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Medical and biological complex systems

Sydney E Liang, Jeffrey M Cohen, Roger S Ho
Psoriasis is a chronic systemic inflammatory skin disease, which has been associated with an increased risk of numerous medical and psychiatric comorbidities, including suicidality. Suicidality, which can be divided into the categories of suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, and completed suicide, is highly prevalent in the psoriasis population, and multiple studies have been published on the subject of psoriasis and suicidal ideation and behavior (SIB), including two recent meta-analyses. However, the available literature is limited and inconsistent, and the association between the two remains incompletely understood...
October 12, 2018: Dermatologic Therapy
Francesco Chiappelli
Health care is optimized when the best evidence base (BEB) is translated into policies whose effectiveness can be verified. Bioinformation disseminates BEB and is critical to translational health care. The survival of all prokaryotes and eukaryotes, including mammals, and ultimately our species, depends upon their ability to adapt to changes in their micro-environmental milieu and to the challenges of their surrounding macro-environment. Disturbances in the organism's macro-environment, such as the stressful stimuli derived from environmental changes akin to the current climate crisis, alter its physiological, cytological, biological, epigenetic and molecular microenvironment, and trigger concerted allostatic responses to regain homeostasis...
2018: Bioinformation
Aref Trigui, Sami Hached, Ahmed Ammari, Yvon Savaria, Mohamad Sawan
Due to the constantly growing geriatric population and the projected increase of the prevalence of chronic diseases that are refractory to drugs, Implantable Medical Devices (IMDs) such as neurostimulators, endoscopic capsules, artificial retinal prostheses, and brain-machine interfaces are being developed. According to many business forecast firms, the IMD market is expected to grow and they are subject to much research aiming to overcome the numerous challenges of their development. One of these challenges consists of designing a wireless power and data transmission system that has high power efficiency, highdata rates, low power consumption, and high-robustness against noise...
October 4, 2018: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Kevin Neumann, Alessia Gambardella, Annamaria Lilienkampf, Mark Bradley
The selective and biocompatible activation of prodrugs within complex biological systems remains a key challenge in medical chemistry and chemical biology. Herein we report, for the first time, a dual prodrug activation strategy that fully satisfies the principle of bioorthogonality by the symbiotic formation of two active drugs. This dual and traceless prodrug activation strategy takes advantage of the INV DA chemistry of tetrazines (here a prodrug), generating a pyridazine-based miR21 inhibitor and the anti-cancer drug camptothecin and offers a new concept in prodrug activation...
September 28, 2018: Chemical Science
Jörg Thomas Hartmann
Soft tissue sarcomas are a diagnostically and therapeutically complex disease. This is due to the pronounced heterogeneity, characterized by biologically very different histological subtypes and the resulting clinical progressions. The term encompasses more than 80 different pathologically defined tumors of the soft tissue. Every year, nearly 4000 patients are affected in Germany. The diversity and rarity of the disease make progress difficult. The average 5-year mortality is around 40 %. Therapy is stage-adapted based on size, grading, localization, involvement of lymph nodes or distant metastasis...
October 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Wendy Page, Jenni A Judd, Richard S Bradbury
Strongyloides stercoralis has one of the most complex life cycles of the human-infecting nematodes. A common misconception in medical and public health professions is that S. stercoralis in its biology is akin to other intestinal nematodes, such as the hookworms. Despite original evidence provided by medical and veterinary research about this unique helminth, many assumptions have entered the scientific literature. This helminth is set apart from others that commonly affect humans by (a) the internal autoinfective cycle with autoinfective larvae randomly migrating through tissue, parthenogenesis, and the potential for lifelong infection in the host, the profound pathology occurring in hyperinfection and systemic manifestations of strongyloidiasis, and (b) a limited external cycle with a single generation of free-living adults...
May 25, 2018: Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease
Leong Jing Yao, Yeo Joo Guan, Salvatore Albani, Thaschawee Arkachaisri
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) comprises systemic and non-systemic forms of chronic childhood arthritis diagnosed prior to age 16. Significant improvement in treatment outcomes has been witnessed since the introduction of biologics. Advances in research, in particular, in the area of multi-dimensional interrogation and network analysis, have facilitated understanding of the complex cacophony of components orchestrating disease immuno-pathogenesis. Areas covered: In this review, we will examine the scientific advances that have augmented our understanding of JIA pathogenesis, focusing on the progress made in systemic, poly and oligo JIA in four major aspects: (a) unraveling the pathogenic mechanisms, (b) disease classification, (c) therapeutic selection and (d) decision for withdrawal of medications after achieving remission...
