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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30363902/electroacupuncture-improves-baroreflex-and-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-type-b-receptor-mediated-responses-in-the-nucleus-tractus-solitarii-of-hypertensive-rats
#1
Qi Zhang, Ying-Ying Tan, Xiao-Hua Liu, Fan-Rong Yao, Dong-Yuan Cao
Electroacupuncture (EA) has been reported to benefit hypertension, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. We hypothesized that EA attenuates hypertension, in part, through modulation of γ -aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor function in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS). In the present study, the long-term effect of EA on GABA receptor function and expression was examined in the NTS of two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C) renovascular hypertensive rats. EA (0.1-0.4 mA, 2 and 15 Hz) was applied at Zusanli (ST36) acupoints overlying the deep fibular nerve for 30 min once a day for two weeks...
2018: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30357745/leptin-in-the-commissural-nucleus-tractus-solitarii-increases-the-glucose-responses-to-carotid-chemoreceptors-activation-by-cyanide
#2
Mónica Lemus, Cynthia Mojarro, Sergio Montero, Valery Melnikov, Mario Ramírez-Flores, Elena Roces de Álvarez-Buylla
Leptin is a protein hormone that plays a key role in the regulation of energy balance and glucose homeostasis. Leptin and all leptin receptor isoforms are present in the carotid bodies, but its precise function in glucose regulation and metabolism is not yet known. The aim of this study was to determine whether exogenous leptin, microinjected into the commissural nucleus tractus solitarii (cNTS), preceding sodium cyanide (NaCN) injection into the circulatory isolated carotid sinus (ICS), in vivo, modifies hyperglycemic reflex (HR) and brain glucose retention (BGR)...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325020/baroreflex-functionality-in-the-eye-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#3
Ching-Yi Tsai, Yan-Yuen Poon, Julie Y H Chan, Samuel H H Chan
By applying diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) as a physiological tool to evaluate changes in functional connectivity between key brainstem nuclei in the baroreflex neural circuits of mice and rats, recent work has revealed several hitherto unidentified phenomena regarding baroreflex functionality. (1) The presence of robust functional connectivity between nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) and nucleus ambiguus (NA) or rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) offers a holistic view on the moment-to-moment modus operandi of the cardiac vagal baroreflex or baroreflex-mediated sympathetic vasomotor tone...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30279161/preproglucagon-neurons-in-the-nucleus-of-the-solitary-tract-are-the-main-source-of-brain-glp-1-mediate-stress-induced-hypophagia-and-limit-unusually-large-intakes-of-food
#4
Marie K Holt, James E Richards, Daniel R Cook, Daniel I Brierley, Diana L Williams, Frank Reimann, Fiona M Gribble, Stefan Trapp
Centrally administered glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) supresses food intake. Here we demonstrate that GLP-1-producing (PPG) neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) are the predominant source of endogenous GLP-1 within the brain. Selective ablation of NTS PPG neurons by viral expression of diphtheria toxin subunit A (DTA) substantially reduced active GLP-1 concentrations in brain and spinal cord. Contrary to expectations, this loss of central GLP-1 had no significant effect on ad libitum feeding of mice, affecting neither daily chow intake nor body weight or glucose tolerance...
October 2, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30230933/hypoxia-activates-a-neuropeptidergic-pathway-from-the-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-hypothalamus-to-the-nucleus-tractus-solitarii
#5
Brian C Ruyle, Paula J Klutho, Christopher P Baines, Cheryl M Heesch, Eileen M Hasser
The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) contributes to both autonomic and neuroendocrine function. PVN lesion or inhibition blunts cardiorespiratory responses to peripheral chemoreflex activation, suggesting that the PVN is required for full expression of these effects. However, the role of efferent projections to cardiorespiratory nuclei and the neurotransmitters/neuromodulators that are involved is unclear. The PVN sends dense projections to the nucleus tractus solitarii (nTS), a region that displays neuronal activation following hypoxia...
September 19, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608992/central-fatigue-theory-and-endurance-exercise-toward-an-interoceptive-model
#6
REVIEW
Terry McMorris, Martin Barwood, Jo Corbett
We propose a model of exercise-induced central fatigue based on interoception and motivation. Predictions of the expected sensory feedback are fed forward by the dorsolateral (DL) prefrontal cortex (PFC) to the anterior insula cortex (AIC). During exercise, the AIC receives feedback from lamina Ⅰ lateral spinothalamic and nucleus tractus solitarii medullothalamic pathways. The feedback is compared to the predictions in order to generate a current awareness state, which is forwarded to the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), ventromedial (VM)PFC and lateral (L)PFC...
