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Vitamin D Immunity

Linda Rolf, Joost Smolders, Jody van den Ouweland, Raymond Hupperts, Jan Damoiseaux
Different laboratory approaches have been exploited to analyze an effect of vitamin D3 supplements on T cell cytokine profiles in multiple sclerosis, with poorly reproducible results. We assessed the correlation between intra-cellular flowcytometry analysis of CD4 T cell-enriched CD3+ CD8- lymphocytes after PMA/ionomycin stimulation directly ex-vivo or after 72 h pre-stimulation with anti-CD3, and cytokine levels excreted in culture supernatants. Pre-stimulation with anti-CD3 resulted in higher proportions of cells positive for IFN-γ, IL-17 A, IL-4, IL-10 and GM-CSF (all P < 0...
December 11, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Veijo Nurminen, Antonio Neme, Sabine Seuter, Carsten Carlberg
The myeloid master regulator CCAAT enhancer-binding protein alpha (CEBPA) is known as a pioneer factor. In this study, we report the CEBPA cistrome of THP-1 human monocytes after stimulation with the vitamin D receptor (VDR) ligand 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2 D3 ) for 2, 8 and 24 h. About a third of the genomic VDR binding sites co-located with those of CEBPA. In parallel, the binding strength of 5% of the CEBPA cistrome, i.e. some 1500 sites, is significantly (p < 0.001) affected by 1,25(OH)2 D3 ...
December 11, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Gene regulatory mechanisms
Hind M Almohanna, Azhar A Ahmed, John P Tsatalis, Antonella Tosti
People commonly inquire about vitamin and mineral supplementation and diet as a means to prevent or manage dermatological diseases and, in particular, hair loss. Answering these queries is frequently challenging, given the enormous and conflicting evidence that exists on this subject. There are several reasons to suspect a role for micronutrients in non-scarring alopecia. Micronutrients are major elements in the normal hair follicle cycle, playing a role in cellular turnover, a frequent occurrence in the matrix cells in the follicle bulb that are rapidly dividing...
December 13, 2018: Dermatology and Therapy
Jingjing Ren, Eric Panther, Xiaofeng Liao, Amrie C Grammer, Peter E Lipsky, Chris M Reilly
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy cells. Although the exact cause of SLE has not been identified, it is clear that both genetics and environmental factors trigger the disease. Identical twins have a 24% chance of getting lupus disease if the other one is affected. Internal factors such as female gender and sex hormones, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus and other genetic polymorphisms have been shown to affect SLE, as well as external, environmental influences such as sunlight exposure, smoking, vitamin D deficiency, and certain infections...
December 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yanhua Chen, Tongbai Xu
The expression level of vitamin D receptor in patients with asthma was investigated to study the association between vitamin D receptor and inflammatory changes in asthma. Thirty patients with bronchial asthma treated in the Tianjin Hospital of ITCWM Nankai Hospital were selected as the experimental group, while 30 healthy individuals were selected as the control group. The mRNA expression level of vitamin D receptor in blood was detected via reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR)...
December 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Thea Magrone, Emilio Jirillo
T cell tolerance both at thymic and peripheral levels is a mechanism of protection finalized to eradicate autoreactive T cell clones and/or to maintain immune homeostasis, especially, postnatally. Central tolerance occurs in the thymic medulla via a mechanism of negative selection which leads to the eradication of autoreactive T cell clones. Mechanisms of action: Such a tolerogenic event relies on Fas-mediated apoptosis of autoreactive T cell clones operated by thymic dendritic cells (DCs), on the one hand...
December 11, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
Ananda Raj Goswami, Tusharkanti Ghosh
Goswami, Ananda Raj, and Tusharkanti Ghosh. Vitamin E reduces hypobaric hypoxia-induced immune responses in male rats. High Alt Med Biol 00:000-000, 2018.-In hypobaric hypoxia (HH) at high altitude, the immune responses are changed probably due to oxidative stress-induced production of free radicals and nonradicals. Vitamin E is an antioxidant and protects the cells from oxidative damage. The present study was carried out to study the antioxidant role of vitamin E on the immune changes induced by oxidative stress in HH at high altitude...