October 1, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Daniela Rodrigues-Amorim, Tania Rivera-Baltanás, João Bessa, Nuno Sousa, María de Carmen Vallejo-Curto, Cynthia Rodríguez-Jamardo, María Elena de Las Heras, Roberto Díaz, Roberto Carlos Agís-Balboa, J M Olivares, Carlos Spuch
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is associated with patterns of aberrant neurobiological circuitry. The disease complexity is mirrored by multiple biological interactions known to contribute to the disease pathology. One potential contributor is the family of neurotrophins which are proteins involved in multiple functional processes in the nervous system, with crucial roles in neurodevelopment, synaptogenesis and neuroplasticity. With these roles in mind, abnormal neurotrophin profiles have been hypothesized to contribute to the pathology of schizophrenia...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Hans-Peter Kapfhammer
Traumata, by definition, refer to exterior events that expose a person to experiences of overwhelming threat and catastrophe and elicit feelings of death anxiety, panic, horror, helplessness, loss of personal control, and intractability. Most affected persons respond with at least some distressing symptoms of trauma-related memory intrusions, autonomic hyperarousal, dissociation, and depression in the acute aftermath. Fortunately, the majority of traumatized individuals succeed in coping with this major stress quite well during the following weeks and months unless the process of recovery is hampered by additional adverse psychosocial circumstances, psychological disposition or biological vulnerability...
September 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Florian Primavesi, Eckhard Klieser, Benno Cardini, Katharina Marsoner, Uwe Fröschl, Sabine Thalhammer, Ines Fischer, Andreas Hauer, Romana Urbas, Tobias Kiesslich, Daniel Neureiter, Matthias Zitt, Reinhold Klug, Helwig Wundsam, Franz Sellner, Josef Karner, Reinhold Függer, Fergül Cakar-Beck, Peter Kornprat, Dietmar Öfner, Stefan Stättner
INTRODUCTION: Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasia (pNEN) show increasing incidence and management is complex due to biological heterogeneity. Most publications report isolated high-volume single-centre data. This Austrian multi-centre study on surgical management of pNENs provides a comprehensive real-life picture of quality indicators, recurrence-patterns, survival factors and systemic treatments. METHODS: Retrospective, national cohort-study from 7 medium-/high-volume centres in Austria, coordinated under the auspices of the Austrian Society of Surgical Oncology (ASSO)...
September 3, 2018: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
Kenneth D Swanson, Evangelos Theodorou, Efi Kokkotou
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The medical management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains problematic with a pressing need for innovation in drug development as well as delivery of personalized therapies. Both the disease's inherent pathophysiologic complexity and heterogeneity in its etiology conspire in making it difficult to accurately model for either the purposes of basic research or drug development. Multiple attempts at creating meaningful experimental models have fallen short of adequately recapitulating the disease and most do not capture any aspect of the cause or the effects of patient heterogeneity that underlays most of the difficulties faced by physicians and their patients...
November 2018: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Medard Beyanga, Lisa Gerwing-Adima, Kahima Jackson, Benjamin Majaliwa, Henrico Shimba, Simon Ezekiel, Charles Massambu, Dickson Majige, Michael Mwasegaka, Wilson Mtotela, Patrick Mateta, Christa Kasang
Background: Use of laboratory evidence-based patient health care in Tanzania remains a complex problem, as with many other countries in sub-Saharan Africa. As at 2010, 39 African countries, including Tanzania, had no clinical laboratories that met the minimum requirements for international laboratory standards (International Organization for Standardization [ISO] 15189). Objective: The aim of this article is to share experience from Bugando Medical Centre laboratory's milestones in reaching ISO 15189 accreditation...
2018: African Journal of Laboratory Medicine
Steve Petruzza, Aniketh Venkat, Attila Gyulassy, Giorgio Scorzelli, Valerio Pascucci, Frederick Federer, Alessandra Angelucci, Peer-Timo Bremer
Modern science is inundated with ever increasing data sizes as computational capabilities and image acquisition techniques continue to improve. For example, simulations are tackling ever larger domains with higher fidelity, and high-throughput microscopy techniques generate larger data that are fundamental to gather biologically and medically relevant insights. As the image sizes exceed memory, and even sometimes local disk space, each step in a scientific workflow is impacted. Current software solutions enable data exploration with limited interactivity for visualization and analytic tasks...
