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Hand mechanic

Tatsurou Yagami, Yasuhiro Yamamoto, Hiromi Koma
Proteases are classified into six distinct classes (cysteine, serine, threonine, aspartic, glutamic, and metalloproteases) on the basis of catalytic mechanism. The cellular control of protein quality senses misfolded or damaged proteins principally by selective ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and non-selective autophagy-lysosome pathway. The two pathways do not only maintain cell homeostasis physiologically, but also mediate necrosis and apoptosis pathologically. Proteasomes are threonine proteases, whereas cathepsins are lysosomal aspartic proteases...
August 10, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Gurpreet Kaur, Pratap Kumar Pati
BACKGROUND: NADPH oxidase (Nox) is a critical enzyme involved in the generation of apoplastic superoxide (O2 - ), a type of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hence regulate a wide range of biological functions in many organisms. Plant Noxes are the homologs of the catalytic subunit from mammalian NADPH oxidases and are known as respiratory burst oxidase homologs (Rbohs). Previous studies have highlighted their versatile roles in tackling different kind of stresses and in plant growth and development...
August 10, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Ahmed Mohammed AlJabr, Abid Hussain, Muhammad Rizwan-Ul-Haq
Current study reveals the likelihood to use pathogen and toxin mutually as an effective and eco-friendly strategy for Oligonychus afrasiaticus (McGregor) management, which could reduce toxicant dose and host killing time. Therefore, phytol and Beauveria bassiana in different proportions were evaluated to determine their effectiveness. Prior to ascertaining host mortality and defense mechanisms, we have recorded in vitro action of phytol using different concentrations (0.70, 1.40, 2.10, 2.80, and 3.50 mg/mL) against B...
August 8, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Roghayeh Mohammadi Ghanbarlou, Seyedeh Akram Shirdel, Vahab Jafarian, Khosrow Khalifeh
Photoproteins in their functional form are complexed noncovalently with 2-hydroperoxycoelenterazine. A conformational change upon coordination of Ca+2 ions with their EF-hand loops leads to oxidation of substrate and emission of light. In all photoproteins, EF-hand loops Ι, ΙΙΙ and ΙV have standard sequence for binding to Ca+2 ion, however the second one is not able for Ca+2 coordination. Sequence analysis of Mnemiopsin 2 and other known photoproteins shows that Glutamate (Glu) is occurred in the 6th position of its first EF-hand loop, but this position in other loops of mnemiopsin 2 and all functional loops of other photoproteins is occupied by Glycine (Gly)...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Kenya Matsumura, Hiroo Imai, Yasuhiro Go, Masatoshi Kusuhara, Ken Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi Shirai, Kazuhiko Ohshima
Retrogenes are a class of functional genes derived from the mRNA of various intron-containing genes. PIPSL was created through a unique mechanism, whereby distinct genes were assembled at the RNA level, and the resulting chimera was then reverse transcribed and integrated into the genome by the L1 retrotransposon. Expression of PIPSL RNA via its transcription start sites (TSSs) has been confirmed in the testes of humans and chimpanzee. Here, we demonstrated that PIPSL RNA is expressed in the testis of the white-handed gibbon...
August 7, 2018: Gene
Selina C Wriessnegger, Günther Bauernfeind, Eva-Maria Kurz, Philipp Raggam, Gernot R Müller-Putz
The activation of different brain areas during kinaesthetic and visual motor imagery has been extensively studied, whereas little is known about affective motor imagery, i.e. the imagery of pleasant/unpleasant movements. In the present neuroimaging study we investigated cortical activation of kinaesthetic motor imagery (KMI) based on emotional stimulus content by means of functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Twenty healthy adult participants were instructed to imagine affective, and neutral motor tasks while multichannel fNIRS was recorded simultaneously...
