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nucleus tractus solitarii

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608992/central-fatigue-theory-and-endurance-exercise-toward-an-interoceptive-model
#1
REVIEW
Terry McMorris, Martin Barwood, Jo Corbett
We propose a model of exercise-induced central fatigue based on interoception and motivation. Predictions of the expected sensory feedback are fed forward by the dorsolateral (DL) prefrontal cortex (PFC) to the anterior insula cortex (AIC). During exercise, the AIC receives feedback from lamina Ⅰ lateral spinothalamic and nucleus tractus solitarii medullothalamic pathways. The feedback is compared to the predictions in order to generate a current awareness state, which is forwarded to the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), ventromedial (VM)PFC and lateral (L)PFC...
March 30, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601943/lung-injury-depresses-glutamatergic-synaptic-transmission-in-the-nucleus-tractus-solitarii-via-discrete-age-dependent-mechanisms-in-neonatal-rats
#2
David G Litvin, Thomas E Dick, Corey B Smith, Frank J Jacono
Transition periods (TPs) are brief stages in CNS development where neural circuits can exhibit heightened vulnerability to pathologic conditions such as injury or infection. This susceptibility is due in part to specialized mechanisms of synaptic plasticity, which may become activated by inflammatory mediators released under pathologic conditions. Thus, we hypothesized that the immune response to lung injury (LI) mediated synaptic changes through plasticity-like mechanisms that depended on whether LI occurred just before or after a TP...
May 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494287/resveratrol-regulates-blood-pressure-by-enhancing-ampk-signaling-to-downregulate-a-rac1-derived-nadph-oxidase-in-the-central-nervous-system
#3
Tung-Chen Yeh, Ching-Sen Shin, Hsin-Hung Chen, Chi-Cheng Lai, Gwo-Ching Sun, Ching-Jiunn Tseng, Pei-Wen Cheng
Resveratrol is a polyphenol with pleiotropic effects against oxidative damage that has been widely implicated in lowering hypertension risk. The purpose of this study was to determine whether improve nitric oxide (NO) release in the brain, either through the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) or reduced Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, thereby reducing blood pressure (BP) in rats with fructose-induced hypertension. The rats were fed with 10% fructose or Crestor (rosuvastatin; 1...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369803/inhibitory-modulation-of-the-cough-reflex-by-acetylcholine-in-the-caudal-nucleus-tractus-solitarii-of-the-rabbit
#4
Elenia Cinelli, Ludovica Iovino, Fulvia Bongianni, Tito Pantaleo, Donatella Mutolo
A cholinergic system has been described in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS). However, no information is available on the role played by acetylcholine (ACh) in the modulation of the cough reflex within the caudal NTS that has an important function in cough regulation. We addressed this issue making use of bilateral microinjections (30-50 nl) of 10 mM ACh combined with 5 mM physostigmine as well as of 10 mM mecamylamine or 10 mM scopolamine into the caudal NTS of pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rabbits...
January 23, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247677/brainstem-glp-1-signalling-contributes-to-cancer-anorexia-cachexia-syndrome-in-the-rat
#5
Tito Borner, Claudia G Liberini, Thomas A Lutz, Thomas Riediger
The cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome (CACS) is a frequent and severe condition in cancer patients. Currently, no pharmacological treatment is approved for the therapy of CACS. Centrally, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is expressed in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) and is implicated in malaise, nausea and food aversion. The NTS is reciprocally connected to brain sites implicated in the control of energy balance including the area postrema (AP), which mediates CACS in certain tumour models. Given the role of GLP-1 as a mediator of anorexia under acute sickness conditions, we hypothesized that brainstem GLP-1 signalling might play a role in the mediation of CACS...
March 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241309/involvement-of-endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-activation-in-midkine-mediated-central-hypotensive-effects
#6
Ching-Huang Lin, Jun-Yen Pan, Jung-Jui Chang, Hsin-Hung Chen, Pei-Wen Cheng, Ching-Jiunn Tseng
The growth factor midkine (MK) has been implicated in various biologic and pathologic events. It has been shown that the peripheral influence of MK on cardiovascular regulation is due to an influence on the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). The nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) is the primary integrative center for cardiovascular control and other autonomic functions in the central nervous system. However, the signaling mechanisms involved in MK-mediated cardiovascular effects in the NTS remain unclear. In this study, we investigated whether the RAS and/or N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-calmodulin-endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) signaling pathways were both involved in MK-mediated blood pressure (BP) regulation in the NTS of Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats...
