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Plasma potassium rapid change

Natalie A Hager, Collin J Krasowski, Timothy D Mackie, Alexander R Kolb, Patrick G Needham, Andrew A Augustine, Alison Dempsey, Christopher Szent-Gyorgyi, Marcel P Bruchez, Daniel J Bain, Adam V Kwiatkowski, Allyson F O'Donnell, Jeffrey L Brodsky
Protein composition at the plasma membrane is tightly regulated, with rapid protein internalization and selective targeting to the cell surface occurring in response to environmental changes. For example, ion channels are dynamically relocalized to or from the plasma membrane in response to physiological alterations, allowing cells and organisms to maintain osmotic and salt homeostasis. To identify additional factors that regulate the selective trafficking of a specific ion channel, we used a yeast model for a mammalian potassium channel, the K+ inward rectifying channel Kir2...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Yu Du, Yi Mou, Jin Liu
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effectiveness and safety of the individual-specific rapid potassium supplementation strategy, and to provide experimental basis for treating fatal severe hypokalemia. METHODS: An acute fatal severe hypokalemia model was reproduced in 20 healthy adult Japanese big ear white rabbits with half lethal dose (LD50) of barium chloride (BaCl2 ) solution 168 mg×5 mL-1 ×kg-1 . The rabbits were divided into conventional potassium supplementation group and individual-specific rapid potassium supplementation group according to random number table method with 10 rabbits in each group...
May 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
Wuyang Wang, Xiaoli Zhang, Qiong Gao, Maria Lawas, Lu Yu, Xiping Cheng, Mingxue Gu, Nirakar Sahoo, Xinran Li, Ping Li, Stephen Ireland, Andrea Meredith, Haoxing Xu
The resting membrane potential (Δψ) of the cell is negative on the cytosolic side and determined primarily by the plasma membrane's selective permeability to K+ We show that lysosomal Δψ is set by lysosomal membrane permeabilities to Na+ and H+ , but not K+ , and is positive on the cytosolic side. An increase in juxta-lysosomal Ca2+ rapidly reversed lysosomal Δψ by activating a large voltage-dependent and K+ -selective conductance (LysoKVCa ). LysoKVCa is encoded molecularly by SLO1 proteins known for forming plasma membrane BK channels...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
Yanyan Geng, Juan J Ferreira, Victor Dzikunu, Alice Butler, Pascale Lybaert, Peng Yuan, Karl L Magleby, Lawrence Salkoff, Celia M Santi
To fertilize an oocyte, sperm must first undergo capacitation in which the sperm plasma membrane becomes hyperpolarized via activation of potassium (K+ ) channels and resultant K+ efflux. Sperm-specific SLO3 K+ channels are responsible for these membrane potential changes critical for fertilization in mouse sperm, and they are only sensitive to pH i However, in human sperm, the major K+ conductance is both Ca2+ - and pH i -sensitive. It has been debated whether Ca2+ -sensitive SLO1 channels substitute for human SLO3 (hSLO3) in human sperm or whether human SLO3 channels have acquired Ca2+ sensitivity...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Yueyang Zhang, Jennifer R Loughery, Christopher J Martyniuk, James D Kieffer
The shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum LeSueur, 1818) is a vulnerable species that is found along the eastern coast of North America. Little is known about temperature tolerance in this species and with a rapidly changing global climate, it becomes increasingly important to define the thermal tolerance of this species to better predict population distribution. Using a modified critical thermal maximum test (CTMax), the objectives of this study were to determine the impact of heating rate (0.1, 0.2 and 0...
January 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Wolley Mj, Wu A, Xu S, Gordon Rd, Fenton Ra, Stowasser M
BACKGROUND: Distal tubular sodium retention is a potent driver of hypertension, with the thiazide sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC) a key player. The upstream modulators of NCC are unclear, but recent evidence has revealed the kinases 'with-no-lysine kinase 4' (WNK4) and 'STE20/SPS1-related, proline alanine-rich kinase' (SPAK) to be involved. The wider role of mineralocorticoids is poorly understood, but animal models implicate aldosterone as a potent regulator, possibly via effects on plasma potassium...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Harry P Selker, William S Harris, Charles E Rackley, Julian B Marsh, Robin Ruthazer, Joni R Beshansky, Eric J Rashba, Inga Peter, Lionel H Opie
AIMS: In the IMMEDIATE Trial, intravenous glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) was started as early as possible for patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome by ambulance paramedics in communities. In the IMMEDIATE Biological Mechanism Cohort substudy, reported here, we investigated potential modes of GIK action on specific circulating metabolic components. Specific attention was given to suppression of circulating oxygen-wasting free fatty acids (FFAs) that had been posed as part of the early GIK action related to averting cardiac arrest...
