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Runners heart

Markus Niemelä, Päivikki Kangastupa, Onni Niemelä, Risto Bloigu, Tatu Juvonen
BACKGROUND: Strenuous physical activity activates the participant's immune responses; however, few studies exist, observing exercise-induced simultaneous changes in mediators of inflammation. METHODS: We examined individual responses in soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), a marker of immune activation, soluble endocytic receptor for haptoglobin-hemoglobin complexes (CD163), a marker of monocyte-macrophage activation, C-reactive protein (CRP), and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines from blood samples drawn at baseline, at 3- and 48-h post-races from recreational runners who successfully completed the marathon (199 ± 8 min, n = 4) or half-marathon (132 ± 4 min, n = 4) run...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Josué Gómez-Molina, Ana Ogueta-Alday, Christopher Stickley, Jesus Camara Tobalina, Jon Cabrejas-Ugartondo, Juan García-López
The aim of this study was to compare the spatio-temporal parameters of trained runners and untrained participants with the same foot strike pattern (rearfoot) during running at controlled speeds. Twenty-one participants were classified in two groups according to their training experience: Trained (n=10, amateur runners with long distance training experience) and Untrained (n=11, healthy non-trained participants). Anthropometric variables were recorded, and the participants performed both a submaximal (between 9 and 15 km·h) and a graded exercise running test (from 6 km·h until exhaustion) on a treadmill...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
William M Adams, Yuri Hosokawa, Luke N Belval, Robert A Huggins, Rebecca L Stearns, Douglas J Casa
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between pacing, gastrointestinal temperature (TGI), and percent body mass loss (%BML) on relative race performance during a warm weather 11.3km road race. DESIGN: Observational study of a sample of active runners competing in the 2014 Falmouth Road Race. METHODS: Participants ingested a TGI pill and donned a GPS enabled watch with heart rate monitoring capabilities prior to the start of the race...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Tatsuro Amano, Masaki Ishitobi, Yukio Ogura, Yoshimitsu Inoue, Shunsaku Koga, Takeshi Nishiyasu, Narihiko Kondo
Changing stride frequency may influence oxygen uptake and heart rate during running as a function of running economy and central command. This study investigated the influence of stride frequency manipulation on thermoregulatory responses during endurance running. Seven healthy endurance runners ran on a treadmill at a velocity of 15km/h for 60min in a controlled environmental chamber (ambient temperature 27°C and relative humidity 50%), and stride frequency was manipulated. Stride frequency was intermittently manipulated by increasing and decreasing frequency by 10% from the pre-determined preferred frequency...
October 2016: Journal of Thermal Biology
James M Green, Alyssa Olenick, Caroline Eastep, Lee Winchester
Caffeine (CAF) blunts estimated ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) but the effects on RPE production are unclear. This study examined effects of acute caffeine ingestion during treadmill exercise where participants exercised at prescribed RPE 4 and 7. Recreational runners (maximal oxygen consumption = 51.4 ± 9.8 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) (n = 16) completed a maximal treadmill test followed by trials where they selected treadmill velocity (VEL) (1% grade) to produce RPE 4 and RPE 7 (10 min each). RPE production trials followed CAF (6 mg·kg(-1)) or placebo (PLA) (counterbalanced) ingestion...
June 30, 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
P Á Latorre-Román, F García Pinillos, P Bujalance-Moreno, V M Soto-Hermoso
The main purpose of this study was to evaluate running kinematic characteristics and foot strike patterns (FSP) during early and late stages of actual and common high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT): 5 × 2000 m with 120-s recovery between runs. Thirteen healthy, elite, highly trained male endurance runners participated in this study. They each had a personal record in the half-marathon of 70 ± 2.24 min, and each had a minimum experience of 4 years of training and competition. Heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were monitored during HIIT...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Michael C Zourdos, Caleb D Bazyler, Edward Jo, Andy V Khamoui, Bong-Sup Park, Sang-Rok Lee, Lynn B Panton, Jeong-Su Kim
PURPOSE: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of a submaximal running warm-up on running performance in male endurance athletes (n = 16, Mage = 21 ± 2 years, MVO2max = 69.3 ± 5.1 mL/kg/min). METHOD: Endurance performance was determined by a 30-min distance trial after control and submaximal running warm-up conditions in a randomized crossover fashion. The warm-up began with 5 min of quiet sitting, followed by 6 min of submaximal running split into 2-min intervals at speeds corresponding to 45%, 55%, and 65% maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max)...