December 31, 2017: Chinese Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233862/prolactin-releasing-peptide-improved-leptin-hypothalamic-signaling-in-obese-mice
#7
Martina Holubová, Lucie Hrubá, Barbora Neprašová, Zuzana Majerčíková, Zdeňka Lacinová, Jaroslav Kuneš, Lenka Maletínská, Blanka Železná
The situation following anti-obesity drug termination is rarely investigated, eventhough a decrease in body weight needs to be sustained. Therefore, this study examined the impact of twice-daily peripheral administration of 5 mg/kg [N-palm-γGlu-Lys11 ] prolactin-releasing peptide 31 (palm11 -PrRP31) in mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO from consuming a high-fat diet) after 28 days of treatment (palm11 -PrRP31 group) and after 14 days of peptide treatment followed by 14 days of discontinuation (palm11 -PrRP31 + saline group)...
February 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094451/chemotherapy-induced-pica-in-rats-reduced-by-electroacupuncture
#8
REVIEW
Shiying Li, Yong Lei, Jiande D Z Chen
OBJECTIVES: Acupuncture or electroacupuncture (EA) has been applied for treating chemotherapy-induced emesis with limited success. The aims of this study were to investigate the anti-emetic effect of EA and to explore underlying anti-emetic mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were chronically implanted with a pair of stainless steel leads at acupoint pericardium 6 (PC6). Effects of EA with different parameters on cisplatin-induced nausea were assessed by pica (intake of kaolin, a surrogate of nausea in species without vomiting reflex)...
April 2018: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944683/-thoracic-migraine-as-a-new-manifestation-of-migraine-case-report
#9
Torsten Kraya, Stephan Mages, Stephan Zierz
Background and objectives Abdominal pain is a well-known headache-associated symptom in migraine in children, but rarely in adults. We describe a case of a female patient with typical accompanying migraine symptoms without headache but with thoracic pain. Case report The present case of a 41 year-old-woman shows recurrent attacks with thoracic pain and typical accompanying migraine symptoms but without headache. Symptoms resolved upon treatment with triptans and beta blockers. Discussion This case might be interpreted as "thoracic migraine", and extends the spectrum of migraine forms...
June 2018: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825196/cellular-localization-of-acid-sensing-ion-channel-1-in-rat-nucleus-tractus-solitarii
#10
Li-Hsien Lin, Susan Jones, William T Talman
By determining its cellular localization in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS), we sought anatomical support for a putative physiological role for acid-sensing ion channel Type 1 (ASIC1) in chemosensitivity. Further, we sought to determine the effect of a lesion that produces gliosis in the area. In rats, we studied ASIC1 expression in control tissue with that in tissue with gliosis, which is associated with acidosis, after saporin lesions. We hypothesized that saporin would increase ASIC1 expression in areas of gliosis...
January 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742157/angiotensin-ii-system-in-the-nucleus-tractus-solitarii-contributes-to-autonomic-dysreflexia-in-rats-with-spinal-cord-injury
#11
Kai Wang, Shaoxia Duan, Xueping Wen, Weizhong Wang, Shangping Fang, Dunyi Qi, Xiang Huan, Liwei Wang, Zhenzhou He
BACKGROUND: Autonomic dysreflexia (AD) is a potentially life-threating complication after spinal cord injury (SCI), characterized by episodic hypertension induced by colon or bladder distension. The objective of this study was to determine the role of impaired baroreflex regulation by the nucleus tractus solitarii(NTS) in the occurrence of AD in a rat model. METHODS: T4 spinal cord transection animal model was used in this study, which included 40 Male rats Colorectal distension (CD) was performed to assess AD and compare the changes of BP, HR, and BRS, six weeks after operation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677303/glial-eaat2-regulation-of-extracellular-nts-glutamate-critically-controls-neuronal-activity-and-cardiorespiratory-reflexes
#12
Michael P Matott, David D Kline, Eileen M Hasser
KEY POINTS: Excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2) is present on astrocytes in the nucleus tractus solitarii (nTS), an important nucleus in cardiorespiratory control. Its specific role in influencing nTS neuronal activity and thereby basal and reflex cardiorespiratory function is unknown. The specific role of nTS EAAT2 was determined via whole animal and brainstem slice patch clamp experiments. Astrocytic EAAT2 buffers basal glutamate activation of AMPA-type glutamate receptors and therefore decreases baseline excitability of nTS neurons...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549898/brainstem-mechanisms-underlying-the-cough-reflex-and-its-regulation
#13
REVIEW
Donatella Mutolo
Cough is a very important airway protective reflex. Cough-related inputs are conveyed to the caudal nucleus tractus solitarii (cNTS) that projects to the brainstem respiratory network. The latter is reconfigured to generate the cough motor pattern. A high degree of modulation is exerted on second-order neurons and the brainstem respiratory network by sensory inputs and higher brain areas. Two medullary structures proved to have key functions in cough production and to be strategic sites of action for centrally active drugs: the cNTS and the caudal ventral respiratory group (cVRG)...
