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Serum biomarkers for cancer prostate screening

James T Kearns, Daniel W Lin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Prostate cancer remains a significant public health burden. In order to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with prostate cancer, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening has been used since the 1990s. However, there is concern for overdiagnosis of prostate cancer with widespread PSA screening, which could lead to overtreatment and its attendant morbidities. RECENT FINDINGS: In order to avoid unnecessary biopsy and downstream effects including treatment of insignificant prostate cancer, a number of tests have been proposed to improve upon PSA screening...
August 13, 2018: Current Urology Reports
Lütfi Canat, Hasan A Atalay, Osman Can, İlter Alkan, Alper Ötünçtemur
BACKGROUND: To examine the role of serum procalcitonin as a biomarker for the detection of prostate cancer in patients with a serum prostate-specific antigen less than 20.0 ng/mL. METHODS: The prospective study included patients with a prostate-specific antigen level of 2-20 ng/mL, who underwent prostate biopsy. Clinical and pathological data such as age, prostate volume, prostate-specific antigen, procalcitonin, and Gleason score were reviewed. All patients were divided into three groups with total prostate-specific antigen level between 2 and 4 ng/mL, 4...
May 2018: Urologia
Jiwei Yao, Yuan Wang, Yifan Dai, Chung Chiun Liu
Prostate cancer is prevalent among cancers in men. A simple method for screening of reliable biomarkers is pivotal for early detection of prostate cancer.  Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has been a commonly used biomarker for prostate cancer, in spite of its false-positive limitation. On the other hand, alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR), a metabolic enzyme, has been proven to be a highly expressed biomarker in prostate cancer cells. Therefore, a method or tool, which can detect either PSA or AMACR or both simply, cost effectively, and with high sensitivity and selectivity is desirable...
June 30, 2018: ACS Omega
Paweł Porzycki, Ewa Ciszkowicz, Małgorzata Semik, Mirosław Tyrka
PURPOSE: Prostate cancer (PCa) is a common tumor disease in western countries and a leading cause of cancer-driven mortality in men. Current methods for prostate cancer detection, like prostate-specific antigen screening, lead to significant overtreatment. The purpose of the study was to analyze circulating microRNAs in serum as non-invasive biomarkers in patients with diagnosis of prostate cancer and healthy individuals. METHODS: This preliminary study included a population of 20 patients with mean age of 68...
July 16, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
Xin Liu, Dan Wang, Jinshen Chu, Yang Xu, Wenjun Wang
Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) is a crucial biomarker for screening prostate cancer, but a sensitive and selective immunosensor for rapid quantification of serum PSA remains to be developed. In this study, a sandwich pair of nanobodies (Nbs) (i.e., Nb2 and Nb40) against PSA surface antigen was obtained from an alpaca-derived immune phage display library. A sandwich-type immunosensor for the sensitive and selective detection of PSA in serum samples was ingeniously designed based on the pair of Nbs. The small size of Nb40 allowed high capture densities on the surface of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposed with massive Au nanoparticles (rGO@AuNPs), which significantly improved the conductivity and provided a large area to anchor many primary antibodies...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Karthik V Giridhar, Cristobal Sanhueza, David W Hillman, Hassan Alkhateeb, Rachel Carlson, Winston Tan, Brian A Costello, Fernando Quevedo, Lance Pagliaro, Manish Kohli
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prognostic value of serum chromogranin-A (CGA) in a two-cohort study of men with metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) and to compare with circulating tumor cells (CTCs)-based prognosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A two-cohort-based evaluation for serum CGA for prognostication in CRPC stage was performed using a screening cohort of 256 men with mCRPC and an independent validation cohort of 92 men with mCRPC. In both cohorts, men receiving proton pump inhibitors and those with non-castrate levels of testosterone (>50 ng/dl) were excluded...
June 1, 2018: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
Karteek Kadimisetty, Spundana Malla, Ketki S Bhalerao, Islam M Mosa, Snehasis Bhakta, Norman H Lee, James F Rusling
We report here the fabrication and validation of a novel 3D-printed, automated immunoarray to detect multiple proteins with ultralow detection limits. This low cost, miniature immunoarray employs electrochemiluminescent (ECL) detection measured with a CCD camera and employs touch-screen control of a micropump to facilitate automated use. The miniaturized array features prefilled reservoirs to deliver sample and reagents to a paper-thin pyrolytic graphite microwell detection chip to complete sandwich immunoassays...