November 2017: SIGGRAPH Asia 2017 Symposium on Visualization
Adrian Caceres, Maria Luisa Avila, Marco Luis Herrera
INTRODUCTION: Invasive mycosis of the central nervous system represent a diverse group of diseases that have gradually emerged as not only opportunistic infections in patients with immune susceptibility due to congenital and acquired deficiency, immunomodulation, solid organ and stem cell transplantation, hematological malignancies, and chronic steroid use but also in selected risk populations such as low weight preterm infants, patients with shunted hydrocephalus and external ventricular drainages, skull base surgery, and head injury...
October 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Ramsia Sreij, Sylvain Prévost, Carina Dargel, Rajeev Dattani, Yvonne Hertle, Oliver Wrede, Thomas Hellweg
In the present work, we study the interaction of the saponin aescin with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) ibuprofen at concentrations of 1.2-2.5 mM. These amounts are higher than those usually used for medication (10-300 μM) to show possible structures and formulations for orally absorbed drug delivery systems. It is shown how the interaction of both substances, separately or together, alters the thermotropic phase behavior of the 1,2-dimyristoyl- sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) bilayer in the presence of different amounts of aescin, ranging from 20 μM to 1 mM...
August 30, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Ana Oleaga, Prosper Obolo-Mvoulouga, Raúl Manzano-Román, Ricardo Pérez-Sánchez
Ticks are hematophagous vectors of great medical and veterinary importance because they transmit numerous pathogenic microorganisms to humans and animals. The argasid Ornithodoros erraticus is the main vector of tick-borne human relapsing fever and African swine fever in the Mediterranean Basin. Tick enterocytes express bioactive molecules that perform key functions in blood digestion, feeding, toxic waste processing and pathogen transmission. To explore new strategies for tick control, in this work we have obtained and compared the midgut transcriptomes of O...
September 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Francois Iris, Athanasios Beopoulos, Manuel Gea
It is becoming generally accepted that the current diagnostic system often guarantees, rather than diminishes, disease heterogeneity. In effects, syndrome-dominated conceptual thinking has become a barrier to understanding the biological causes of complex, multifactorial diseases characterized by clinical and therapeutic heterogeneity. Furthermore, not only is the flood of currently available medical and biological information highly heterogeneous, it is also often conflicting. Together with the entire absence of functional models of pathogenesis and pathological evolution of complex diseases, this leads to a situation where illness activity cannot be coherently approached and where therapeutic developments become highly problematic...
August 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Byungjin Hwang, Ji Hyun Lee, Duhee Bang
Rapid progress in the development of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies in recent years has provided many valuable insights into complex biological systems, ranging from cancer genomics to diverse microbial communities. NGS-based technologies for genomics, transcriptomics, and epigenomics are now increasingly focused on the characterization of individual cells. These single-cell analyses will allow researchers to uncover new and potentially unexpected biological discoveries relative to traditional profiling methods that assess bulk populations...
August 7, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
Kilian Horatz, Marco Giampà, Yevhen Karpov, Karin Sahre, Hanna Bednarz, Anton Kiriy, Brigitte Voit, Karsten Niehaus, Nikos Hadjichristidis, Dominik L Michels, Franziska Lissel
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) and MALDI MS imaging are ubiquitous analytical methods in medical, pharmaceutical, biological, and environmental research. Currently, there is a strong interest in the investigation of low molecular weight compounds (LMWCs), especially to trace and understand metabolic pathways, requiring the development of new matrix systems that have favorable optical properties and a high ionization efficiency and that are MALDI silent in the LMWC area...
September 12, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
María Elena Álvarez-Buylla Roces, Juan Carlos Martínez-García, José Dávila-Velderrain, Elisa Domínguez-Hüttinger, Mariana Esther Martínez-Sánchez
Being concerned by the understanding of the mechanism underlying chronic degenerative diseases , we presented in the previous chapter the medical systems biology conceptual framework that we present for that purpose in this volume. More specifically, we argued there the clear advantages offered by a state-space perspective when applied to the systems-level description of the biomolecular machinery that regulates complex degenerative diseases. We also discussed the importance of the dynamical interplay between the risk factors and the network of interdependencies that characterizes the biochemical, cellular, and tissue-level biomolecular reactions that underlie the physiological processes in health and disease...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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