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Social thinking

Wouter Vermeer, Otto Koppius, Peter Vervest
Propagating phenomena in networks have received significant amount of attention within various domains, ranging from contagion in epidemiology, to diffusion of innovations and social influence on behavior and communication. Often these studies attempt to model propagation processes in networks to create interventions that steer propagation dynamics towards desired or away from undesired outcomes. Traditionally, studies have used relatively simple models of the propagation mechanism. In most propagation models this mechanism is described as a monolithic process and a single parameter for the infection rate...
2018: PloS One
Laura Caramanica, Christie Emerson, Shinunah Al-Harthy, Huda Al Awaisi, Dwayne Hooks
Addressing health inequities and the social determinants of health for all people of the world is a primary goal of the World Health Organization. This article describes how a "Connecting Communities educational program" enabled nurse leaders from academic institutions from different sides of the globe to develop a reciprocal relationship of mutual interest around the topics of the nursing role in population health and care delivery. Grant funding resulted in the sharing of knowledge, expertise, and experiences directed toward encouraging the development of nurses as global citizens, with a broader view on what influences health and well-being...
January 2019: Nursing Administration Quarterly
Edward Meinert, Michelle Van Velthoven, David Brindley, Abrar Alturkistani, Kimberley Foley, Sian Rees, Glenn Wells, Nick de Pennington
BACKGROUND: Demands on health services across are increasing because of the combined challenges of an expanding and aging population, alongside complex comorbidities that transcend the classical boundaries of modern health care. Continuing to provide and coordinate care in the current manner is not a viable route to sustain the improvements in health outcomes observed in recent history. To ensure that there continues to be improvement in patient care, prevention of disease, and reduced burden on health systems, it is essential that we adapt our models of delivery...
December 4, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Eileen Pepler, Rebecca C Martell
Indigenous people have always had the end in mind-a long range vision for the health and wellbeing of their families and communities. Creating Indigenous solutions-oriented approaches to strategic health and social care workforce planning is an essential component to the realization of self-determination and empowerment, accessible health services, community participation, and flexible approaches to care. This article suggests using an Indigenous "models of care" population health approach to health and social care workforce planning that takes a critical thinking, systems thinking, and design thinking approach using digital tools (eg, scenario planning and population health simulation)...
December 4, 2018: Healthcare Management Forum
Lisa A Brenner, Andrew J Hoisington, Kelly A Stearns-Yoder, Christopher E Stamper, Jared D Heinze, Teodor T Postolache, Daniel A Hadidi, Claire A Hoffmire, Maggie A Stanislawski, Christopher A Lowry
Significant effort has been put forth to increase understanding regarding the role of the human microbiome in health- and disease-related processes. In turn, the United States (US) Veteran Microbiome Project (US-VMP) was conceptualized as a means by which to serially collect microbiome and health-related data from those seeking care within the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). In this manuscript, exposures related to military experiences, as well as conditions and health-related factors among patients seen in VHA clinical settings are discussed in relation to common psychological and physical outcomes...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Robert L Gabrys, Nassim Tabri, Hymie Anisman, Kimberly Matheson
Cognitive control and (cognitive) flexibility play an important role in an individual's ability to adapt to continuously changing environments. In addition to facilitating goal-directed behaviors, cognitive control and flexibility have been implicated in emotion regulation, and disturbances of these abilities are present in mood and anxiety disorders. In the context of stressful experiences, the reported studies examined processes related to cognitive control and flexibility, emotional regulation and depressive symptoms...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Robert Wilton, Joshua Evans
BACKGROUND: Many people living with mental illness want paid work, but finding and maintaining mainstream employment remains challenging. In recent decades, social enterprises have emerged as one alternative site for paid employment. Existing research has examined the experiences of people with mental illness working in social enterprises, but less is known about the organizational character of these workplaces. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to develop a better understanding of social enterprises as organizational contexts for workers with mental illness...
November 26, 2018: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
Laura E Been, Alison B Gibbons, Robert L Meisel
Although many people think of aggression as a negative or undesirable emotion, it is a normal part of many species' repertoire of social behaviors. Purposeful and controlled aggression can be adaptive in that it warns other individuals of perceived breaches in social contracts with the goal of dispersing conflict before it escalates into violence. Aggression becomes maladaptive, however, when it escalates inappropriately or impulsively into violence. Despite ample data demonstrating that impulsive aggression and violence occurs in both men and women, aggression has historically been considered a uniquely masculine trait...
November 28, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Thorsten M Erle, Niklas Barth, Sascha Topolinski
Depression is marked by rigid thinking and the inability to generate different and more positive views on the self. The current study conceptualises this a perspective-taking deficit, which is defined as a deficit in the ability to overcome one's egocentrism. Previous research has demonstrated that individuals with depression are impaired in Theory of Mind reasoning and empathy - two social cognitions that involve cognitive and affective perspective-taking. Here, it was investigated whether these deficits generalise to visuo-spatial perspective-taking...
December 2, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
Cecilia Benoit, Michaela Smith, Mikael Jansson, Priscilla Healey, Doug Magnuson
Prostitution, payment for the exchange of sexual services, is deemed a major social problem in most countries around the world today, with little to no consensus on how to address it. In this Target Article, we unpack what we discern as the two primary positions that undergird academic thinking about the relationship between inequality and prostitution: (1) prostitution is principally an institution of hierarchal gender relations that legitimizes the sexual exploitation of women by men, and (2) prostitution is a form of exploited labor where multiple forms of social inequality (including class, gender, and race) intersect in neoliberal capitalist societies...