June 19, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Ning Xia, Dehua Deng, Yiru Wang, Chao Fang, Su-Juan Li
Background: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a serine protease, is a biomarker for preoperative diagnosis and screening of prostate cancer and monitoring of its posttreatment. Methods: In this work, we reported a colorimetric method for clinical detection of PSA using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as the reporters. The method is based on ascorbic acid (AA)-induced in situ formation of AuNPs and Cu2+ -catalyzed oxidation of AA. Specifically, HAuCl4 can be reduced into AuNPs by AA; Cu2+ ion can catalyze the oxidation of AA by O2 to inhibit the formation of AuNPs...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Xu Zhou, Long Yang, Xiaoping Tan, Genfu Zhao, Xiaoguang Xie, Guanben Du
Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is the most significant biomarker for the screening of prostate cancer in human serum. However, most methods for the detection of PSA often require major laboratories, precisely analytical instruments and complicated operations. Currently, the design and development of satisfying electrochemical biosensors based on biomimetic materials (e.g. synthetic receptors) and nanotechnology is highly desired. Thus, we focused on the combination of molecular recognition and versatile nanomaterials in electrochemical devices for advancing their analytical performance and robustness...
July 30, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Douglas H Campbell, Maria E Lund, Aline L Nocon, Paul J Cozzi, Mark Frydenberg, Paul De Souza, Belinda Schiller, Jennifer L Beebe-Dimmer, Julie J Ruterbusch, Bradley J Walsh
While measurement of serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) is an important screening tool for prostate cancer, new biomarkers are necessary for better discrimination between presence and absence of disease. The MIL-38 monoclonal antibody is specific for the membrane glycoprotein glypican 1 (GPC-1) and binds to prostate cancer tissue. Urine is known to be a source of cellular material. Thus, we hypothesized that detection of GPC-1 in urine cellular material may identify individuals with prostate cancer. Urine samples from patients with prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), or normal controls were collected and cell sediments prepared...
2018: PloS One
Ana Rita Lima, Ana Margarida Araújo, Joana Pinto, Carmen Jerónimo, Rui Henrique, Maria de Lourdes Bastos, Márcia Carvalho, Paula Guedes de Pinho
Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is currently the most used biomarker in clinical practice for prostate cancer (PCa) detection. However, this biomarker has several drawbacks. In this work, an untargeted gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolomic profiling of PCa cells was performed to prove the concept that metabolic alterations might differentiate PCa cell lines from normal prostate cell line. For that, we assessed the differences in volatile organic compounds (VOCs) profile in the extracellular medium (exometabolome) of four PCa cell lines and one normal prostate cell line at two pH values (pH 2 and 7) by GC-MS...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Diana Cristina Pérez-Ibave, Carlos Horacio Burciaga-Flores, Miguel-Ángel Elizondo-Riojas
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a serine protease produced by epithelial prostatic cells and its main function is to liquefy seminal coagulum. Currently, PSA is a biomarker for the diagnosis and screening of prostate cancer and it was the first cancer biomarker approved by the FDA. The quantity and serum isoforms of male PSA, allows distinguishing between carcinoma and benign inflammatory disease of the prostate. Initially, it was thought that PSA was produced only by the prostate, and thus, a protein that was expressed exclusively in men...
June 2018: Cancer Epidemiology
Joseph M Dhahbi, Hani Atamna, Luke A Selth
Extracellular RNAs are gaining clinical interest as biofluid-based noninvasive markers for diseases, especially cancer. In particular, derivatives of transfer RNA (tRNA) are emerging as a new class of small-noncoding RNAs with high biomarker potential. We and others previously reported alterations in serum levels of specific tRNA halves in disease states including cancer. Here, we explored seminal fluid for tRNA halves as potential markers of prostate cancer. We found that 5' tRNA halves are abundant in seminal fluid and are elevated in prostate cancer relative to noncancer patients...
