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Vitamin D Immunity

Mansoureh Togha, Soodeh Razeghi Jahromi, Zeinab Ghorbani, Fahimeh Martami, Maryam Seifishahpar
OBJECTIVE: The association between serum vitamin D and migraine is investigated in this research.s BACKGROUND: Although the pathogenesis of migraine headache is not fully understood, the possible role of inflammation and disturbed immune system has been proposed; thus, higher levels of vitamin D might reduce the risk of migraine. However, the results of related studies have been inconclusive. METHODS: Seventy healthy individuals and 70 age- and sex-matched migraineurs (34 chronic and 36 episodic migraineurs), diagnosed according to the International Headache Society criteria (ICHD-IIIβ), were recruited...
October 20, 2018: Headache
Silvia Maggini, Adeline Pierre, Philip C Calder
As humans age, the risk and severity of infections vary in line with immune competence according to how the immune system develops, matures, and declines. Several factors influence the immune system and its competence, including nutrition. A bidirectional relationship among nutrition, infection and immunity exists: changes in one component affect the others. For example, distinct immune features present during each life stage may affect the type, prevalence, and severity of infections, while poor nutrition can compromise immune function and increase infection risk...
October 17, 2018: Nutrients
Aulia Rizka, Siti Setiati, Kuntjoro Harimurti, M Sadikin, Indra G Mansur
BACKGROUND: Alphacalcidol, a vitamin D analog, shows immune regulatory potency as it works on the macrophage and T cell to control inflammation and T cell dysregulation in elderly. None has been known about its effect on elderly with various states of frailty syndrome, which have different level of chronic low grade inflammation. This study aimed to determine the effect of alphacalcidol on inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, g-IFN ) and T cell subsets (CD4/CD8 ratio and CD8+ CD28-) of elderly with various stages of frailty syndrome...
July 2018: Acta Medica Indonesiana
Sara Tagliaferri, Debora Porri, Rachele De Giuseppe, Matteo Manuelli, Francesco Alessio, Hellas Cena
Increased oxidative stress has been implicated as a potential causal factor in the development of several diseases. In the last decade, an extensive literature has been produced on vitamin D, not limited to its well-known function like a steroid hormone on skeletal tissue, but for its potential pleiotropic role in human health. Several researchers have suggested relationships between vitamin D intake and health outcomes such as cancer prevention and increased immunity, or possible role in preventing diabetes, and in inflammation...
October 17, 2018: Nutrition Research Reviews
Neta Gotlieb, Irena Tachlytski, Yelena Lapidot, Maya Sultan, Michal Safran, Ziv Ben-Ari
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D is a key immune-modulator that plays a role in the innate and adaptive immune systems. Certain pathogens impair the immune defense by downregulating the vitamin D receptor (VDR) pathway. Low serum levels of vitamin D are associated with increased hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication. Our study aimed to assess the in-vitro relationship between HBV production and Vitamin D signaling pathway and to explore the associated mechanism(s). METHODS: HBV transcription and replication was evaluated by qRT-PCR of the HBV-RNA and covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA)...
October 16, 2018: Molecular Medicine
Mary Waterhouse, Bronwyn Hope, Lutz Krause, Mark Morrison, Melinda M Protani, Martha Zakrzewski, Rachel E Neale
PURPOSE: Variation in the human microbiome has been linked with a variety of physiological functions, including immune regulation and metabolism and biosynthesis of vitamins, hormones, and neurotransmitters. Evidence for extraskeletal effects of vitamin D has been accruing and it has been suggested that the effect of vitamin D on health is partially mediated through the microbiome. We aimed to critically evaluate the evidence linking vitamin D and the gastrointestinal microbiome. METHODS: We systematically searched the Embase, Web of Science, PubMed and CINAHL databases, including peer-reviewed publications that reported an association between a measure of vitamin D and the gastrointestinal microbiome in humans or experimental animals...
October 15, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Roger Bouillon, Claudio Marcocci, Geert Carmeliet, Daniel Bikle, John H White, Bess Dawson-Hughes, Paul Lips, Craig F Munns, Marise Lazaretti-Castro, Andrea Giustina, John Bilezikian
The etiology of endemic rickets was discovered a century ago. Vitamin D is the precursor of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and other metabolites, including 1,25(OH)2D, the ligand for the vitamin D receptor (VDR). The effects of the vitamin D endocrine system on bone and its growth plate is primarily indirect and mediated by its effect on intestinal calcium transport and serum calcium and phosphate homeostasis. Rickets and osteomalacia can be prevented by daily supplements of 400 IU of vitamin D. Vitamin D deficiency (serum 25OHD < 50 nmol/l) accelerates bone turnover, bone loss and osteoporotic fractures...
