effects assessments, pharmacological drug development and testing, and medical diagnostics. Within this framework, the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) serves as an important tool for gaining insight into human variability and responses and for developing risk-based assessments in the face of sparse or highly complex measurement data. The analytical procedures that provide data for clinical and public health efforts are continually evolving to expand our knowledge base of the many thousands of environmental and biomarker chemicals that define human systems biology...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
H Michelle Grandin, Orane Guillaume-Gentil, Tomaso Zambelli, Michael Mayer, Jared Houghtaling, Cornelia G Palivan, Marcus Textor, Fredrik Höök
The genesis for this topical review stems from the interdisciplinary Biointerfaces International conference 2016 (BI 2016) in Zurich, Switzerland, wherein the need for advances in analytical tools was both expressed and addressed. Pushing the limits of detection for characterizing individual components, such as single proteins, single drug-delivery vehicles, or probing single living cells in a more natural environment, will contribute to the understanding of the complex biomolecular systems central to a number of applications including medical diagnostics, tissue engineering, and drug screening and delivery...
July 26, 2018: Biointerphases
Lars Bossen, Alessio Gerussi, Vasiliki Lygoura, George F Mells, Marco Carbone, Pietro Invernizzi
Autoimmune liver diseases (AILDs) are complex conditions, which arise from the interaction between a genetic susceptibility and unknown environmental triggers. They represent a relevant cause of liver failure and liver transplantation worldwide. As a testimony of our progress in understanding the biology of AILDs and the disease progression is the overall median survival which has increased over the last decade. However, there are still major challenges such as the lack of therapies and surveillance strategies in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), the management and treatment of non-responders to first-line therapies in primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) and the need for tailoring immunosuppressive drugs in autoimmune hepatitis (AIH)...
July 11, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
Weixing Liu, Dagong Jia, Jing Chao, Hongxia Zhang, Tiegen Liu, Yimo Zhang, Ye Sun
Human skin temperature mapping provides abundant information of physiological conditions of human body, which provides supplementary or alternative indicators for disease monitoring or diagnosis. The existing models of temperature mapping or temperature field distribution of human skin are generally established by finite element method. Due to the complexity of biological systems, it is challenging to achieve high accuracy mathematical models of temperature field of human skin. The goal of this study is to establish human skin temperature 3D mapping platform by integrating optical fibers and improved GA-BP neural network...
July 10, 2018: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
Udayan Ghosh, Shen Ning, Yuzhu Wang, Yong Lin Kong
Recent advances in 3D printing have enabled the creation of novel 3D constructs and devices with an unprecedented level of complexity, properties, and functionalities. In contrast to manufacturing techniques developed for mass production, 3D printing encompasses a broad class of fabrication technologies that can enable 1) the creation of highly customized and optimized 3D physical architectures from digital designs; 2) the synergistic integration of properties and functionalities of distinct classes of materials to create novel hybrid devices; and 3) a biocompatible fabrication approach that facilitates the creation and cointegration of biological constructs and systems...
July 13, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Mélisande Bernard, Emile Jubeli, Michael D Pungente, Najet Yagoubi
Biomaterials play an increasing role in modern health care systems. Biocompatibility poses a significant challenge for manufacturers of medical devices and contemporary intelligent drug delivery technologies from materials development to market approval. Despite a highly regulated environment, biocompatibility evaluation of biomaterials for medical devices is a complex task related to various factors that include mainly chemical nature and physical properties of the material, the contact tissue and duration of contact...
July 24, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Masahiro Tomita
 There exists an increasing need to produce useful proteins in recombinant technologies. In particular, most biologics for medical purposes are produced as recombinant proteins. Various host cell/vector systems have been developed, but it remains difficult to efficiently produce large molecular weight proteins with complex structures. As a result of breeding for several thousand years, the silkworm has acquired the ability to synthesize bulk amounts of silk proteins. To utilize this capacity for the mass production of useful proteins, transgenic silkworms have been generated that synthesize recombinant proteins in the silk gland and secrete them into the silk cocoon...