September 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274920/h-2-o-2-augments-cytosolic-calcium-in-nucleus-tractus-solitarii-neurons-via-multiple-voltage-gated-calcium-channels
#14
Tim D Ostrowski, Heather A Dantzler, Luis Polo-Parada, David D Kline
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a profound role in cardiorespiratory function under normal physiological conditions and disease states. ROS can influence neuronal activity by altering various ion channels and transporters. Within the nucleus tractus solitarii (nTS), a vital brainstem area for cardiorespiratory control, hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) induces sustained hyperexcitability following an initial depression of neuronal activity. The mechanism(s) associated with the delayed hyperexcitability are unknown...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270593/reduced-responses-to-glutamate-receptor-agonists-follow-loss-of-astrocytes-and-astroglial-glutamate-markers-in-the-nucleus-tractus-solitarii
#15
William T Talman, Deidre Nitschke Dragon, Li-Hsien Lin
Saporin (SAP) or SAP conjugates injected into the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) of rats kill astrocytes. When injected in its unconjugated form, SAP produces no demonstrable loss of or damage to local neurons. However bilateral injections of SAP significantly attenuate responses to activation of baroreceptor reflexes that are mediated by transmission of signals through glutamate receptors in the NTS We tested the hypothesis that SAP would reduce cardiovascular responses to activation of NTS glutamate receptors despite its recognized ability to spare local neurons while killing local astrocytes...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233325/nutritional-status-dependent-endocannabinoid-signalling-regulates-the-integration-of-rat-visceral-information
#16
Abdessattar Khlaifia, Isabelle Matias, Daniela Cota, Fabien Tell
KEY POINTS: Vagal sensory inputs transmit information from the viscera to brainstem neurones located in the nucleus tractus solitarii to set physiological parameters. These excitatory synapses exhibit a CB1 endocannabinoid-induced long-term depression (LTD) triggered by vagal fibre stimulation. We investigated the impact of nutritional status on long-term changes in this long-term synaptic plasticity. Food deprivation prevents LTD induction by disrupting CB1 receptor signalling. Short-term refeeding restores the capacity of vagal synapses to express LTD...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120502/abnormal-oxygen-homeostasis-in-the-nucleus-tractus-solitarii-of-the-spontaneously-hypertensive-rat
#17
Patrick S Hosford, Julian Millar, Andrew G Ramage, Nephtali Marina
What is the central question of this study? Arterial hypertension is associated with impaired neurovascular coupling in the somatosensory cortex. Abnormalities in activity-dependent oxygen consumption in brainstem regions involved in the control of cardiovascular reflexes have not been explored previously. What is the main finding and its importance? Using fast-cyclic voltammetry, we found that changes in local tissue PO2 in the nucleus tractus solitarii induced by electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve are significantly impaired in spontaneously hypertensive rats...
April 1, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106557/blunted-respiratory-responses-in-the-streptozotocin-induced-alzheimer-s-disease-rat-model
#18
Dalton L Ebel, Christopher G Torkilsen, Tim D Ostrowski
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is known for the progressive decline of cognition and memory. In addition to these disease-defining symptoms, impairment of respiratory function is frequently observed and often expressed by sleep-disordered breathing or reduced ability to adjust respiration when oxygen demand is elevated. The mechanisms for this are widely unknown. Postmortem analysis from the brainstem of AD patients reveals pathological alterations, including in nuclei responsible for respiratory control. In this study, we analyzed respiratory responses and morphological changes in brainstem nuclei following intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of streptozotocin (STZ), a rat model commonly used to mimic sporadic AD...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089704/brain-mineralocorticoid-receptor-function-in-control-of-salt-balance-and-stress-adaptation
#19
REVIEW
Edo Ronald de Kloet, Marian Joëls
We will highlight in honor of Randall Sakai the peculiar characteristics of the brain mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in its response pattern to the classical mineralocorticoid aldosterone and the naturally occurring glucocorticoids corticosterone and cortisol. Neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) and circumventricular organs express MR, which mediate selectively the action of aldosterone on salt appetite, sympathetic outflow and volume regulation. The MR-containing NTS neurons innervate limbic-forebrain circuits enabling aldosterone to also modulate reciprocally arousal, motivation, fear and reward...
September 1, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079146/nitrosative-stress-induced-disruption-of-baroreflex-neural-circuits-in-a-rat-model-of-hepatic-encephalopathy-a-dti-study
#20
Ching-Yi Tsai, Chia-Hao Su, Julie Y H Chan, Samuel H H Chan
The onset of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) in liver failure is associated with high mortality; the underlying mechanism is undecided. Here we report that in an acute liver failure model employing intraperitoneal administration of thioacetamide in Sprague-Dawley rats, diffusion weighted imaging revealed a progressive reduction in apparent diffusion coefficient in the brain stem. Diffusion tensor imaging further showed that the connectivity between nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS), the terminal site of baroreceptor afferents in brain stem and rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), the origin of sympathetic innervation of blood vessels, was progressively disrupted until its disappearance, coincidental with the irreversible cessation of baroreflex-mediated sympathetic vasomotor tone signifying clinically the occurrence of brain death...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
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