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Social thinking

Mona Saleh, Phoebe Friesen, Veronica Ades
According to the World Health Organization, female genital cutting affects millions of girls and women worldwide, particularly on the African continent and in the Middle East. This paper presents a plausible, albeit hypothetical, clinical vignette and then explores the legal landscape as well as the ethical landscape physicians should use to evaluate the adult patient who requests re-infibulation. The principles of non-maleficence, beneficence, justice, and autonomy are considered for guidance, and physician conscientious objection to this procedure is discussed as well...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
Claudio Lucchiari, Paola Maria Sala, Maria Elide Vanutelli
Creativity, meant as the ability to produce novel, original and suitable ideas, has received increased attention by research in the last years, especially from neuroaesthetics and social neuroscience. Besides the research conducted on the neural correlates of such capacities, previous work tried to answer the question of whether it is possible to enhance creativity through cognitive and neural stimulation. In particular, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been applied to increase neuronal excitability in those areas related to creativity...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Tzen-Ying Ling, Guo-Zua Wu, Ju-Sen Lin
The rapid urbanization creates an increased demand for food supply and security in urban system. The imminent risks stemmed from climate change appeal for a greater effort in an overhaul of the customary practices in the planning and management of the urban systems. Urban centers should accommodate the growing need for green infrastructure and edible landscape; options such as farming alternative has gained interest as a possible solution to the urban-scape and the food production stability for the urban inhabitants...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Qiudan Li, Can Wang, Ruoran Liu, Lei Wang, Daniel Dajun Zeng, Scott James Leischow
BACKGROUND: E-liquid is one of the main components in electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). ENDS review comments could serve as an early warning on use patterns and even function to serve as an indicator of problems or adverse events pertaining to the use of specific e-liquids-much like types of responses tracked by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regarding medications. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to understand users' "vaping" experience using sentiment opinion summarization techniques, which can help characterize how consumers think about specific e-liquids and their characteristics (eg, flavor, throat hit, and vapor production)...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Annie Madden, Max Hopwood, Joanne Neale, Carla Treloar
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection provide the possibility of eliminating HCV as a public health threat. This focus on HCV elimination through treatment, however, is also driving a concomitant focus on 'achieving cure' as the primary outcome of treatment. The aim of this paper is to explore what people who inject drugs consider to be important in relation to outcomes of HCV treatment, and whether there are outcomes 'beyond cure' that might be important to understand as part of improving engagement in treatment...
August 15, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
David Feeny, William Furlong, George W Torrance
BACKGROUND: Multi-attribute generic preference-based measures of health-related quality of life are used as comprehensive outcome measures. Typically preferences for health states defined by these systems are elicited from a representative sample of the general population. An important element in that elicitation process is the information that respondents were instructed to consider in providing their responses. METHODS: A random sample of community-dwelling respondents in Canada was surveyed in face-to-face interviews...
August 15, 2018: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
Andrés Babino, Hernán A Makse, Rafael DiTella, Mariano Sigman
The coexistence of cooperation and selfish instincts is a remarkable characteristic of humans. Psychological research has unveiled the cognitive mechanisms behind self-deception. Two important findings are that a higher ambiguity about others' social preferences leads to a higher likelihood of acting selfishly and that agents acting selfishly will increase their belief that others are also selfish. In this work, we posit a mathematical model of these mechanisms and explain their impact on the undermining of a global cooperative society...
August 13, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
A Stickley, C F S Ng, C Watanabe, Y Inoue, A Koyanagi, S Konishi
AimsDeath ideation (thinking about/wishing for one's own death, thinking that one would be better off dead) is linked to an increased mortality risk. However, comparatively little is known about more general thoughts of death (GTOD) where no wish to die or life value is expressed. This study examined whether GTOD predicted mortality in a community-based cohort of older adults. METHODS: Data came from the Komo-Ise cohort study in Gunma prefecture, Japan. The analytic sample comprised 8208 individuals (average age 61...
August 14, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
Neil Stephens, Lucy Di Silvio, Illtud Dunsford, Marianne Ellis, Abigail Glencross, Alexandra Sexton
Background: Cultured meat forms part of the emerging field of cellular agriculture. Still an early stage field it seeks to deliver products traditionally made through livestock rearing in novel forms that require no, or significantly reduced, animal involvement. Key examples include cultured meat, milk, egg white and leather. Here, we focus upon cultured meat and its technical, socio-political and regulatory challenges and opportunities. Scope and approach: The paper reports the thinking of an interdisciplinary team, all of whom have been active in the field for a number of years...
August 2018: Trends in Food Science & Technology
Nicole Vitellone
What's at stake when the syringe becomes a tool for thinking? Reflecting on the production of Social Science of the Syringe, this commentary describes the empirical challenges of encountering injecting drug users directly affected by Harm Reduction policies as significant stakeholders in the expression of drug problems.