September 16, 2016: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
Matthew F Moran, Brendan J Rickert, Beau K Greer
CONTEXT: Treadmills that unload runners via a differential air pressure bladder (DAP; e.g. AlterG Anti-Gravity Treadmill) are commonly used to reduce effective body weight in a clinical setting, however, the relationship between the level of unloading and tibial stress is currently unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between tibial impact acceleration and level of body weight (BW) unloading during running. DESIGN: Cross-sectional...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
James A H Smith, Alexander D McKerrow, Tertius A Kohn
Exercise testing on motorised treadmills provides valuable information about running performance and metabolism; however, the impact of treadmill type on these tests has not been investigated. This study compared the energy demand of running on two laboratory treadmills: an HP Cosmos (C) and a Quinton (Q) model, with the latter having a 4.5 times stiffer running platform. Twelve experienced runners ran identical bouts on these treadmills at a range of four submaximal velocities (reported data is for the velocity that approximated 75-81% VO2max)...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Richard De La Garza, Jin H Yoon, Daisy G Y Thompson-Lake, Colin N Haile, Joel D Eisenhofer, Thomas F Newton, James J Mahoney
Exercise may be a useful treatment for substance use disorders. Participants (N=24) included treatment-seeking individuals with concurrent cocaine and tobacco-use disorder (cigarette smokers). Participants were randomized to either running or walking (30min per session, 3 times per week) or sitting (control condition) for 4 consecutive weeks. Several metrics indicated significant differences among runners, walkers, and sitters during sessions, including mean distance covered and calories burned. In addition, remote physiological monitoring showed that the groups differed significantly according to mean maximum heart rate (HR), respiration, and locomotor activity...
November 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Rosemary Peter, Sushma Sood, Ashwani Dhawan
Physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Exercise is considered an acceptable method for improving and maintaining physical and emotional health. Although yoga is historically a spiritual discipline, a growing body of evidence supports the belief that yoga benefits physical and mental health. The objective of this study was to evaluate heart rate variability which reflects autonomic control of heart among yoga practitioners, athletes and individuals with sedentary lifestyle...
October 2015: Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Fabian Sanchis-Gomar, Marta López-Ramón, Rafael Alis, Nuria Garatachea, Helios Pareja-Galeano, Alejandro Santos-Lozano, Pilar Catalán, Veronica Sansoni, Silvia Perego, Giovanni Lombardi, Herbert Löllgen, Hector Bueno, Enrique Serrano-Ostáriz, Alejandro Lucia
BACKGROUND: The impact of high exercise loads on a previously healthy heart remains controversial. We examined the consequences of decades of strenuous endurance exercise at the highest competition level on heart dimensions and volumes as well as on serum biomarkers of cardiac fibrosis/remodeling. METHODS AND RESULTS: We compared echocardiographic measurements and serum biomarkers of cardiac fibrosis/remodeling [troponin I, galectin-3, matrix metallopeptidase-2 and -9, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen, and soluble suppressor of tumorigenicity-2 (sST-2)/interleukin(IL)-1R4] in 53 male athletes [11 former professional ('elite') and 42 amateur-level ('sub-elite') cyclists or runners, aged 40-70years] and 18 aged-matched controls...
