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Brecht Polspoel, Maaike Vandermosten, Bert De Smedt
Connectivity between brain regions is integral to efficient complex cognitive processing, making the study of white matter pathways in clarifying the neural mechanisms of individual differences in arithmetic abilities critical. This white matter connectivity underlying arithmetic has only been investigated through classic diffusion tensor imaging, which, due to methodological limitations, might lead to an oversimplification of the underlying anatomy. More complex non-tensor models, such as spherical deconvolution, however, allow a much more fine-grained delineation of the underlying brain anatomy...
October 13, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Soledad Porte Alcon, Roxana Mayra Gorojod, Mónica Lidia Kotler
Microglia, the brain resident immune cells, play prominent roles in immune surveillance, tissue repair and neural regeneration. Despite these pro-survival actions, the relevance of these cells in the progression of several neuropathologies has been established. In the context of manganese (Mn) overexposure, it has been proposed that microglial activation contributes to enhance the neurotoxicity. However, the occurrence of a direct cytotoxic effect of Mn on microglial cells remains controversial. In the present work, we investigated the potential vulnerability of immortalized mouse microglial cells (BV-2) towards Mn2+ , focusing on the signalling pathways involved in cell death...
October 11, 2018: Neuroscience
I Ramírez-Camacho, F Correa, M El Hafidi, A Silva-Palacios, M Ostolga-Chavarría, M Esparza-Perusquía, S Olvera-Sánchez, O Flores-Herrera, C Zazueta
Electron leakage from dysfunctional respiratory chain and consequent superoxide formation leads to mitochondrial and cell injury during ischemia and reperfusion (IR). In this work we evaluate if the supramolecular assembly of the respiratory complexes into supercomplexes (SCs) is associated with preserved energy efficiency and diminished oxidative stress in post-ischemic hearts treated with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and the cardioprotective maneuver of Postconditioning (PostC). Hemodynamic variables, infarct size, oxidative stress markers, oxygen consumption and the activity/stability of SCs were compared between groups...
October 11, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Sónia P Miguel, Déborah Simões, André F Moreira, Rosa S Sequeira, Ilídio J Correia
Nowadays, wound dressings with improved properties are under development and among them, asymmetric membranes have gained an increasing interest due to their two-layered structure that mimic both the epidermis and dermis layers of the skin. Herein, a new asymmetric membrane was produced using the electrospinning technique. The top layer was produced with silk fibroin (SF) and poly(caprolactone) to reproduce the dense nature and waterproof ability of the epidermis. On the other hand, the dermis-like bottom layer was manufactured with SF and hyaluronic acid loaded with an herbal drug (thymol (THY))...
October 11, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Luis A Robles, Greg M Mundis
BACKGROUND: Retro-odontoid pseudotumor (RP) can be caused by several pathologies, especially rheumatoid arthritis, and is usually associated with the presence of atlanto-axial instability (AAI). On the other hand, a different group of patients has been identified in whom RP is observed without radiological findings of AAI. The pathophysiology, clinical characteristics, and prognosis of these latter group of patients are not well described in the literature. METHODS: A PubMed and Scopus search adhering to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines was performed to include studies reporting patients with RP without radiological instability (RPWRI)...
October 10, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Stoyan Popkirov, Jon Stone, Dagny Holle-Lee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Persistent postural-perceptual dizziness (PPPD) is a newly defined disorder of functional dizziness that in the International Classification of Diseases in its 11th revision (ICD-11) supersedes phobic postural vertigo and chronic subjective dizziness. Despite efforts to unify the diagnosis of functional (somatoform) dizziness, patients will present with a variety of triggers, perpetuating factors, and comorbidities, requiring individualized treatment. This article will review different treatment strategies for this common functional neurological disorder and provide practical recommendations for tailored therapy...
October 13, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Min Zhou, Tao Zhu, Xiaohua Fei
The performance of oxytetracycline adsorption by untreated reed roots, stems and leaves, as well as the desugared reed roots, stems and leaves, was investigated with scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis and surface area analysis to understand the adsorption mechanism. The results showed that the adsorption capacities of untreated reed were 416.35 mg/kg for roots, 341.92 mg/kg for stems and 280.21 mg/kg for leaves, and can be increased significantly by a factor of 8⁻12 after desugarization...
