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Social thinking

Vladimer Lado Gamsakhurdia
I further develop the dialogical self theory (DST) by elaborating on temporal dimensions, emphasizing the human need for self-presentation. The self is seen as the subjective center of a multicentered semiotic net, one that mediates between the past and future. A person is an operational entity that occasionally reconstructs him- or herself through the negotiation of internal and external "I-positions." The conceptual differentiation of a future time zone is proposed by means of elaborating on the zone of distant development (ZDD)...
October 19, 2018: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science
Madhu Viswanathan, Ronald Duncan, Maria Grigortsuk, Arun Sreekumar
A bottom-up approach grounded in micro-level understanding of the thinking, feeling, behavioral, and social aspects of living with low income and associated low literacy can lead to greater understanding and improvement of interactions in the health arena. This paper draws on what we have learned about marketplace interactions in subsistence economies to inform innovations in medical education, design and delivery of healthcare for lowincome patients, outreach education, and future micro-level research at the human-healthcare interface...
September 2018: Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics: a Journal of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics
Surya Monro
This think piece provides a critical analysis of the terms lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) from an international perspective that draws on citizenship studies, providing some indications of the implications for LGBTQ studies. It outlines difficulties with the LGBTQ acronym in the Global North and South. Internationally, scholarship to support the human rights of non-heterosexuals and gender-diverse people is badly needed, but the think piece concludes that it is crucial to consider the social context of different cases, and to address the materialist, cultural, neo-colonial, and other forces that affect the formation of non-heterosexual and gender-diverse identities...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Homosexuality
Luca Chiapperino
Background: Epigenetics is a burgeoning field of contemporary biosciences, which has attracted a lot of interest both in biomedical and in social sciences. Sources of data: Unsystematic literature analysis and retrospective mapping of highly cited work (source: Web of Science core collection) in the social sciences and humanities engaging with epigenetics. Areas of agreement: Epigenetics poses no new ethical issue over and above those discussed in relation to genetics...
October 17, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
Jaron Harambam, Natali Helberger, Joris van Hoboken
The deployment of various forms of AI, most notably of machine learning algorithms, radically transforms many domains of social life. In this paper we focus on the news industry, where different algorithms are used to customize news offerings to increasingly specific audience preferences. While this personalization of news enables media organizations to be more receptive to their audience, it can be questioned whether current deployments of algorithmic news recommenders (ANR) live up to their emancipatory promise...
October 15, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Maya K Gislason, Vanessa Sloan Morgan, Kendra Mitchell-Foster, Margot W Parkes
The 'Ecohealth and Watersheds in Northern BC'' project, situated in a resource rich, settler colonial context, generated three digital stories at the request of the project's Steering Committee members that sought to connect health, environment, and community. Three Steering Committee members championed these stories from their distinct watersheds, resulting in emergent counter-narratives that respond directly to their social-ecological contexts. Nested in literature on blue and green spaces, we present and examine the process of storytelling as emergent counter-narrative and how these narratives challenge us to think of blue and green spaces in interconnected and nuanced ways...
October 12, 2018: Health & Place
Yolanda Navarro-Abal, José Antonio Climent-Rodríguez, María José López-López, Juan Gómez-Salgado
Introduction: Work is one of the most important areas in people's lives. This is highly related to the meaning of work people possess and the social culture that surrounds them. However, unemployment stands out as a major social phenomenon of the 21st century of concern for governments, institutions, and professionals, generating the need to reflect, among other issues, on the processes that favor and keep the person in the situation of unemployment, and to think about the real effects of the measures aimed at supporting and guiding the unemployed...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Zhi Ye, Lihua Chen, Danhua Lin
The traumatic experience of contracting and living with HIV/AIDS may produce a myriad of mental health problems, especially posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and conversely, bring posttraumatic growth (PTG), that is, positive changes resulting from a struggle with trauma. The growing body of research into the relationship between PTSD symptoms and PTG has produced mixed results. In addition, some research has suggested that psychosocial and cognitive factors may mediate the development of PTG after trauma exposure...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Karlijn L A Roex, Jesper J Rözer
Why are the unemployed particularly unhappy in some societies? According to the social norm theory of unemployment, the well-being of the non-employed is lower in countries with a strong social norm to work because of the greater stigma attached to unemployment. In this study, a social norm to work has been defined as the extent to which people expect others to work: do people think the unemployed should take any job they are offered, or should they have a right to refuse? The combined world and European values study and the European social survey were used to test the theory...
2018: Social Indicators Research
Elizabeth S Stevens, Evelyn Behar, Alexander A Jendrusina
Cognitive bias modification for interpretation (CBM-I) is a promising treatment modality for social anxiety disorder, but effect sizes are relatively small across investigations (Hallion & Ruscio, 2011). Additionally, the extent to which CBM-I impacts other cognitive, emotional, and behavioral outcomes is unclear. This study investigated whether two empirically supported treatment components for anxiety disorders, imaginal exposure (IE) and relaxation, augment the effects of CBM-I and increase the extent to which the effects of CBM-I generalize to behavioral and affective outcomes...
November 2018: Behavior Therapy
Emily C Geyer, Karl C Fua, Katharine E Daniel, Philip I Chow, Wes Bonelli, Yu Huang, Laura E Barnes, Bethany A Teachman
Socially anxious and depressed individuals tend to evaluate their social interactions negatively, but little is known about the specific real-time contributors to these negative perceptions. The current study examined how affect ratings during social interactions predict later perceptions of those interactions, and whether this differs by social anxiety and depression severity. Undergraduate participants (N = 60) responded to a smartphone application that prompted participants to answer short questions about their current affect and social context up to 6 times a day for 2 weeks...