August 2016: American Heart Journal
Richard H Sterns
A variety of formulas have been proposed to predict changes in serum sodium concentration. All are based on an experiment done over 50 years ago by Edelman, who derived a formula relating the plasma sodium concentration to isotopically measured body sodium, potassium, and water. Some of these formulas fail because they do not include urinary losses of electrolytes and water. Even those that include these essential variables are not accurate enough for clinical use because it is impractical to adjust calculations to rapid changes in urinary composition, and because the formulas do not account for changes in serum sodium caused by internal exchanges between soluble and bound sodium stores or shifts of water into or out of cells resulting from changes in intracellular organic osmolytes...
August 2016: Clinical Kidney Journal
David Penton, Jan Czogalla, Agnieszka Wengi, Nina Himmerkus, Dominique Loffing-Cueni, Monique Carrel, Renuga Devi Rajaram, Olivier Staub, Markus Bleich, Frank Schweda, Johannes Loffing
KEY POINTS: High dietary potassium (K+ ) intake dephosphorylates and inactivates the NaCl cotransporter (NCC) in the renal distal convoluted tubule (DCT). Using several ex vivo models, we show that physiological changes in extracellular K+ , similar to those occurring after a K+ rich diet, are sufficient to promote a very rapid dephosphorylation of NCC in native DCT cells. Although the increase of NCC phosphorylation upon decreased extracellular K+ appears to depend on cellular Cl- fluxes, the rapid NCC dephosphorylation in response to increased extracellular K+ is not Cl- -dependent...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Martin J Wolley, Aihua Wu, Shengxin Xu, Richard D Gordon, Robert A Fenton, Michael Stowasser
Distal tubular sodium retention is a potent driver of hypertension, and the thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC) has a key role in this process. In humans, factors regulating NCC are unclear, but in animal models, aldosterone is a potent regulator, possibly via effects on plasma potassium. We studied the effects of the mineralocorticoid fludrocortisone on the abundance of NCC and its phosphorylated form (pNCC) as well as WNK lysine deficient protein kinase 4 (WNK4) and STE20/SPS1-related, proline alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) in human urinary exosomes...
January 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Robertas Badaras, Tomas Jovaisa, Sarunas Judickas, Juozas Ivaskevicius
OBJECTIVES: Opioid antagonist induction under general anesthesia or heavy sedation has been criticized due to its associated morbidity and mortality. Information on the potential causes of these complications is limited. We aimed to compare electrolyte concentration changes during rapid opioid antagonist induction under general anesthesia and conscious sedation, and to find out whether these changes are associated with cardiovascular complications. METHODS: We used a pooled database analysis of 2 prospective randomized controlled clinical trials carried out in Lithuania between 2002 and 2014...
July 2016: Journal of Addiction Medicine
E Gunn, R E Shiel, C T Mooney
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to describe the efficacy, outcome and adverse effects of intravenous hydrocortisone and fluid therapy for the management of acute hypoadrenocorticism in dogs. METHODS: A retrospective review of dogs with primary hypoadrenocorticism receiving intravenous hydrocortisone and fluid therapy was performed. RESULTS: Thirty newly-diagnosed dogs were included. There was an excellent clinical response, with all dogs surviving to discharge within a median of 2 days...
May 2016: Journal of Small Animal Practice
Xin Tian, Bingjie Liu, Yuhai Zhang, Hongmeng Li, Jingyao Wei, Gaoju Wang, Junbiao Chang, Hailing Qiao
A rapid, sensitive and selective liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of sodium (±)-5-Bromo-2-(α-hydroxypentyl) benzoate (BZP) and its active metabolite 3-butyl-6-bromo-1(3H)-isobenzofuranone (Br-NBP) in rat plasma using potassium 2-(1-hydroxypentyl)-benzoate (PHPB) and l-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) as internal standards (IS). Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Hypersil GOLD C18 column using a gradient elution of ammonium acetate and methanol at a flow rate of 0...
April 16, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
A L Pribyl, C B Schreck, M L Kent, K M Kelley, S J Parker
Overfished species of rockfish, Sebastes spp., from the Northeast Pacific experience high bycatch mortality because of 'barotrauma', a condition induced from the rapid change in pressure during capture. Field experiments show that it may be possible for rockfish to recover from barotrauma if quickly recompressed; however, no work has followed the physiological recovery of rockfish after recompression or determined whether it is possible for rockfish to survive barotrauma in the long term. Barotrauma was induced in adult black rockfish, Sebastes melanops Girard, from a simulated depth of 35 m, followed by recompression...