August 9, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Ugo Pace, Alessia Passanisi, Giulio D'Urso
INTRODUCTION: The phenomenon of hate is becoming common among adolescents, but is little investigated by literature. Typically the haters leave their insults on the victim's social pages to denigrate another person, famous or not. In the literature, to date, there are no scientific studies that have explored psychological variables linked to these behaviors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychological correlates of pathological worry and cognitive distortions (CD) related to hating behaviors...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Adolescence
Lucas Kutscher, Gilad Feldman
Norm theory (Kahneman, D., & Miller, D. T. (1986). Norm theory: Comparing reality to its alternatives. Psychological Review, 93, 136-153) described a tendency for people to associate stronger regret with a negative outcome when it is a result of an exception (abnormal behaviour) compared to when it is a result of routine (normal behaviour). In two pre-registered studies, we conducted a replication and extension of three classic experiments on past behaviour exception/routine contrasts (N = 684). We successfully replicated Kahneman and Miller's (1986) experiments with the classic hitchhiker-scenario (Part 1) and car accident-scenario (Part 2)...
August 10, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
Gabriel Lins de Holanda Coelho, Paul H P Hanel, Lukas J Wolf
The need for cognition refers to people's tendency to engage in and enjoy thinking and has become influential across social and medical sciences. Using three samples from the United States and the United Kingdom ( N = 1,596), we introduce a six-item short version of the Need for Cognition Scale (NCS-18). First, we reduced the number of items from 18 to 6 based on the items' discrimination values, threshold levels, measurement precision (item information curve), item-total correlations, and factor loadings. Second, we confirmed the one-factor structure and established measurement invariance across countries and gender...
August 10, 2018: Assessment
Mathieu Albert, Maria Mylopoulos, Suzanne Laberge
The objective of scientific, or more broadly, academic knowledge is to provide an understanding of the social and natural world that lies beyond common sense and everyday thinking. Academics use an array of techniques, methods and conceptual apparatuses to achieve this goal. The question we explore in this essay is the following: Does the grounded theory approach, in the constructivist version developed by Kathy Charmaz, provide the necessary methodological tools for the creation of knowledge and theories beyond everyday thinking? To conduct our analysis, we have drawn on the rationalist epistemology originally developed by Gaston Bachelard and taken up a few decades later by Pierre Bourdieu and colleagues to look at the epistemological foundation of the CGT methods as defined by Charmaz...
August 9, 2018: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
Wei Zhang, Zhaohua Deng, Richard Evans, Fei Xiang, Qing Ye, Runxi Zeng
BACKGROUND: Social media has penetrated all walks of life. Chinese health care institutions are increasingly utilizing social media to connect with their patients for better health service delivery. Current research has focused heavily on the use of social media in developed countries, with few studies exploring its usage in the context of developing countries, such as China. Tertiary hospitals in China are usually located in city centers, and they serve as medical hubs for multiple regions, with comprehensive and specialized medical care being provided...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Akhenaten Benjamin Siankam Tankwanchi
BACKGROUND: The Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) identifies the maldistribution of power, money, and resources as main drivers of health inequities. The CSDH further observes that tackling these drivers effectively requires interventions to focus at local, national, and global levels. Consistent with the CSDH's observation, this paper describes the eco-psychopolitical validity (EPV) paradigm, a multilevel and transdisciplinary model for research and action, thus far insufficiently tapped, but with the potential to systematize the exploration of the social determinants of health...
August 9, 2018: Globalization and Health
Alvin E Roth
Marketplaces are often small parts of large markets, and both markets and marketplaces come in many varieties. Market design seeks to understand what marketplaces must accomplish to enable different kinds of markets. Marketplaces can have varying degrees of success, and there can be marketplace failures. I’ll discuss labor markets like the market for new economists, and also markets for new lawyers and doctors that have suffered from the unraveling of appointment dates to well before employment begins. Markets work best if they enjoy social support, but some markets are repugnant in the sense that some people think they should be banned, even though others want to participate in them...
July 2018: American Economic Review
Maurizio Meloni, Ruth Müller
Research in environmental epigenetics explores how environmental exposures and life experiences such as food, toxins, stress or trauma can shape trajectories of human health and well-being in complex ways. This perspective resonates with social science expertise on the significant health impacts of unequal living conditions and the profound influence of social life on bodies in general. Environmental epigenetics could thus provide an important opportunity for moving beyond long-standing debates about nature versus nurture between the disciplines and think instead in 'biosocial' terms across the disciplines...
April 2018: Environmental Epigenetics
Katherine O Gotham, Greg J Siegle, Gloria T Han, Andrew J Tomarken, Rachel N Crist, David M Simon, James W Bodfish
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is marked by repetitive thinking and high rates of depression. Understanding the extent to which repetitive negative thinking in ASD reflects autistic stereotypy versus general depressive thinking patterns (e.g., rumination) could help guide treatment research to improve emotional health in ASD. We compared associations between rumination, depressive symptoms, and pupil response to social-emotional material in adults with ASD and typically developing (TD) adults with and without depression...
2018: PloS One
Jonathan Ensor, John Forrester, Nilufar Matin
Marginalisation and exclusion are expressed in social conflict and are determinative in distributing risk and resilience. This paper builds on recent literature that has adopted a human rights lens to explore how resilience practice can better account for issues of equity and power. Using the illustrative case of Timor-Leste, it presents an analysis of how human rights principles play out in the settings in which rights are given meaning. The approach reveals the reproduction of patterns of conflict and risk, and suggests two key priorities for resilience practice: first, recognising and responding to the deep-rooted narratives and procedures that normalise inequality and marginalisation at different scales; and second, allowing for transformation towards more equitable political and social arrangements as a part of resilience practice...
August 6, 2018: Disasters
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