November 2018: Behavior Therapy
Ahmed Dahiru Balami, Salmiah Md Said, Nor Afiah Mohd Zulkefli, Bachok Norsa'adah, Bala Audu
BACKGROUND: Despite the high prevalence of malaria among pregnant women and its associated complications, the level of compliance with insecticide-treated nets (ITN) remains very low. Motivation and self-efficacy have been reported as important determinants of health behaviour, and may be important factors to consider in developing health intervention programmes. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, motivation and self-efficacy of ITN use, and their association with its practice, among pregnant women in a secondary health centre in Maiduguri...
October 12, 2018: Malaria Journal
Laura E Cowley, Daniel M Farewell, Alison M Kemp
BACKGROUND: The validated Predicting Abusive Head Trauma (PredAHT) tool estimates the probability of abusive head trauma (AHT) in children <3 years old with intracranial injury. OBJECTIVE: To explore the impact of PredAHT on clinicians' AHT probability estimates and child protection (CP) actions, and assess inter-rater agreement between their estimates and between their CP actions, before and after PredAHT. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Twenty-nine clinicians from different specialties, at teaching and community hospitals...
October 9, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Rachel Shor, Jenna M Calton, Lauren B Cattaneo
Poverty is a widespread social problem that affects a substantial number of Americans each year. Attitudes can affect a range of judgments, behavioral intentions, and actions related to addressing this problem. However, existing tools that measure attitudes toward those in poverty do not fully capture the deficit ideology that is a critical component of beliefs about social class. We developed the Systems and Individual Responsibility for Poverty (SIRP) Scale to address this gap. This article describes the development of an initial pool of 20 items, and then the refinement and validation of the final 17-item measure...
November 2018: Journal of Community Psychology
Bruce Jennings
Aging brings about the ordeal of coping. Younger people also cope, but for those in old age, the ordeal is so often elegiac, forced upon the self by changing functions within the body and by the outside social world, with its many impediments to the continuity of former roles, pursuits, and self-identities. Coping with change can be affirming, but when what is being forgone seems more valuable than what lies ahead, it is travail. For most, the coping is managed more moderately by a sense of resignation. This is especially true for those who survive into profound old age, when one is viewed as if being old is one's essential identity and nature...
September 2018: Hastings Center Report
Michael K Gusmano, Kieke G H Okma
Many older people need external support for their daily living. A large minority of older adults with low or modest pension incomes face financial strains from the high cost of illness, and many older people in urban areas live in social isolation. Indeed, population aging has become a policy topic of concern. The policy debate since the end of the twentieth century about the future of public pensions and health and long-term care programs has increasingly framed the growing numbers of older people in alarmist terms...
September 2018: Hastings Center Report
Kate de Medeiros
I am a social gerontologist, broadly defined as a social scientist who studies how later life is experienced, structured, and controlled in a society and in social settings. Although gerontology is often confused with geriatrics (a medical specialty), gerontologists are typically not clinicians but may study issues related to old age and health care such as the societal conditions that shape how medical care is provided and financed and how early exposure to education relates to later life health. In this essay, I argue that thinking like a gerontologist is important when considering what makes a good life in late life...
September 2018: Hastings Center Report
Kate B Carey, Kate M Guthrie, Carla M Rich, Naomi H Krieger, Alyssa L Norris, Clair Kaplan, Michael P Carey
Alcohol use and sexual behavior co-occur frequently in young women, increasing risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. To inform preventive interventions, we used qualitative methods to better understand how women think about the contribution of alcohol use to sexual risk-taking. Young women (N = 25; M = 22.8 years; 64% White) were recruited from a community-based reproductive health clinic to attend focus groups; a semi-structured agenda was used to investigate both a priori explanatory mechanisms as well as participant-driven explanations for the alcohol-sex association...
October 12, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Jennifer Tsai, Katherine Brooks, Samantha DeAndrade, Laura Ucik, Stacy Bartlett, Oyinkansola Osobamiro, Jamila Wynter, Gopika Krishna, Steven Rougas, Paul George
Health disparities fall along racial lines, in part, due to structural inequalities limiting health care access. The concept of race is often taught in health professions education with a clear biologic underpinning despite the significant debate in the literature as to whether race is a social or biologic construct. The teaching of race as a biologic construct, however, allows for the simplification of race as a risk factor for disease. As health care providers, it is part of our professional responsibility and duty to patients to think and talk about race in a way that is cognizant of broader historical, political, and cultural literature and context...
2018: Advances in Medical Education and Practice
Jan Philipp Klein, Jörg Stahl, Michael Hüppe, James P McCullough, Elisabeth Schramm, Dominice Ortel, Stefan Sondermann, Johanna Schröder, Steffen Moritz, Ulrich Schweiger
OBJECTIVE: Childhood maltreatment, interpersonal fear and a specific kind of interpersonal skills deficit (preoperational thinking) have all been associated with persistent depressive disorder (PDD). We hypothesize that interpersonal fears mediate the association between childhood maltreatment and preoperational thinking. METHOD: A total of 108 matched participants have been examined cross-sectionally (31 healthy controls, 30 patients with episodic depression and 47 patients with PDD) with the following instruments: the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-SF), a measure of interpersonal fear (CBASP Interpersonal Questionnaire) and the Lübeck Questionnaire of Preoperational Thinking...
October 11, 2018: Psychotherapy Research: Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
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