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Vitamin D Immunity

Khalid Almoammar
Vitamin D is known as the oldest of all hormones. 7-Dehydrocholesterol is converted to previtamin D3 . It becomes a secosteroid when it is later converted to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2 D3 ). A number of factors influence vitamin D3 production, including skin pigmentation, the use of sunscreen lotions, season, latitude, and altitude. Vitamin D is important for bone metabolism and calcium hemostasis. Researchers have linked a deficiency in vitamin D levels to a number of systemic complications, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, immune deficiency, and infectious diseases...
2018: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dentistry
Robyn M Lucas, Rachael M Rodney Harris
If environmental exposures are shown to cause an adverse health outcome, reducing exposure should reduce the disease risk. Links between exposures and outcomes are typically based on 'associations' derived from observational studies, and causality may not be clear. Randomized controlled trials to 'prove' causality are often not feasible or ethical. Here the history of evidence that tobacco smoking causes lung cancer-from observational studies-is compared to that of low sun exposure and/or low vitamin D status as causal risk factors for the autoimmune disease, multiple sclerosis (MS)...
August 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Anselm Mak
Over the past two decades it has been increasingly recognized that vitamin D, aside from its crucial involvement in calcium and phosphate homeostasis and the dynamics of the musculoskeletal system, exerts its influential impact on the immune system. The mechanistic roles that vitamin D plays regarding immune activation for combating infection, as well as pathologically and mediating autoimmune conditions, have been progressively unraveled. In vitro and in vivo models have demonstrated that the action of vitamin D on various immunocytes is not unidirectional...
August 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Sedat Işıkay, Nurgül Işıkay, Hüseyin Per, Kürşat Bora Çarman, Halil Kocamaz
Işıkay S, Işıkay N, Per H, Çarman KB, Kocamaz H. Restless leg syndrome in children with celiac disease. Turk J Pediatr 2018; 60: 70-75. Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by ingestion of dietary gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of restless leg syndrome (RLS) in children with CD and to investigate the associated factors for RLS. Totally 494 children with the ages ranging between 11-18 years were included. Among those, 226 were under follow-up with CD and constituted the study group while other 268 children did not have any symptoms or signs associated with CD and established the control group...
2018: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
Peter W Schreiber, Heike A Bischoff-Ferrari, Katia Boggian, Christian van Delden, Natalia Enriquez, Thomas Fehr, Christian Garzoni, Hans H Hirsch, Cédric Hirzel, Oriol Manuel, Pascal Meylan, Lanja Saleh, Maja Weisser, Nicolas J Mueller
MAIN PROBLEM: Increasing evidence indicates a role of vitamin D in the immune system affecting response to infections. We aimed to characterize the role of vitamin D status, i.e. deficiency (25-OH vitamin D [25-OHD] < 50nmol/l) and no deficiency (25-OHD ≥ 50nmol/l) in incident infections after liver transplantation. METHODS: In 135 liver transplant recipients blood samples drawn at time of liver transplantation and 6 months afterwards were used to determine 25-OHD levels...
August 12, 2018: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
Md Sakhawat Hossain, Shunsuke Koshio, Manabu Ishikawa, Saichiro Yokoyama, Nadia Mahjabin Sony, Serge Dossou, Weilong Wang
Both inosine (INO) and vitamin C (l-ascorbic acid, AsA) play important roles in growth performance, feed utilization and health status of fish. Therefore, a 56 days feeding trial was conducted to determine the interactive effects of dietary INO and AsA on growth performance, oxidative status, innate and adaptive immune responses of red sea bream. Fish growth performance and fed utilization parameters were significantly affected by dietary INO supplementation but not by AsA. Fish fed diets with INO at 4 g kg-1 diet in combination of high and low levels of AsA (3...