October 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601943/lung-injury-depresses-glutamatergic-synaptic-transmission-in-the-nucleus-tractus-solitarii-via-discrete-age-dependent-mechanisms-in-neonatal-rats
#7
David G Litvin, Thomas E Dick, Corey B Smith, Frank J Jacono
Transition periods (TPs) are brief stages in CNS development where neural circuits can exhibit heightened vulnerability to pathologic conditions such as injury or infection. This susceptibility is due in part to specialized mechanisms of synaptic plasticity, which may become activated by inflammatory mediators released under pathologic conditions. Thus, we hypothesized that the immune response to lung injury (LI) mediated synaptic changes through plasticity-like mechanisms that depended on whether LI occurred just before or after a TP...
May 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494287/resveratrol-regulates-blood-pressure-by-enhancing-ampk-signaling-to-downregulate-a-rac1-derived-nadph-oxidase-in-the-central-nervous-system
#8
Tung-Chen Yeh, Ching-Sen Shin, Hsin-Hung Chen, Chi-Cheng Lai, Gwo-Ching Sun, Ching-Jiunn Tseng, Pei-Wen Cheng
Resveratrol is a polyphenol with pleiotropic effects against oxidative damage that has been widely implicated in lowering hypertension risk. The purpose of this study was to determine whether improve nitric oxide (NO) release in the brain, either through the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) or reduced Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, thereby reducing blood pressure (BP) in rats with fructose-induced hypertension. The rats were fed with 10% fructose or Crestor (rosuvastatin; 1...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369803/inhibitory-modulation-of-the-cough-reflex-by-acetylcholine-in-the-caudal-nucleus-tractus-solitarii-of-the-rabbit
#9
Elenia Cinelli, Ludovica Iovino, Fulvia Bongianni, Tito Pantaleo, Donatella Mutolo
A cholinergic system has been described in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS). However, no information is available on the role played by acetylcholine (ACh) in the modulation of the cough reflex within the caudal NTS that has an important function in cough regulation. We addressed this issue making use of bilateral microinjections (30-50 nl) of 10 mM ACh combined with 5 mM physostigmine as well as of 10 mM mecamylamine or 10 mM scopolamine into the caudal NTS of pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rabbits...
November 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247677/brainstem-glp-1-signalling-contributes-to-cancer-anorexia-cachexia-syndrome-in-the-rat
#10
Tito Borner, Claudia G Liberini, Thomas A Lutz, Thomas Riediger
The cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome (CACS) is a frequent and severe condition in cancer patients. Currently, no pharmacological treatment is approved for the therapy of CACS. Centrally, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is expressed in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) and is implicated in malaise, nausea and food aversion. The NTS is reciprocally connected to brain sites implicated in the control of energy balance including the area postrema (AP), which mediates CACS in certain tumour models. Given the role of GLP-1 as a mediator of anorexia under acute sickness conditions, we hypothesized that brainstem GLP-1 signalling might play a role in the mediation of CACS...
March 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241309/involvement-of-endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-activation-in-midkine-mediated-central-hypotensive-effects
#11
Ching-Huang Lin, Jun-Yen Pan, Jung-Jui Chang, Hsin-Hung Chen, Pei-Wen Cheng, Ching-Jiunn Tseng
The growth factor midkine (MK) has been implicated in various biologic and pathologic events. It has been shown that the peripheral influence of MK on cardiovascular regulation is due to an influence on the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). The nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) is the primary integrative center for cardiovascular control and other autonomic functions in the central nervous system. However, the signaling mechanisms involved in MK-mediated cardiovascular effects in the NTS remain unclear. In this study, we investigated whether the RAS and/or N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-calmodulin-endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) signaling pathways were both involved in MK-mediated blood pressure (BP) regulation in the NTS of Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats...
December 31, 2017: Chinese Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233862/prolactin-releasing-peptide-improved-leptin-hypothalamic-signaling-in-obese-mice
#12
Martina Holubová, Lucie Hrubá, Barbora Neprašová, Zuzana Majerčíková, Zdeňka Lacinová, Jaroslav Kuneš, Lenka Maletínská, Blanka Železná
The situation following anti-obesity drug termination is rarely investigated, eventhough a decrease in body weight needs to be sustained. Therefore, this study examined the impact of twice-daily peripheral administration of 5 mg/kg [N-palm-γGlu-Lys11 ] prolactin-releasing peptide 31 (palm11 -PrRP31) in mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO from consuming a high-fat diet) after 28 days of treatment (palm11 -PrRP31 group) and after 14 days of peptide treatment followed by 14 days of discontinuation (palm11 -PrRP31 + saline group)...
February 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094451/chemotherapy-induced-pica-in-rats-reduced-by-electroacupuncture
#13
REVIEW
Shiying Li, Yong Lei, Jiande D Z Chen
OBJECTIVES: Acupuncture or electroacupuncture (EA) has been applied for treating chemotherapy-induced emesis with limited success. The aims of this study were to investigate the anti-emetic effect of EA and to explore underlying anti-emetic mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were chronically implanted with a pair of stainless steel leads at acupoint pericardium 6 (PC6). Effects of EA with different parameters on cisplatin-induced nausea were assessed by pica (intake of kaolin, a surrogate of nausea in species without vomiting reflex)...