December 4, 2018: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
V Pirgozliev, C Westbrook, S Woods, M R Karagecili, F Karadas, S P Rose, S C Mansbridge
1. A total of 80 male Ross 308 broilers were used in a study to investigate the effect of dietary dihydroquercetin (DHQ) on growth performance variables, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and immune organ development, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and haemoglobin in blood, hepatic vitamin E content, dietary N-corrected metabolisable energy (AMEn), and nutrient retention coefficients when fed to broiler chickens from 7 to 35 days of age. 2. Two treatments were used in this study: control (C) and C + 0.5 g/kg extract of Siberian Larch (Larix sibirica) per kg feed, containing 85 % DHQ...
December 5, 2018: British Poultry Science
Marloes van Splunter, Olaf Perdijk, Henriëtte Fick-Brinkhof, Anouk L Feitsma, Esther G Floris-Vollenbroek, Ben Meijer, Sylvia Brugman, Huub F J Savelkoul, Els van Hoffen, R J Joost van Neerven
During aging the immune system is dysregulated. Especially plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) and myeloid DCs (mDCs) have reduced Toll like receptor (TLR)-mediated responses resulting in increased susceptibility to infections. Consumption of bovine lactoferrin (bLF) has been shown to reduce infections with viruses. Galacto-oligosacharides (GOS) and vitamin D are associated with reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in serum, and increased TLR7/8 responses, respectively. A double-blind placebo-controlled nutritional intervention study in elderly women was performed, to investigate the potential of bLF, GOS, and vitamin D to restore TLR responsiveness of pDCs and mDCs and to reduce inflammatory markers in serum...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Keith C Norris, Opeyemi Olabisi, M Edwina Barnett, Yuan-Xiang Meng, David Martins, Chamberlain Obialo, Jae Eun Lee, Susanne B Nicholas
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major non-communicable disease associated with high rates of premature morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D (deficiency of 25(OH)D or 25D) is greater in racial/ethnic minorities and in patients with CKD than the general population. Low 25D is associated with bone and mineral disorders as well as immune, cardiometabolic and cardiovascular (CV) diseases. Thus, it has been suggested that low 25D contributes to the poor outcomes in patients with CKD. The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D rises progressively with advancing severity of kidney disease with over 30% of patients with CKD stage 3 and 70% patients with CKD stage 5 estimated to have low levels of 25D...
November 30, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Lifeng Zhang, Xinmei Zhang
In addition to regulating calcium and phosphorus metabolism to maintain strong bones, vitamin D also has immune regulating and anti-inflammatory effects. Moreover, it is related to chronic inflammatory diseases, autoimmune diseases and cancer. Many studies indicate the roles of vitamin D in the development and progression of endometriosis including the effects on modulation of immune responses, inflammation reactions, cell proliferation and apoptosis, angiogenesis, adhesion and invasion. Vitamin D supplementation can relieve pain and improve endometrial receptivity associated with endometriosis and play a preventive and therapeutic role...
February 25, 2018: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
Hemant Goyal, Abhilash Perisetti, M Rubayat Rahman, Avi Levin, Giuseppe Lippi
Calcitriol (1,25(OH)2 D3 ) performs various activities throughout the body. Although low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels are associated with several disease processes such as risk of fractures and falls, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes mellitus, recent evidence attests that this important hormone also regulates several cellular pathways involved in cancer development and progression. Calcitriol modulates several genes controlling gut physiology and calcium homeostasis and also maintains the integrity of epithelial barriers, regulates the absorption of phosphate and calcium, and modulates host defense against pathogens and inflammatory response by interplaying with several types of secretory and immune cells...
December 3, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Michelle C Maciag, Wanda Phipatanakul
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe important precipitants of asthma and allergic disease, to highlight the links between these triggers and modifications within the immune system, and to examine innovative research regarding asthma prevention with focus on attenuating the atopic march. RECENT FINDINGS: Allergen avoidance, allergen immunotherapy, IgE antagonists, prevention and treatment of respiratory infections, as well as management of gastrointestinal and respiratory dysbiosis have been considered as strategies in asthma prevention...