August 9, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Monica Maijo, Kamal Ivory, Sarah J Clements, Jack R Dainty, Amy Jennings, Rachel Gillings, Susan Fairweather-Tait, Massimo Gulisano, Aurelia Santoro, Claudio Franceschi, Simon R Carding, Claudio Nicoletti
Amongst the major features of aging are chronic low grade inflammation and a decline in immune function. The Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) is considered to be a valuable tool to improve health status, and although beneficial effects have been reported, to date, immunological outcomes have not been extensively studied. We aimed to test the hypothesis that 1 year of a tailored intervention based on the MedDiet with vitamin D (10 μg/day) would improve innate immune responses in healthy elderly subjects (65-79 years) from the English cohort (272 subjects recruited) of the NU-AGE randomized, controlled study (clinicaltrials...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Marina Laplana, José Luis Royo, Joan Fibla
INTRODUCTION: Vitamin-D plays a role regulating the immune response against to viral infection. In this sense, vitamin-D deficiency may confer increased susceptibility to enveloped virus infection such as HIV, Hepatitis, Dengue and Respiratory Syncytial virus infection, among others. Vitamin D activity is mediated by its receptor (VDR), which acts as a transcription factor modulating the expression of genes triggering the response against viruses. To date, six major VDR polymorphisms (Cdx, A1012G, FokI, BsmI, ApaI and TaqI) have been studied in the context of viral infection susceptibility...
August 6, 2018: Gene
Lorenzo Mortara, Marzia B Gariboldi, Annalisa Bosi, Marco Bregni, Graziella Pinotti, Luigina Guasti, Alessandro Squizzato, Douglas M Noonan, Elena Monti, Leonardo Campiotti
BACKGROUND: Hypovitaminosis D is associated with an adverse prognosis in colon cancer patients, possibly due to the effects of the vitamin on the immune system. Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) significantly contributes to the anti-tumor effects of monoclonal antibodies, including cetuximab, an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted monoclonal antibody that is frequently added to chemotherapy in the treatment of colon cancer. OBJECTIVE: The present study evaluates the association between vitamin D serum levels and the ability of ex vivo NK cells to support cetuximab-mediated ADCC in colon cancer cell lines...
August 9, 2018: Targeted Oncology
Robert A Huggins, Andrea R Fortunati, Ryan M Curtis, David P Looney, Chris A West, Elaine C Lee, Maren S Fragala, Mathew L Hall, Douglas J Casa
Huggins, RA, Fortunati, AR, Curtis, RM, Looney, DP, West, CA, Lee, EC, Fragala, MS, Hall, ML, and Casa, DJ. Monitoring blood biomarkers and training load throughout a collegiate soccer season. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-This observational study aimed to characterize the responses of a comprehensive panel of biomarkers, observed ranges, training load (TL) metrics, and performance throughout the collegiate soccer season (August-November). Biomarkers (n = 92) were collected before the start of pre-season (PS), in-season weeks (W)1, W4, W8, and W12 in NCAA Division I male soccer players (n = 20, mean ± SD; age = 21 ± 1 years, height = 180 ± 6 cm, body mass = 78...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Marta Sajdakowska, Jerzy Gębski, Krystyna Gutkowska, Sylwia Żakowska-Biemans
In general, dairy products are well regarded for their nutritional value. Consumer perception of dairy products is influenced by many interrelated factors but healthiness remains one of the key attributes and values for consumers. Furthermore, contemporary consumers increasingly seek out dairy products with additional health benefits and, therefore, it is essential to explore which attributes are important drivers of food choices and how producers can better respond to shifting consumer values and needs in each dairy product category...
August 2, 2018: Nutrients
Ana Carolina Momentti, Débora Estadella, Luciana Pellegrini Pisani
There is a growing concern about the impacts of hypovitaminosis D on the health of pregnant woman, fetal development, childhood, and adult life. Variations in maternal nutrition during gestation and/or lactation play a critical role in the physiological and metabolic development of the fetus and neonate, which can induce phenotypic changes and trigger important consequences throughout life, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and hypertension. Vitamin D plays a role in regulating cell proliferation and differentiation and in modulating the innate and adaptive immune response...
July 29, 2018: Steroids
M Myszka, O Mazanowska, K Kościelska-Kasprzak, D Bartoszek, M Żabińska, M Klinger
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D and regulatory T cells (Tregs) are both involved in promoting peripheral tolerance and limiting chronic inflammatory diseases. Renal transplant recipients (RTRs) are likely to have low vitamin D levels, which may influence their immune status. AIM: The aim of our study was to assess the usefulness of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and Tregs in estimation of the protolerogenic milieu in RTRs within 1 year after kidney transplantation. METHODS: 26 RTRs (15M/11F, aged 49...