August 7, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Rishi N Patel, Zhaoyou Wang, Wentao Jiang, Christopher J Sarabalis, Jeff T Hill, Amir H Safavi-Naeini
Photons and electrons transmit information to form complex systems and networks. Phonons on the other hand, the quanta of mechanical motion, are often considered only as carriers of thermal energy. Nonetheless, their flow can also be molded in fabricated nanoscale circuits. We design and experimentally demonstrate wires for phonons by patterning the surface of a silicon chip. Our device eliminates all but one channel of phonon conduction, allowing coherent phonon transport over millimeter length scales. We characterize the phononic wire optically, by coupling it strongly to an optomechanical transducer...
July 27, 2018: Physical Review Letters
David Rivera-Estrada, Raúl Aguilar-Roblero, Claudia Alva-Sánchez, Iván Villanueva
Eating behavior is controlled by the energy needs of the organism. The need to provide a constant supply of energy to tissues is a homeostatic drive that adjusts feeding behavior to the energetic condition of the organism. On the other hand, food intake also shows a circadian variation synchronized to the light-dark cycle and food availability. Thus, feeding is subjected to both homeostatic and circadian regulation mechanisms that determine the amount and timing of spontaneous food intake in normal conditions...
August 10, 2018: Chronobiology International
Kasturi Chatterjee, Sayantan Jana, Preety Choudhary, Snehasikta Swarnakar
Cancer development and metastasis are associated to perturbation in metabolic functions of tumor cells and surrounding inflammatory and stromal cell responses. Eicosanoids and lipid mediators, in this regard, attract potential attention during cancer development. Eicosanoids, which include prostaglandin, prostacyclin, thromboxane, and leukotriene, are synthesized from arachidonic acid when cells are stimulated by stress, cytokines, or other growth factors. However, the underlying mechanism of eicosanoids in cancer development, specially their interactions with proto-oncogene factors in tumor microenvironment, remain unexplored...
August 10, 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
S J Klein, F Husain-Syed, C Karagiannidis, G F Lehner, K Singbartl, M Joannidis
Interactions between lung and kidney can significantly affect the course of acute diseases, a phenomenon that was first observed in the 1950s by describing pulmonary dysfunction in uremic patients. From animal experiments there is ample evidence for remote lung injury following acute kidney injury (AKI), with an increased risk for the development of pulmonary edema and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Coincident ARDS and AKI are associated with higher rates of intubation and mechanical ventilation, significantly prolonged weaning from mechanical ventilation and increased mortality...
August 9, 2018: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
Giulia Concina, Marco Cambiaghi, Annamaria Renna, Benedetto Sacchetti
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the basolateral amygdala (BLA) are essential for discriminating between harmful and safe stimuli. The primary auditory cortex (Te1) sends projections to both sites, but if and how it interacts with these areas during fear discrimination is poorly understood. Here we show that in male rats that can differentiate between a new tone and a threatening one, the selective optogenetic inhibition of Te1 axon terminals into the prelimbic cortex (PL) shifted discrimination to fear generalization...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Aniruddha Mitra, Felix Ruhnow, Salvatore Girardo, Stefan Diez
Kinesin-8 motors, which move in a highly processive manner toward microtubule plus ends where they act as depolymerases, are essential regulators of microtubule dynamics in cells. To understand their navigation strategy on the microtubule lattice, we studied the 3D motion of single yeast kinesin-8 motors, Kip3, on freely suspended microtubules in vitro. We observed short-pitch, left-handed helical trajectories indicating that kinesin-8 motors frequently switch protofilaments in a directionally biased manner...
August 9, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Amaka J Onyianta, Maila Castellano, Mark Dorris, Rhodri L Williams, Silvia Vicini
The effects of varying percentage loadings of morpholine pre-treated cellulose nanofibrils (MCNF) and carboxymethylated cellulose nanofibrils (CMCNF) on the aqueous swelling, compressive modulus and viscoelastic properties of calcium-ion-crosslinked alginate hydrogels were investigated. In addition, the pore structures of hydrogels with the highest compressive modulus were studied. The incorporation of 5 wt. % MCNF resulted in a slightly reduced aqueous swelling, a 36% increase in compressive modulus and a layered pore structure when compared with the neat alginate hydrogel...