April 2012: Journal of Fish Diseases
Esben Vedel-Larsen, Eva Winning Iepsen, Julie Lundgren, Claus Graff, Johannes J Struijk, Torben Hansen, Jens Juul Holst, Sten Madsbad, Signe Torekov, Jørgen K Kanters
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is associated with increased all-cause mortality, but weight loss may not decrease cardiovascular events. In fact, very low calorie diets have been linked to arrhythmias and sudden death. The QT interval is the standard marker for cardiac repolarization, but T-wave morphology analysis has been suggested as a more sensitive method to identify changes in cardiac repolarization. We examined the effect of a major and rapid weight loss on T-wave morphology. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-six individuals had electrocardiograms (ECG) taken before and after eight weeks of weight loss intervention along with plasma measurements of fasting glucose, HbA1c, and potassium...
May 2016: Journal of Electrocardiology
Hong Ji, Wei Zheng, Xie Wu, Robert C Speth, Joseph G Verbalis, Lauren M Stein, Gina L C Yosten, Willis K Samson, Kathryn Sandberg
To investigate age-associated impairments in fluid homeostasis, 4-mo (young) and 32-mo (old) Fischer 344/BN male rats were studied before and after a dietary sodium load. Transferring young rats from a low-sodium (LS) to a high-sodium (HS) diet increased water intake and urine volume by 1.9- and 3.0-fold, respectively, while urine osmolality and plasma aldosterone decreased by 33 and 98%. Concomitantly, adrenocortical angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) density decreased by 35%, and AT1bR mRNA decreased by 39%; no changes were observed in AT1aR mRNA...
March 15, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Hirotoshi Echizen
Vonoprazan fumarate (Takecab) is a first-in-class potassium-competitive acid blocker that has been available in the market in Japan since February 2015. Vonoprazan is administered orally at 20 mg once daily for the treatment of gastroduodenal ulcer, at 20 and 10 mg once daily for the treatment and secondary prevention of reflux esophagitis, respectively, at 10 mg once daily for the secondary prevention of low-dose aspirin- or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced peptic ulcer, and at 20 mg twice daily in combination with clarithromycin and amoxicillin for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori...
April 2016: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Yuuichi Sakurai, Akira Nishimura, Gale Kennedy, Mark Hibberd, Richard Jenkins, Hiroyuki Okamoto, Tomoki Yoneyama, Helen Jenkins, Kiyoshi Ashida, Shin Irie, Jörg Täubel
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of TAK-438 (vonoprazan, a potassium-competitive acid blocker) in healthy male subjects. METHODS: In two phase I, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single rising-dose studies, healthy male subjects (Japan N=84; UK N=63) received a single TAK-438 dose (1-120 mg in Japan and 1-40 mg in the UK). Assessments included safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics (intragastric pH)...
June 25, 2015: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
Maren I Blonk, Angela P H Colbers, Carmen Hidalgo-Tenorio, Kabamba Kabeya, Katharina Weizsäcker, Annette E Haberl, José Moltó, David A Hawkins, Marchina E van der Ende, Andrea Gingelmaier, Graham P Taylor, Jelena Ivanovic, Carlo Giaquinto, David M Burger
BACKGROUND: The use of raltegravir in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women is important in the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission, especially in circumstances when a rapid decline of HIV RNA load is warranted or when preferred antiretroviral agents cannot be used. Physiological changes during pregnancy can reduce antiretroviral drug exposure. We studied the effect of pregnancy on the pharmacokinetics of raltegravir and its safety and efficacy in HIV-infected pregnant women...
September 1, 2015: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
La-iad Nakkrasae, Khanitha Wisetdee, Narattaphol Charoenphandhu
NaCl-rich rock salt dissolved in natural water source leads to salinity fluctuation that profoundly affects freshwater ecosystem and aquatic fauna. The snakehead (Channa striata) can live in saline water, but the osmoregulatory mechanisms underlying this ability remain unclear. Herein, we found that exposure to salinities ≥ 10‰ NaCl markedly elevated plasma cortisol and glucose levels, and caused muscle dehydration. In a study of time-dependent response after being transferred from fresh water (0‰ NaCl, FW) to salt-dissolved brackish water (10‰ NaCl, SW), FW-SW, cortisol increased rapidly along with elevations of plasma glucose and lactate...
July 2015: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
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