November 29, 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Alice Moult, Heather Burroughs, Tom Kingstone, Carolyn A Chew-Graham
BACKGROUND: Anxiety and depression are common in older adults, but often under-recognised by GPs. Rather than perceiving themselves as suffering from anxiety or depression, older adults are more likely to self-identify as experiencing low mood, stress or distress. Older people may also feel responsible for managing their own mood problems. The Internet has the potential to support the self-management of distress through accessing health information or social support. METHODS: This study was approved by Keele University's ethical review panel...
November 29, 2018: BMC Family Practice
Anjali J Forber-Pratt, Carlyn O Mueller, Erin E Andrews
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this conceptual paper was to put forth a call for rehabilitation practitioners to consider their role in developing disability identity in their clients, and to understand this action as a form of allyship toward the disability community. METHOD: This conceptual paper is organized to engage existing disability and disability-identity literature and its clinical implications. Practical tools and skills are offered for rehabilitation practitioners to develop disability identity and engage in disability allyship...
November 29, 2018: Rehabilitation Psychology
Mike Jones
This commentary discusses strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in the context of global environmental change and presents a brief overview of the science of social-ecological systems and the resilience thinking and practices that result from it. Resilience thinking and assessment have the potential to make a significant contribution to SEA, if SEA is applied (as intended) as a proactive tool for assessing development sustainability during the process of making plans, policies, and programs. So far, there is little indication that social-ecological system (SES) resilience ideas are being applied to SEA, and from a complex systems perspective, it seems that cognitive and social biases may be the primary barriers to both the improvement of SEA practice and the application of SES resilience science to SEA practice...
September 2018: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Vivek Kulkarni, Margaret L Kern, David Stillwell, Michal Kosinski, Sandra Matz, Lyle Ungar, Steven Skiena, H Andrew Schwartz
Over the past century, personality theory and research has successfully identified core sets of characteristics that consistently describe and explain fundamental differences in the way people think, feel and behave. Such characteristics were derived through theory, dictionary analyses, and survey research using explicit self-reports. The availability of social media data spanning millions of users now makes it possible to automatically derive characteristics from behavioral data-language use-at large scale...
2018: PloS One
Rachel L Goldberg, Cheryl Dankiewicz, Janine K Cataldo
To explore associations between older smokers' attitudes and beliefs about electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and tobacco use behavior, descriptive and correlational analysis of a cross-sectional survey of a random national sample of current smokers (age ≥45 years [considered "older" herein]) was performed. Of 498 older smokers, 75% wanted to quit smoking cigarettes and 60% had tried e-cigarettes. The 108 current e-cigarette users believed e-cigarettes help quit cigarettes (p < 0.001), are safer than cigarettes (p = 0...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Gerontological Nursing
Burcu Demiray, Matthias R Mehl, Mike Martin
We examined mental time travel reflected onto individuals' utterances in real-life conversations using a naturalistic observation method: Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR, a portable audio recorder that periodically and unobtrusively records snippets of ambient sounds and speech). We introduced the term conversational time travel and examined, for the first time, how much individuals talked about their personal past versus personal future in real life. Study 1 included 9,010 sound files collected from 51 American adults who carried the EAR over 1 weekend and were recorded every 9 min for 50 s...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Carla Tsampiras
Celebration, frustration, contestation and imagination all manifest themselves when examining the evolution of the field of Medical and Health Humanities (MHH) at the University of Cape Town (UCT). That this field has been growing at the same time as access to, inclusion in, and social justice issues linked to higher education have come under the spotlight has the potential to shape how we think and plan for the future of the field. Doing this will require treks up hills, journeys through difficult histories and dynamic dances in-between disciplines...
December 2018: Medical Humanities
Panagiota Voskou, Anastasia Bougea, Marina Economou, Athanasios Douzenis, Maria Ginieri-Coccossis
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate the relationship of quality of life, psychopathological symptoms and ways of coping of nursing staff in two General Hospitals in Greece. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study of 302 nurses in two General Hospitals in Greece between October and November of 2015. Data collection was performed using three questionnaires; the World Health Organisation Quality Of Life BREF; the Falk Self-Reporting Questionnaire for the detection of possible psychiatric comorbidity and the Ways of Coping Scale for Stressful Situations...
November 24, 2018: Enfermería Clínica
Laëtitia Leloup, Gaëlle Meert, Dana Samson
Moral judgements are crucial for social life and rely on the analysis of the agent's intention and the outcome of the agent's action. The current study examines to the influence of how the information is presented on moral judgement. The first experiment investigated the effects of the order in which intention and outcome information was presented. The results showed that participants relied more on the last presented information, suggesting a recency effect. The second experiment required participants to make two types of judgments (wrongness vs...
September 27, 2018: Psychologica Belgica
Dunia Garrido, Gloria Carballo, Jonet Artis, Rocio Garcia-Retamero
Parents are the first to indicate concerns about their child's development in up to 80% of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). They often notice symptoms related to ASD around the first two years, but the average age of diagnosis is 3.5 years old. This study examined the relationships between parents' early concerns and the time lag between suspicion and diagnosis. Forty-eight Spanish-speaking families were enrolled in this study. Parents were asked about early signs that made them think that their child could possibly have ASD...
November 27, 2018: Spanish Journal of Psychology
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