October 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Zheying Min, Qian Gao, Xiumei Zhen, Yong Fan, Tao Tan, Rong Li, Yue Zhao, Yang Yu
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine and metabolic disorder that affects female fertility. However, with the lack of a corresponding research model, the pathology mechanism of PCOS is poorly understood. Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology has been recognized as means to generate patient-specific stem cells for disease modeling. METHODS: The mRNA abundance of iPSCs was analyzed by RNA microarray and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
August 9, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
James Robert Brašić, Zoltan Mari, Alicja Lerner, Vanessa Raymont, Eram Zaidi, Dean F Wong
Heat has been reported to exert variable effects on people with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (TS). At age 24 years, a 32-year-old right-handed man with TS experienced a marked reduction in tics for two years after undergoing dehydration by entering a hot tub at 103°F (39.4°C) to 104°F (40.0°C) for 3 to 4 hours. On the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) he scored 55 seven months before dehydration and 13 one month after dehydration. An intense heat exposure and dehydration led to an apparent remission in tics...
2018: International Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Wenjun Li, Gourav Roy Choudhury, Ali Winters, Jude Prah, Wenping Lin, Ran Liu, Shao-Hua Yang
Diabetes milieu is a complex metabolic disease that has been known to associate with high risk of various neurological disorders. Hyperglycemia in diabetes could dramatically increase neuronal glucose levels which leads to neuronal damage, a phenomenon referred to as glucose neurotoxicity. On the other hand, the impact of hyperglycemia on astrocytes has been less explored. Astrocytes play important roles in brain energy metabolism through neuron-astrocyte coupling. As the component of blood brain barrier, glucose might be primarily transported into astrocytes, hence, impose direct impact on astrocyte metabolism and function...
August 2018: Aging and Disease
Xiao-Yang Fan, Lian Yuan, Can Wu, Yu-Jiao Liu, Feng-Lei Jiang, Yan-Jun Hu, Yi Liu
In order to clarify the mitochondrial toxicity mechanism of the organic arsenical MOPIMP (2-methoxy-4-(((4-(oxoarsanyl) phenyl) imino) methyl) phenol), research was carried out at the sub-cell level based on the previous finding that the compound MOPIMP can damage the mitochondria by triggering a burst of ROS. After investigating its influence on isolated mitochondria in vitro , it was demonstrated that a high dose of MOPIMP with short-term exposure can induce mitochondrial swelling, decrease the membrane potential, enhance the permeability of H+ and K+ , and induce membrane lipid peroxidation, indicating that it can result in an MPT process in a ROS-mediated and Ca2+ -independent manner...
March 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Yuki Ishihara, Kenri Kodaka
In the paradigm of mirror visual feedback, it remains unclear how images of the mirrored hand directly affect the sense of motion of the hidden hand (kinesthetic illusion). To examine this question, we created an original mirror visual feedback setup using a horizontal mechanism of motion for the mirror and the hidden hand, each of which could independently be given a specific velocity. It should be noted that this setup can cause the hand viewed in the mirror to move without the involvement of the visible hand...
May 2018: I-Perception
Matthew Hudson, Katrina L McDonough, Rhys Edwards, Patric Bach
Primates interpret conspecific behaviour as goal-directed and expect others to achieve goals by the most efficient means possible. While this teleological stance is prominent in evolutionary and developmental theories of social cognition, little is known about the underlying mechanisms. In predictive models of social cognition, a perceptual prediction of an ideal efficient trajectory would be generated from prior knowledge against which the observed action is evaluated, distorting the perception of unexpected inefficient actions...
August 8, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Ulrike Gerber, René Hübner, André Rossberg, Evelyn Krawczyk-Bärsch, Mohamed Larbi Merroun
Remediation of former uranium mining sites represents one of the biggest challenges worldwide that have to be solved in this century. During the last years, the search of alternative strategies involving environmentally sustainable treatments has started. Bioremediation, the use of microorganisms to clean up polluted sites in the environment, is considered one the best alternative. By means of culture-dependent methods, we isolated an indigenous yeast strain, KS5 (Rhodosporidium toruloides), directly from the flooding water of a former uranium mining site and investigated its interactions with uranium...
2018: PloS One
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