October 11, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Ying Li, Chao Zhang, Luwei Qin, Dong Li, Guangyuan Zhou, Dejian Dang, Shuaiyin Chen, Tiantian Sun, Rongguang Zhang, Weidong Wu, Yuanlin Xi, Yuefei Jin, Guangcai Duan
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the main pathogen of severe hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD). Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are recognized as pivotal factors during the pathogenesis of viral infection. However, the critical functions of lncRNAs in EV71⁻host interactions have not been characterized. Here, for the first time, we performed global transcriptome analysis of lncRNA and mRNA expression profiles in EV71-infected human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells and skeletal muscle of mice using second-generation sequencing...
October 11, 2018: Viruses
Weiguo Wang, Ruisen Zhan, Jiahui Zhou, Jianlong Wang, Shijie Chen
The present study is aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of miR-10 targeting NgR to regulate the proliferation and inflammatory cytokine secretion in microglia cells (MCs). The expression levels of NgR, IL-1β, and TNF-α in rat MCs were detected by QPCR and Immunoblotting assays. The proliferation of MC was detected by MTT and Soft agar clone formation assays. The target gene of miR-10 was verified by dual luciferase reporter gene assay. Overexpressed miR-10 downregulated the expression of NgR, promoted MC proliferation and inhibited inflammatory cytokine secretion...
October 9, 2018: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
Hiroyuki Mori, Takasuke Fukuhara, Chikako Ono, Tomokazu Tamura, Asuka Sato, Yuzy Fauzyah, Masami Wada, Toru Okamoto, Takeshi Noda, Tamotsu Yoshimori, Yoshiharu Matsuura
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is known to induce autophagy, but the mechanism of autophagy induced by HCV remains controversial. Here, we investigated the characteristics of autophagy induced by HCV infection. First, to examine the involvement of autophagy-related gene (ATG) proteins in HCV-induced LC3 lipidation, we established ATG5, ATG13 or ATG14 knockout (KO) Huh7.5.1 cell lines and confirmed that the accumulation of lipidated LC3 was induced in an ATG13- and ATG14-independent manner. On the other hand, HCV infectivity was not influenced by deficiencies in these genes...
October 12, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Binghai Sun, Lingyan Zhou, Weilong Xiao, Xiaoqian Zhao, Wenhai Zhang, Weijian Li
Background: Perceived empathy is a commonly used strategy to cope with pain and is crucial for maintaining intimacy in dyadic relationships. Materials and methods: This study used the cold pressor test to investigate how perceived empathy and relationship type interact with the subjective perception of pain and objective measures of recovery time, using heart rate as an index. One hundred and ninety participants were recruited, including 49 friend dyads and 46 romantic partner dyads...
2018: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Chester A Alper, Charles E Larsen, Michael R Trautwein, Dennis R Alford
The incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and some other complex diseases is increasing. The cause has been attributed to an undefined changing environment. We examine the role of the environment (or any changing non-genetic mechanism) in causing the rising incidence, and find much evidence against it: 1) Dizygotic twin T1D concordance is the same as siblings of patients in general; 2) If the environment is responsible for both the discordance among identical twins of patients with T1D and its rising incidence, the twin concordance rate should be rising, but it is not; 3) Migrants from high-to low-incidence countries continue to have high-incidence children; 4) TID incidence among the offspring of two T1D parents is identical to the monozygotic twin rate...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
M García-Carmona, H García-Robles, C Turpín Torrano, E Fernández Ondoño, J Lorite Moreno, M Sierra Aragón, F J Martín Peinado
The present work assesses the residual pollution in the Guadiamar Green Corridor (SW, Spain) after a long-term aging process (18 years) since the accident of the Aznalcóllar pyrite mine. We have focused on the study of trace elements (Cu, Zn, Cd, As and Pb) in soils, their fractionation and the transference to the surrounding vegetation. The residual polluted areas are characterized by scattered plots with absence of vegetation, presenting high concentrations of trace elements, acidic pH and low organic carbon content...
