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Hand mechanic

Hongyan Gao, Zhe Bo, Qin Wang, Ling Luo, Haiyi Zhu, Yi Ren
OBJECTIVE: Salvanic Acid B (Sal B) was proved to show significant effect against fibrosis and myocardial injury. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects and the mechanisms of Sal B on myocardial fibrosis. METHODS: The mice were randomly assigned to five groups: control group, model group, positive group, low-dose group, high-dose group. Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE) staining and Masson staining were used to assess the myocardial physiological changes and measure the myocardial fibrosis area...
December 12, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Zhiguang Xiao, Sharon La Fontaine, Ashley I Bush, Anthony G Wedd
The tripeptide glutathione (GSH) and its oxidized form glutathione disulfide (GSSG) constitute a key redox couple in cells. In particular, they partner protein thiols in reversible thiol-disulfide exchange reactions that act as switches in cell signaling and redox homeostasis. Disruption of these processes may impair cellular redox signal transduction and induce redox misbalances that are linked directly to aging processes and to a range of pathological conditions including cancer, cardiovascular diseases and neurological disorders...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
Manuel Oliva
The ability to focus on a task while disregarding irrelevant information is an example of selective attention. The perceptual-load hypothesis argues that the occurrence of early or late selection mechanisms is determined by task-relevant perceptual load. Additionally, evidence shows that pupil size serves as proxy of locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) activity, a system associated with cognitive and attentional mediation. Here, we assessed pupil baseline (and pupil dilation) as predictors of load-related early and late selection performance...
December 14, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Leonardo Christov-Moore, Marco Iacoboni
Sex differences in empathy for pain have been repeatedly observed. However, it is unclear whether this is due to sex differences in "bottom-up" somatomotor representations of others' pain (self-other resonance) or to "top-down" prefrontal control of such responses. Here, we provide data from 70 subjects suggesting that sex differences in empathy for pain lie primarily in pre-reflective, bottom-up resonance mechanisms. Subjects viewed a right hand pierced by a needle during fMRI. They also filled out a self-report measure of trait empathy, the Interpersonal Reactivity Index...
December 14, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Hassan Barati, Abolghasem Zarezadeh, Joy Christine MacDermid, Ebrahim Sadeghi-Demneh
BACKGROUND: Counterforce orthoses are used to manage lateral elbow tendinopathy, and their effectiveness in improving motor function has been documented. Little is known about the impact of bracing on sensory function. The objective of this study was to investigate the immediate effectiveness of 2 counterforce orthoses in improving the sensorimotor abilities of the hand in patients with lateral elbow tendinopathy. METHODS: In this crossover, randomized controlled trial, elbow proprioception, pain severity, pain-free grip strength, and finger dexterity were measured in 50 participants with a diagnosis of lateral elbow tendinopathy...
January 2019: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
P T Smiseth, N J Royle
The emergence of family groups is associated with conflict over the allocation of food or other limited resources. Understanding the mechanisms mediating the resolution of such conflict is a major aim in behavioral ecology. Most empirical work on familial conflict has focused on birds. Here, we highlight how recent work on insects provides new and exciting insights into how such conflict is resolved. This work shows that conflict resolution can be more complex than traditionally envisioned, often involving multiple mechanisms...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
Mirim Jin, Miwon Son
Functional dyspepsia (FD) is the most common functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID). FD is characterized by bothersome symptoms such as postprandial fullness, early satiety, and epigastric pain or burning sensations in the upper abdomen. The complexity and heterogeneity of FD pathophysiology, which involves multiple mechanisms, make both treatment and new drug development for FD difficult. Current medicines for FD targeting a single pathway have failed to show satisfactory efficacy and safety. On the other hand, multicomponent herbal medicines that act on multiple targets may be a promising alternative treatment for FD...
December 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Qingjuan Hu, Qingchuan Niu, Hao Song, Shanshan Wei, Songhua Wang, Lihua Yao, Yu-Ping Li
The present study was undertaken to determine the involvement of voltage-gated Na+ channel (VGSC) and other mechanism related to insulin secretion in polysaccharides from Portulaca oleracea L. (POP)-induced secretion of insulin from insulin-secreting β-cell line cells (INS-1) cells. Our results showed that the concentration of insulin both in culture medium and inside INS-1 cells were increased under the existing of different concentration of glucose by POP or TTX, respectively. However, the effect POP on insulin secretion and production were blocked by TTX, a VGSC blocker...
January 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Esther Arnaiz, Carla Sole, Lorea Manterola, Leire Iparraguirre, David Otaegui, Charles H Lawrie
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a novel class of regulatory RNAs that despite being relatively abundant have only recently begun to be explored. There are many thousands of genes that appear capable of producing circRNAs, however the function of all but a handful remain to be determined. What is emerging about these highly conserved molecules is that they play important roles in biology and cancer biology in particular. The most explored function of circRNAs is as master regulators of gene expression that act to sequester or ´sponge´ other gene expression regulators, in particular miRNAs...
December 11, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Zejia Zheng, Xiang Wu, Juyang Weng
Traditional Turing Machines (TMs) are symbolic whose hand-crafted representations are static and limited. Developmental Network 1 (DN-1) uses emergent representation to perform Turing Computation. But DN-1 lacks hierarchy in its internal representations, and is hard to handle the complex visual navigation tasks. In this paper, we improve DN-1 with several new mechanisms and presenta new emergent neural Turing Machine - Developmental Network 2 (DN-2). By neural, we mean that the control of the TM has neurons as basic computing elements...