2018: Biomarkers in Cancer
Seyedeh Maryam Seyedolmohadessin, Mohammad Taghi Akbari, Zahra Nourmohammadi, Abbas Basiri, Gholamreza Pourmand
Background: Prostate cancer is the second form of cancer among men worldwide. For early cancer detection, we should identify tumors in initial stages before the physical signs become visible. The present study aims to evaluate the diagnostic value of cell-free DNA (cfDNA), its comparison with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level in prostate cancer screening and also in patients with localized prostate cancer, metastatic form, and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Methods: The participants of this study were selected from 126 patients with genitourinary symptoms suspected prostate cancer, rising PSA, and/or abnormal rectal examination results and 10 healthy subjects as controls...
February 24, 2018: Iranian Biomedical Journal
Cristóbal Sanhueza, Manish Kohli
Clinical outcomes in prostate cancer after initial screening and treatment for organ-confined disease and in advanced stage after drug intervention can be heterogeneous. Serum prostate-specific antigen which has a modest value as a screening biomarker while widely used in practice in all subsequent stages has limitations for prognostication or prediction of drug efficacy. Recent advances in genomic sciences and the identification of the mutational landscape of organ-confined and advanced-stage disease have contributed to the development of molecular biomarker profiling in addition to serum prostate-specific antigen...
February 8, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
Joseph F Rodriguez, Scott E Eggener
The diagnosis and management of prostate cancer have substantially changed over the last 3 decades. Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was adopted for screening in the 1990s after it was found to be a sensitive indicator of disease. Because of a lack of specificity for significant disease, indiscriminate PSA testing led to overdiagnosis and overtreatment. Several biomarkers have been developed that are superior to PSA in stratifying a man's risk for harboring potentially lethal prostate cancer.
March 2018: Radiologic Clinics of North America
Alicia C McDonald, Manish Vira, Jing Shen, Martin Sanda, Jay D Raman, Jason Liao, Dattatraya Patil, Emanuela Taioli
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been linked to prostate cancer (PC) risk; however, their role as a screening biomarker for PC has yet to be determined. We examined whether circulating miRNAs in plasma could be potential biomarkers for the early detection of PC among men undergoing prostate needle biopsy. METHODS: Men who had a prostate biopsy due to an abnormal screening test were recruited. Linear regression was used to examine the association between miRNAs in plasma and PC status and to model individual miRNA expression on serum PSA and age to calculate the partial correlation coefficient (r)...
May 2018: Prostate
Dimitry A Chistiakov, Veronika A Myasoedova, Andrey V Grechko, Alexandra A Melnichenko, Alexander N Orekhov
The diagnostics and management of localized prostate cancer is complicated because of cancer heterogeneity and differentiated progression in various subgroups of patients. As a prostate cancer biomarker, FDA-approved detection assay for serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) and its derivatives are not potent enough to diagnose prostate cancer, especially high-grade disease (Gleason ≥7). To date, a collection of new biomarkers was developed. Some of these markers are superior for primary screening while others are particularly helpful for cancer risk stratification, detection of high-grade cancer, and prediction of adverse events...
January 26, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Daniel A Smith, Lucy J Newbury, Guido Drago, Timothy Bowen, James E Redman
Altered serum and plasma microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles have been observed in numerous human diseases, with a number of studies describing circulating miRNA biomarkers for cancer diagnosis, prognosis and response to treatment, and recruitment to clinical trials for miRNA-based drug therapy already underway. Electrochemical detection of biomarkers in urine has several significant advantages over circulating biomarker analysis including safety, cost, speed and ease of conversion to the point of care environment...
December 2017: Sensors and Actuators. B, Chemical
Siyeong Yang, Hongki Kim, Kyung Jin Lee, Seul Gee Hwang, Eun-Kyung Lim, Juyeon Jung, Tae Jae Lee, Hee-Sung Park, Taejoon Kang, Bongsoo Kim
Prostate cancer (PC) is the second leading cause of cancer death for men worldwide. The serum prostate-specific antigen level test has been widely used to screen for PC. This method, however, exhibits a high false-positive rate, leading to over-diagnosis and over-treatment of PC patients. Extracellular microRNAs (miRNAs) recently provided valuable information including the site and the status of the cancers and thus emerged as new biomarkers for several cancers. Among them, miR141 and miR375 are the most pronounced biomarkers for the diagnosis of high-risk PC...
November 16, 2017: Nanoscale
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