July 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
Daniela Reis Gonçalves, António Braga, Jorge Braga, António Marinho
Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) affects approximately 1%-2% of reproductive women. Auto- and cellular immune responses seem to be associated with RPL. Vitamin D (VD) has been shown to play a role in the modulation of the immune system. Effects of VD deficiency (VDD) in pregnancy have been associated with preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, fetal growth restriction, preterm labor, and sporadic spontaneous abortion (SA). We systematically reviewed articles that studied women with 2 or more SA and its association with VD...
July 27, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Mette Herly, Kristian Stengaard-Pedersen, Peter Vestergaard, Mikkel Østergaard, Peter Junker, Merete Lund Hetland, Kim Hørslev-Petersen, Torkell Ellingsen
RATIONALE: Sufficient levels of vitamin D seem to be essential for proper immune function, and low levels might be associated to disease activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). Most studies investigate only 25OHD and not the physiologically active vitamin D metabolite, 1,25(OH)2 D OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations between serum level of vitamin D metabolites and disease activity parameters in 160 inflammatory active and treatment naïve early RA patients. Serum level of vitamin D metabolites (25OHD2 , 25OHD3 , and 1,25(OH)2 D) were measured by isotope dilution mass spectrometry and radio-immunoassays at baseline...
July 20, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Daniel S Smyk, Athanasios Mavropoulos, Giorgina Mieli-Vergani, Diego Vergani, Marco Lenzi, Dimitrios P Bogdanos
Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a distinct lineage of T cells which express both the T cell receptor (TCR) and natural killer (NK) cell markers. Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells bear an invariant TCR and recognize a small variety of glycolipid antigens presented by CD1d (nonclassical MHC-I). CD1d-restricted iNKT cells are regulators of immune responses and produce cytokines that may be proinflammatory (such as interferon-gamma (IFN- γ )) or anti-inflammatory (such as IL-4). iNKT cells also appear to play a role in B cell regulation and antibody production...
2018: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Mohamed Abouzid, Marta Karazniewicz-Lada, Franciszek Glowka
The endocrine system of vitamin D is involved in an extensive variety of biological processes such as bone metabolism, regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation and modulation of the immune response. The active form of vitamin D, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, binds to vitamin D receptor (VDR) controlling the synthesis of many different proteins. Although numerous studies reported polymorphism in the VDR gene, the impact of the polymorphic alleles on VDR protein function remains unknown. BsmI, ApaI, and TaqI are the three adjacent single nucleotide polymorphisms in intron 8/exon nine at the 3' end of the VDR gene which have been most frequently studied so far...
July 23, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
Christina Bothou, Alexis Alexopoulos, Eleni Dermitzaki, Kleanthis Kleanthous, Anastasios Papadimitriou, George Mastorakos, Dimitrios T Papadimitriou
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting children and adolescence. The traditional therapeutic options for AD, including emollients topically and immune modulatory agents systemically focusing on reducing skin inflammation and restoring the function of the epidermal barrier, are proven ineffective in many cases. Several studies have linked vitamin D supplementation with either a decreased risk to develop AD or a clinical improvement of the symptoms of AD patients. In this report, we present a girl with severe AD who under adequate supplementation with cholecalciferol was treated with calcitriol and subsequently with paricalcitol...
2018: Case Reports in Pediatrics
Mingyang Song, Andrew T Chan
The substantial burden of colorectal cancer and increasing trend in young adults highlight the importance of lifestyle modification as a complement to screening for colorectal cancer prevention. Several dietary and lifestyle factors have been implicated in the development of colorectal cancer, possibly through the intricate metabolic and inflammatory mechanisms. Likewise, as a key metabolic and immune regulator, the gut microbiota has been recognized to play an important role in colorectal tumorigenesis. Increasing data support that environmental factors are crucial determinants for the gut microbial composition and function, whose alterations induce changes in the host gene expression, metabolic regulation, and local and systemic immune response, thereby influencing cancer development...
July 18, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Asmaa M Zahran, Kamal M Zharan, Helal F Hetta
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency have been associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Also, vitamin D is known to play a role in promoting the function of regulatory T-cells (Tregs). Tregs play an important role in suppressing the immune response during pregnancy. Our study aimed to investigate Tregs phenotypes in preterm and tem laboring women and its association with vitamin D level. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 82 pregnant women, divided into 46 term and 36 preterm laboring women in addition to 30 healthy non-pregnant women...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
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