2018: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Mahin Khatami
Maintenance of health involves a synchronized network of catabolic and anabolic signals among organs/tissues/cells that requires differential bioenergetics from mitochondria and glycolysis (biological laws or biorhythms). We defined biological circadian rhythms as Yin (tumoricidal) and Yang (tumorigenic) arms of acute inflammation (effective immunity) involving immune and non-immune systems. Role of pathogens in altering immunity and inducing diseases and cancer has been documented for over a century. However, in 1955s decision makers in cancer/medical establishment allowed public (current baby boomers) to consume million doses of virus-contaminated polio vaccines...
July 2, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
Alessia Volpe, Ewelina Kurtys, Gilbert O Fruhwirth
Microscopy and medical imaging are related in their exploitation of electromagnetic waves, but were developed to satisfy differing needs, namely to observe small objects or to look inside subjects/objects, respectively. Together, these techniques can help elucidate complex biological processes and better understand health and disease. A current major challenge is to delineate mechanisms governing cell migration and tissue invasion in organismal development, the immune system and in human diseases such as cancer where the spatiotemporal tracking of small cell numbers in live animal models is extremely challenging...
September 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Xiaodong Xie, Yingying Zhang, Fengqiao Li, Tingting Lv, Ziying Li, Haijun Chen, Lee Jia, Yu Gao
BACKGROUND: Effective cancer therapy is still a great challenge for modern medical research due to the complex underlying mechanisms of tumorigenesis and tumor metastasis, and the limitations commonly associated with currently used cancer therapeutic options. Nanotechnology has been implemented in cancer therapeutics with immense potential for improving cancer treatment. OBJECTIVES: Through information about the recent advances regarding cancer hallmarks, we could comprehensively understand the pharmacological effects and explore the mechanisms of the interaction between the nanomaterials, which could provide opportunities to develop mechanism-based nanomedicine to treat human cancers through...
June 28, 2018: Current Cancer Drug Targets
April W Armstrong, Shonda A Foster, Brian S Comer, Chen-Yen Lin, William Malatestinic, Russel Burge, Orin Goldblum
BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding real-world health outcomes data among US psoriasis patients, but electronic health records (EHR) that collect structured data at point-of-care may provide opportunities to investigate real-world health outcomes among psoriasis patients. Our objective was to investigate patient-perceived treatment effectiveness, patterns of medication use (duration, switching, and/or discontinuation), healthcare resource utilization, and medication costs using real-world data from psoriasis patients...
June 28, 2018: BMC Dermatology
Jin-Cheng Chen, Jian-Xun Liu, Jun-Guo Ren, Lei Lei, Li Kang, Cheng-Ren Lin
As a basic syndrome of Chinese medicine, the study of characteristic syndrome spectrum of Qi deficiency syndrome is of great significance for the standardization of clinical diagnosis and modern material basis research. Suitable operators and algorithms were chosen to dig out the relationship between diseases, syndromes, symptoms, detection indicators and etiologist from the literature of Chinese clinical and basic research by literature mining method of frequency statistics, association rules and complex network analysis...
June 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Julia Maruani, George Anderson, Bruno Etain, Michel Lejoyeux, Frank Bellivier, Pierre A Geoffroy
Bipolar disorders (BDs) are severe and common psychiatric disorders. BD pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and relapses are associated with numerous circadian rhythm abnormalities. In addition, infradian fluctuations of mood, social activity, weight and sleep patterns are very frequent in BD. Disease course with a seasonal pattern (SP) occurs in approximately 25% of depressive and 15% of manic episodes, which is coupled to a more severe disease symptomatology. The pathophysiological mechanisms of seasonal effects in BD await clarification, with likely important clinical consequences...
June 25, 2018: Chronobiology International
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