February 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Deepti Sharma, Kalpana Kumari Barhwal, Surya Narayan Biswal, Anup Kumar Srivastava, Pushpendar Bhardwaj, Ashish Kumar, Om Prakash Chaurasia, Sunil Kumar Hota
Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) which is primarily associated with neuronal survivability, differentiation and synaptic plasticity has been reported to mediate neurodegeneration in hypoxia through its p75 Neurotrophin receptors (p75NTR). The molecular events promoting BDNF mediated pro-death signalling in hypoxia however still remains an enigma. The present study attempts towards deciphering the signalling cascades involved in alteration of BDNF isoforms and its cognate receptor subtypes leading to neurodegeneration in hypoxia...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
Yoshihito Uchida, Kayoko Naiki, Jun-Ichi Kouyama, Kayoko Sugawara, Masamitsu Nakao, Daisuke Motoya, Mie Inao, Nobuaki Nakayama, Yukinori Imai, Tomoaki Tomiya, Satoshi Mochida
AIMS: Liver injury can occur during antiviral therapies with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), potentially necessitating discontinuation of the therapies, with consequent worsening of the sustained viral response (SVR) rates, in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV). To clarify the mechanisms involved in serum transaminase level elevation, we performed a retrospective evaluation of the serum concentrations of daclatasvir and asunaprevir, both classified as DAAs, in patients receiving treatment with a combination of the two drugs...
2018: PloS One
Ashlyn C Harmon, Valeria Y Hebert, Stephania A Cormier, Balamurugan Subramanian, James R Reed, Wayne L Backes, Tammy R Dugas
Particulate matter (PM) is emitted during the combustion of fuels and wastes. PM exposure exacerbates pulmonary diseases, and the mechanism may involve oxidative stress. At lower combustion temperatures such as occurs in the cool zone of a flame, aromatic compounds chemisorb to the surface of metal-oxide-containing PM, resulting in the formation of surface-stabilized environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFR). Prior studies showed that PM-containing EPFR redox cycle to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), and after inhalation, EPFR induce pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress...
2018: PloS One
Thomas Dahl Nissen, Carsten Dahl Mørch, Lars Arendt-Nielsen, Asbjørn Mohr Drewes, Anne Estrup Olesen
Background and aims Offset analgesia (OA) is a pain modulating mechanism described as a disproportionately large decrease in pain intensity evoked by a minor decrease in stimulus intensity. Precise mechanisms of OA are still not elucidated and studies are needed to evaluate factors modulating OA. The aim of this study was to investigate OA before and during tonic cold pain (thought to induce descending inhibition), in a group of healthy volunteers. Methods A randomized, crossover study was performed in 17 healthy participants (8 males and 9 females)...
October 25, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Hugo Andres Cabrera-Tinoco, Augusto C L Moreira, Celso P de Melo
We examine the relative contribution of ballistic and elastic cotunneling mechanisms to the charge transport through a single decanedithiol molecule linked to two terminal clusters of gold atoms. For this, we first introduced a conceptual model that permits a generalization of the Breit-Wigner scattering formalism where the cation, anion, and neutral forms of the molecule can participate with different probabilities of the charge transfer process, but in a simultaneous manner. We used a density functional theory treatment and considered the fixed geometry of each charge state to calculate the corresponding eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the extended system for different values of the external electric field...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Garima Sharma, Sin Hyeog Im
The prevalence of allergic disorders has dramatically increased over the past decade, particularly in developed countries. Apart from gastrointestinal disorders, neoplasia, genital and dermatological diseases etc. , dysregulation of gut microbiota (dysbiosis) has also been found to be associated with increased risk of allergies. Probiotics are increasingly being employed to correct dysbiosis and, in turn, to modulate allergic diseases. However, several factors like strain variations and effector metabolites or component of them in a bacterial species can affect the efficacy of those as probiotics...
November 2018: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
Yoshifumi Ohchi, Koji Goto, Norihisa Yasuda, Hironori Koga, Takaaki Kitano
The release of various inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines is accelerated under conditions that cause systemic inflammatory reactions, such as sepsis and multiple traumas, and plays an important role in the formation of pathological conditions1, 2 . In addition, the involvement of high mobility group box chromosomal protein-1 (HMGB-1), a substance originally identified as an endogenous DNA binding protein3 , in various inflammatory pathologies has been revealed, with the elucidation of the clinical condition of sepsis and the mechanism of RAGE-mediated cellular activation4 ...
October 11, 2018: Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis
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