October 12, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Haidi K Ramadan, Nahed A Makhlouf, Amal A Mahmoud, Mohamed Abd Elrhman, Muhammad Abbas El-Masry
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D plays a role in innate and acquired immunity. The risk for bacterial infections is increased in cirrhotic patients due to low levels of vitamin D. This study aimed to determine serum 25-(OH) vitamin D levels among cirrhotic patients in the presence and absence of infections and correlate this level with liver disease severity. METHODS: This cross-sectional analytic study recruited 87 hospitalised cirrhotic patients who were divided into the following groups: group with evidence of infection (45 cases) and group without infection (42 cases)...
October 11, 2018: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
Xia Jiang, Douglas P Kiel, Peter Kraft
Vitamin D plays an essential role in human health as it influences immune function, cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with numerous health outcomes, including bone disease, cancer, autoimmune disease, cardiovascular conditions and more. However, the causal role of vitamin D beyond its importance for bone health remains unclear and is under much debate. Twin and familial studies from past decades have demonstrated a nontrivial heritability of circulating vitamin D concentrations...
October 12, 2018: Bone
Pawel Karpinski, Pawel Skiba, Magdalena Kosinska, Marta Rosiek-Biegus, Emilia Królewicz, Nikolaus Blin, Eckart Meese, Bernard Panaszek, Marita Nittner-Marszalska, Maria Malgorzata Sasiadek
BACKGROUND: Insect venom immunotherapy (VIT) is used to protect patients against Hymenoptera insects' venom allergy (HVA), which can result in severe systemic or even life-threatening conditions. Molecular mechanisms triggered by VIT remain largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: To compare genome-wide gene expression of patients with severe HVA prior to VIT and 12 months after. METHODS: Whole blood RNA samples were analyzed on an expression array. Results from differential expression obtained on a microarray platform were confirmed by quantitative real -time PCR (qRT-PCR)...
October 9, 2018: Immunology Letters
Kathryn Zavala, Carter A Gottlieb, Rosane M Teles, John S Adams, Martin Hewison, Robert L Modlin, Philip T Liu
Following infection, virulent mycobacteria persist and grow within the macrophage, suggesting that the intrinsic activation of an innate antimicrobial response is subverted by the intracellular pathogen. For Mycobacterium leprae, the intracellular bacterium that causes leprosy, the addition of exogenous innate or adaptive immune ligands to the infected monocytes/macrophages was required to detect a vitamin D-dependent antimicrobial activity. We investigated whether there is an intrinsic immune response to M...
October 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Michele Miraglia Del Giudice, Cristiana Indolfi, Caterina Strisciuglio
Vitamin D is a group of liposoluble prohormones consisting of 5 different vitamins, the most important forms being vitamin D2 and vitamin D3. The ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) is less efficacious and derives from irradiated fungi, while colecalciferol (vitamin D3), derived from cholesterol, is synthesized via ultraviolet B rays in animal organisms. Only the ultraviolet B rays (290 to 315 nm) portion of the solar ray photolyzes 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin to previtamin D3, which is converted subsequently to vitamin D3...
November 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Palanikumar Gunasekar, Vicki J Swier, Jonathan P Fleegel, Chandra S Boosani, Mohamed M Radwan, Devendra K Agrawal
Vitamin D functions as a potent immunomodulator by interacting with many immune cells however, its role in regulating inflammation in the epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is unclear. In the EAT of atherosclerotic microswine that were fed with deficient, sufficient or supplemented levels of vitamin D, we evaluated the phenotype of the macrophages. Vitamin D treatment was continued for 12 months and serum 25(OH)D levels were measured regularly. Infiltration of M1/M2 macrophage was investigated by immunostaining for CCR7 and CD206, respectively in conjunction with a pan macrophage marker CD14...