November 29, 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
D Szuroczki, J Koprivnikar, R L Baker
The negative effects of abiotic and biotic stressors on animal condition, physiology, behaviour, and fitness have become increasingly recognized, making it critical to understand how these may be mitigated, such as through diet. When consumed, dietary antioxidants (secondary metabolites produced by plants) provide protection from oxidative damage that can result from exposure to stressors. We examined the effects of dietary antioxidants (β-carotene and vitamin E) on the ability of Lithobates sylvaticus (wood frog) tadpoles to overcome the detrimental effects imposed by two common environmental stressors - exposure to the herbicide atrazine or infection by a pathogenic helminth parasite (Echinostoma trivolvis)...
November 28, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
An-Sofie Vanherwegen, Guy Eelen, Gabriela Bomfim Ferreira, Bart Ghesquière, Dana Paulina Cook, Tanja Nikolic, Bart Roep, Peter Carmeliet, Sucheta Telang, Chantal Mathieu, Conny Gysemans
Tolerogenic dendritic cells (tolDCs) instruct regulatory T cells (Tregs) to dampen autoimmunity. Active vitamin D3 (1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 ; 1α,25(OH)2 D3 ) imprints human monocyte-derived DCs with tolerogenic properties by reprogramming their glucose metabolism. Here we identify the glycolytic enzyme 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase 4 (PFKFB4) as a critical checkpoint and direct transcriptional target of 1α,25(OH)2 D3 in determining the tolDC profile. Using tracer metabolomics, we show that PFKFB4 activity is essential for glucose metabolism, especially for glucose oxidation, which is elevated upon 1α,25(OH)2 D3 exposure...
November 24, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
T Willinger
Cholesterol is an essential molecule for life. It is a component of the cell membrane, and it is a precursor molecule for bile acids, vitamin D and steroid hormones. Cholesterol is actively metabolized, but the impact of endogenous cholesterol metabolites on immune function, especially in the intestine, is poorly understood. In this review, I focus on oxysterols, hydroxylated forms of cholesterol, and their specialized functions in intestinal immunity. Oxysterols act through various intracellular and extracellular receptors and serve as key metabolic signals, coordinating immune activity and inflammation...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
Jing Bi, Hiroshi Watanabe, Rui Fujimura, Kento Nishida, Ryota Nakamura, Shun Oshiro, Tadashi Imafuku, Hisakazu Komori, Masako Miyahisa, Motoko Tanaka, Kazutaka Matsushita, Toru Maruyama
Renal fibrosis, the characteristic feature of progressive chronic kidney disease, is associated with unremitting renal inflammation. Although it is reported that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), the active form of vitamin D, elicits an anti-renal fibrotic effect, its molecular mechanism is still unknown. In this study, renal fibrosis and inflammation observed in the kidney of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) mice were reduced by the treatment of 1,25(OH)2D3. The plasma protein level of alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), a downstream molecule of 1,25(OH)2D3, was increased following administration of 1,25(OH)2D3...
November 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Y H Lee
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D is considered a regulator of the immune system, and its polymorphisms have been associated with psoriasis in some but not all reports. AIM: To explore whether vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to psoriasis. METHODS: Meta-analyses were conducted to determine the associations between psoriasis and the VDR ApaI, TaqI, BsmI and FokI polymorphisms in all participants, and stratified by ethnic group...
November 25, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
Sara Larsson, Ulrikke Voss
BACKGROUND: The role of vitamin D in obesity and diabetes is debated. Obese and/or diabetic patients have elevated levels of free fatty acids, increased susceptibility to gastrointestinal symptoms and are suggested to have altered vitamin D balance. The enteric nervous system is pivotal in regulating gastrointestinal activity and high fat diet (HFD) has been shown to cause loss of enteric neurons in ileum and colon. This study investigates the effect of vitamin D on HFD- and palmitic acid-induced enteric neuronal loss in vivo and in vitro...
November 21, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
Majid Ghareghani, Russel J Reiter, Kazem Zibara, Naser Farhadi
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). While the etiology of MS is still largely unknown, scientists believe that the interaction of several endogenous and exogenous factors may be involved in this disease. Epidemiologists have seen an increased prevalence of MS in countries at high latitudes, where the sunlight is limited and where the populations have vitamin D deficiency and high melatonin levels. Although the functions and synthesis of vitamin D and melatonin are contrary to each other, both are involved in the immune system...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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