April 2018: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944683/-thoracic-migraine-as-a-new-manifestation-of-migraine-case-report
#14
Torsten Kraya, Stephan Mages, Stephan Zierz
Background and objectives Abdominal pain is a well-known headache-associated symptom in migraine in children, but rarely in adults. We describe a case of a female patient with typical accompanying migraine symptoms without headache but with thoracic pain. Case report The present case of a 41 year-old-woman shows recurrent attacks with thoracic pain and typical accompanying migraine symptoms but without headache. Symptoms resolved upon treatment with triptans and beta blockers. Discussion This case might be interpreted as "thoracic migraine", and extends the spectrum of migraine forms...
June 2018: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825196/cellular-localization-of-acid-sensing-ion-channel-1-in-rat-nucleus-tractus-solitarii
#15
Li-Hsien Lin, Susan Jones, William T Talman
By determining its cellular localization in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS), we sought anatomical support for a putative physiological role for acid-sensing ion channel Type 1 (ASIC1) in chemosensitivity. Further, we sought to determine the effect of a lesion that produces gliosis in the area. In rats, we studied ASIC1 expression in control tissue with that in tissue with gliosis, which is associated with acidosis, after saporin lesions. We hypothesized that saporin would increase ASIC1 expression in areas of gliosis...
January 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742157/angiotensin-ii-system-in-the-nucleus-tractus-solitarii-contributes-to-autonomic-dysreflexia-in-rats-with-spinal-cord-injury
#16
Kai Wang, Shaoxia Duan, Xueping Wen, Weizhong Wang, Shangping Fang, Dunyi Qi, Xiang Huan, Liwei Wang, Zhenzhou He
BACKGROUND: Autonomic dysreflexia (AD) is a potentially life-threating complication after spinal cord injury (SCI), characterized by episodic hypertension induced by colon or bladder distension. The objective of this study was to determine the role of impaired baroreflex regulation by the nucleus tractus solitarii(NTS) in the occurrence of AD in a rat model. METHODS: T4 spinal cord transection animal model was used in this study, which included 40 Male rats Colorectal distension (CD) was performed to assess AD and compare the changes of BP, HR, and BRS, six weeks after operation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677303/glial-eaat2-regulation-of-extracellular-nts-glutamate-critically-controls-neuronal-activity-and-cardiorespiratory-reflexes
#17
Michael P Matott, David D Kline, Eileen M Hasser
KEY POINTS: Excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2) is present on astrocytes in the nucleus tractus solitarii (nTS), an important nucleus in cardiorespiratory control. Its specific role in influencing nTS neuronal activity and thereby basal and reflex cardiorespiratory function is unknown. The specific role of nTS EAAT2 was determined via whole animal and brainstem slice patch clamp experiments. Astrocytic EAAT2 buffers basal glutamate activation of AMPA-type glutamate receptors and therefore decreases baseline excitability of nTS neurons...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549898/brainstem-mechanisms-underlying-the-cough-reflex-and-its-regulation
#18
REVIEW
Donatella Mutolo
Cough is a very important airway protective reflex. Cough-related inputs are conveyed to the caudal nucleus tractus solitarii (cNTS) that projects to the brainstem respiratory network. The latter is reconfigured to generate the cough motor pattern. A high degree of modulation is exerted on second-order neurons and the brainstem respiratory network by sensory inputs and higher brain areas. Two medullary structures proved to have key functions in cough production and to be strategic sites of action for centrally active drugs: the cNTS and the caudal ventral respiratory group (cVRG)...
September 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274920/h-2-o-2-augments-cytosolic-calcium-in-nucleus-tractus-solitarii-neurons-via-multiple-voltage-gated-calcium-channels
#19
Tim D Ostrowski, Heather A Dantzler, Luis Polo-Parada, David D Kline
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a profound role in cardiorespiratory function under normal physiological conditions and disease states. ROS can influence neuronal activity by altering various ion channels and transporters. Within the nucleus tractus solitarii (nTS), a vital brainstem area for cardiorespiratory control, hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) induces sustained hyperexcitability following an initial depression of neuronal activity. The mechanism(s) associated with the delayed hyperexcitability are unknown...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270593/reduced-responses-to-glutamate-receptor-agonists-follow-loss-of-astrocytes-and-astroglial-glutamate-markers-in-the-nucleus-tractus-solitarii
#20
William T Talman, Deidre Nitschke Dragon, Li-Hsien Lin
Saporin (SAP) or SAP conjugates injected into the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) of rats kill astrocytes. When injected in its unconjugated form, SAP produces no demonstrable loss of or damage to local neurons. However bilateral injections of SAP significantly attenuate responses to activation of baroreceptor reflexes that are mediated by transmission of signals through glutamate receptors in the NTS We tested the hypothesis that SAP would reduce cardiovascular responses to activation of NTS glutamate receptors despite its recognized ability to spare local neurons while killing local astrocytes...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
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