2018: PloS One
Martina Elenkova, David A Tipton, Anastasios Karydis, Sidney H Stein
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D [1,25(OH)2 D3 or 1,25D3] is critical in musculoskeletal health, inflammation, immune response, and glucose metabolism. Patients with vitamin D deficiency may be at higher risk of diabetes and periodontitis. Diabetic patients exhibit exacerbated inflammation and more periodontal destruction. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), formed during diabetic hyperglycemia, activate inflammatory pathways in periodontitis. Human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) express receptors for AGEs (RAGEs) and can contribute to inflammation...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Periodontal Research
Li Wu, Joanne Kwak-Kim, Ran Zhang, Qing Li, Fang Ting Lu, Yu Zhang, Hao Y Wang, Liang Wen Zhong, Yu Sheng Liu
PROBLEM: The role of vitamin D (VD) in IVF outcome and immune parameters has not been elucidated well. METHOD OF STUDY: Women undergoing IVF treatment with GnRH agonist (Agonist) and progestin-primed ovarian stimulation (PPOS) protocols were divided into VD lower (VDL, 25(OH)VD ≤20 ng/mL) and VD higher (VDH, 25(OH)VD >20 ng/mL) groups. Follicular fluid (FF) VD level, IVF outcomes, and peripheral blood immunophenotypes by flow cytometry were analyzed. RESULTS: FF VD levels of the whole subjects were positively correlated with peripheral blood VD level (r = 0...
October 6, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
S Finzel, S Schaffer, M Rizzi, R E Voll
The causes of diseases and disorders of the immune system, which lead to the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), are not yet completely understood; however, it is known that there are various mechanisms, which can lead to SLE. The development of the disease is based on an underlying genetic disposition but is first triggered by exposure to environmental factors, such as sunburn, viral infections or vitamin D deficiency. Disease flares can also be triggered by environmental factors. Many disease manifestations are caused by pathogenic autoantibodies; hence, B‑cells and plasma cells play a critical role in the pathogenesis of SLE...
October 5, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
Sami Deniz, Yusuf Aydemir, Aysun Şengül, Jülide Çeldir Emre, Mehmet Tanrisev, Mustafa Hikmet Özhan, İbrahim Güney
INTRODUCTION: The risk of TB is increased in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) when compared with individuals with normal renal function. We aimed to determine tuberculin skin test (TST) response and the factors which might affect the response in patients with CKD undergoing dialysis in this study. METHODS: The purified protein derivative solution was administered to the patients and the diameter of induration was measured. Additionally, the age, gender and smoking status of the patients were interrogated...
October 5, 2018: Hemodialysis International
Makoto Makishima
The antirickets factor vitamin D exhibits its action through activation of vitamin D receptor(VDR). The active form of vitamin D, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3[1,25(OH)2D3], is a potent VDR ligand, and contributes to the maintenance of calcium homeostasis by enhancing intestinal calcium absorption, renal calcium reabsorption and bone resorption. 1,25(OH)2D3 also regulates bone formation, phosphorus metabolism and vitamin D metabolism. Experimental and epidemiological evidence has shown vitamin D actions on cellular proliferation and differentiation, immunity and inflammation, and cardiovascular function...
2018: Clinical Calcium
Stefania Mondello, Firas Kobeissy, Yehia Mechref, Jingfu Zhao, Farid R Talih, Filomena Cosentino, Elena Antelmi, Monica Moresco, Giuseppe Plazzi, Raffaele Ferri
OBJECTIVE: To perform a rigorous in-depth proteomics analysis to identify circulating biomarker signatures for idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), capable of providing new insights into the underlying pathogenic mechanisms and putative α-synuclein-related neurodegenerative processes. METHODS: Serum samples from patients with idiopathic RBD (n = 9) and healthy controls (n = 10) were subjected to a thorough liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS)/MS proteomics analysis using ultimate 3,000 nanoLC interfaced to an ESI-orbitrap velos ...
September 26, 2018: Neurology
Maria Grammatiki, Spiros Karras, Kalliopi Kotsa
Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder associated with chronic complications, is traditionally classified into two main subtypes. Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) results from gradual pancreatic islet β cell autoimmune destruction, extending over months or years. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a heterogeneous disorder, with both insulin resistance and impairment in insulin secretion contributing to its pathogenesis. Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin with an established role in calcium metabolism. Recently, several studies have provided evidence suggesting a role for it in various non-skeletal metabolic conditions, including both types of diabetes mellitus...
September 25, 2018: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
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