November 27, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Satoshi Nobusako, Michihiro Osumi, Atsushi Matsuo, Takahiro Fukuchi, Akio Nakai, Takuro Zama, Sotaro Shimada, Shu Morioka
Mechanical and electrical noise stimulation to the body is known to improve the sensorimotor system. This improvement is related to stochastic resonance (SR), a phenomenon described as a "noise benefit" to various sensory and motor systems. The current study investigated the influence of SR on visuomotor temporal integration and hand motor function under delayed visual feedback in healthy young adults. The purpose of this study was to measure the usefulness of SR as a neurorehabilitation device for disorders of visuomotor temporal integration...
2018: PloS One
Zhifang Li, Guiju Zhou, Longfan Jiang, Huifen Xiang, Yunxia Cao
STOX1 is a transcription factor that is implicated in the high prevalence of human gestational diseases. It has been studied in various types of gestational diseases using different molecular and cellular biological technologies. However, the effect and detailed mechanism of storkhead box 1 (STOX1) in recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) remain unknown. This study aimed to explore the effect and detailed mechanism of STOX1 in human trophoblast cells. The result showed that downregulation of STOX1 by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) led to a decrease in proliferation and migration in HTR-8/SVneo cells, while it induced the apoptosis of HTR-8/SVneo cells...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Elin Kronander, Christopher Clark, Ralf Schneggenburger
Large excitatory synapses are found at specific points in the neuronal circuits of the auditory brainstem, to enable fast information transfer and the preservation of acoustic timing information. The extracellular cues and signaling mechanisms that lead to the development of these specialized synaptic connections, exemplified by the calyx of Held in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB), are still largely unknown. Here, we investigate the role of BMP signaling for the early development of the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) and MNTB, and for the initial formation of the calyx of Held synaptic connection...
December 12, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Inga Steppacher, Johanna Kissler
BACKGROUND: Disorders-of-consciousness (DOC) are rare conditions leading to very severe physical and mental disabilities. Providing care for DOC patients has been described as a stressful experience, eroding the physical and psychological health of the caregiver. Different forms of care may have different impacts on the caregivers and institutionalized care has been suggested to have an unburdening effect, but this possibility has never been empirically studied. To address this issue, in this study caregiver-burden between family-caregivers who provide home care themselves and those who have placed their patients in a specialized care unit is compared...
December 14, 2018: BMC Psychology
Filipa Fiel Ferreira, Filipa F Ribeiro, Rui S Rodrigues, Ana Maria Sebastião, Sara Xapelli
The adult mammalian brain can produce new neurons in a process called adult neurogenesis, which occurs mainly in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling and cannabinoid type 1 and 2 receptors (CB1R and CB2R) have been shown to independently modulate neurogenesis, but how they may interact is unknown. We now used SVZ and DG neurosphere cultures from early (P1-3) postnatal rats to study the CB1R and CB2R crosstalk with BDNF in modulating neurogenesis...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Ali Taravati, Fatemeh Tohidi
Preeclampsia is a hypertensive disorder in pregnant women, which can be the leading cause of maternal and neonatal death or premature birth. Although the cause of preeclampsia is still not clear, local or systemic oxidative stress may explain the pathological features associated with this complication. However, it is not clear whether oxidative stress is the cause or the result of preeclampsia. For this purpose, the present meta-analysis was intended to evaluate the oxidant and antioxidant status in women with preeclampsia...
December 2018: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
M Taheri, S Ghafouri-Fard
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer as a common urogenital cancer among women has caused significant health problems. Efforts have been made to identify its pathogenic process in order to find targeted ther-apies. Long non-cod-ing ribonucleic acids (lncRNAs) have been shown to regulate several cancer-related pathways and genes that contribute to pathogenesis of human malignancies, includ-ing cervical cancer. In the present review, we searched PubMed, Google scholar, Web of Science and Scopus databases for key words "cervical cancer" or "cervical neoplasm" and "long non-cod-ing RNA" or "lncRNA" (up to December 2017)...
2018: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
Rosa Casas, Sara Castro-Barquero, Ramon Estruch, Emilio Sacanella
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in Western countries, representing almost 30% of all deaths worldwide. Evidence shows the effectiveness of healthy dietary patterns and lifestyles for the prevention of CVD. Furthermore, the rising incidence of CVD over the last 25 years has become a public health priority, especially the prevention of CVD (or cardiovascular events) through lifestyle interventions. Current scientific evidence shows that Western dietary patterns compared to healthier dietary patterns, such as the 'Mediterranean diet' (MeDiet), leads to an excessive production of proinflammatory cytokines associated with a reduced synthesis of anti-inflammatory cytokines...
December 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mario Soccio, Maura N Laus, Zina Flagella, Donato Pastore
In the last decades, increasing demand of antioxidant-rich foods and growing interest in their putative role in prevention of degenerative diseases have promoted development of methods for measuring Antioxidant Capacity (AC). Nevertheless, most of these assays use radicals and experimental conditions far from the physiological ones, and are able to estimate only one or a few antioxidant mechanisms. On the other hand, the novel LOX/RNO and LOX⁻FL methods, based on secondary reactions between the soybean lipoxygenase (LOX)-1 isoenzyme and either 4-nitroso- N , N -dimethylaniline (RNO) or fluorescein (FL), may provide a more comprehensive AC evaluation...
December 7, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Wouter Willaert, Sarah Cosyns, Wim Ceelen
The progression of colon cancer (CC) involves hematogenous and lymphatic spread to locoregional lymph nodes (LN), distant LN, and metastatic sites including the liver. The biological mechanisms that govern CC progression remain elusive. The Halsted model assumes an orderly, stepwise progression from the primary tumor to nearby nodes, henceforth to anatomically more distant nodes, and ultimately to distant organs. The Fisher model, on the other hand, regards the release of metastatic cells as early and essentially random events...
December 13, 2018: European Surgical Research. Europäische Chirurgische Forschung. Recherches Chirurgicales Européennes
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