November 1, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Domingo Jesús Ramos-Campo, Vicente Ávila-Gandía, Fernando Alacid, Fulgencio Soto-Méndez, Pedro E Alcaraz, Francisco Javier López-Román, Jacobo Ángel Rubio-Arias
The biological response to ultra-endurance mountain race events is not yet well understood. The aim of this study was to determine the biochemical and physiological changes after performing an ultra-endurance mountain race in runners. We recruited 11 amateur runners (age: 29.7 ± 10.2 years; height: 179.7 ± 5.4 cm; body mass: 76.7 ± 10.3 kg). Muscle damage, lactate concentration, energy balance, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), body composition changes, and jump performance were analyzed before, during (only lactate, HR, and HRV), and after the race...
August 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Dennis-Peter Born, Thomas Stöggl, Mikael Swarén, Glenn Björklund
PURPOSE: To 1) investigate the cardiorespiratory and metabolic response of trail running and 2) evaluate whether heart rate (HR) adequately reflects the exercise intensity or whether the tissue saturation index (TSI) could provide a more accurate measure when running in hilly terrain. METHODS: Seventeen competitive runners (female: n=4, V'O2max: 55±6 mL·kg-1·min-1; male: n=13, V'O2max: 68±6 mL·kg-1·min-1) performed a time trial on an off-road trail course...
July 11, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Willard W Peveler, Gabe Sanders, Cecile Marczinski, Brady Holmer
The use of energy drinks among athletes has risen greatly. Caffeine and taurine are the two primary performance enhancing ingredients found in energy drinks. The number of emergency department visits involving energy drinks doubled over the last 5 years. Reviews of the health complications have highlighted adverse cardiovascular events. The literature reveals that caffeine is known to moderately increase blood pressure and heart rate. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of three different energy drinks on cardiovascular and performance measures...
July 5, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Juan J Salinero, Maria L Soriano, Beatriz Lara, César Gallo-Salazar, Francisco Areces, Diana Ruiz-Vicente, Javier Abian-Vicen, Cristina Gonzalez-Millan, Juan Del Coso
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to analyze the relationship between anthropometry, training characteristics, muscular strength and effort-related cardiovascular response and marathon race time in male amateur runners. METHODS: A total of 84 male amateur marathon runners aged between 23 and 70 years took part in this study (41.0±9.5 years). All of them competed in the 2013 edition of the Madrid Marathon with a finish time between 169.8 and 316 min (226.0±28...
July 6, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Christopher J Stevens, Kyle J M Bennett, Dean V Sculley, Robin Callister, Lee Taylor, Ben J Dascombe
The purpose of this investigation was to assess the effect of combining practical methods to cool the body on endurance running performance and physiology in the heat. Eleven trained male runners completed four randomised, pre-loaded running time trials (20 min at 70% VO2max and a 3 km time trial) on a non-motorised treadmill in the heat (33°C). Trials consisted of pre-cooling by combined cold-water immersion and ice slurry ingestion (PRE), mid-cooling by combined facial water spray and menthol mouth rinse (MID), a combination of all methods (ALL) and control (CON)...
June 29, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Billy Sperlich, Silvia Achtzehn, Markus de Marées, Henning von Papen, Joachim Mester
There is a debate on the optimal way of monitoring training loads in elite endurance athletes especially during altitude training camps. In this case report, including nine members of the German national middle distance running team, we describe a practical approach to monitor the psychobiological stress markers during 21 days of altitude training (~2100 m above sea-level) to estimate the training load and to control muscle damage, fatigue, and/or chronic overreaching. Daily examination included: oxygen saturation of hemoglobin, resting heart rate, body mass, body and sleep perception, capillary blood concentration of creatine kinase...
June 2016: Physiological Reports
O Shannon, M Barlow, L Duckworth, D R Woods, T Barker, A Grindrod, A Griffiths, J P O'Hara
The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of a pre-loaded 1 500-m treadmill time trial, conducted in moderate normobaric hypoxia. 8 trained runners/triathletes (24±3 years, 73.2±8.1 kg, 182.5±6.5 cm, altitude specific V˙O2max: 52.9±5.5 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) completed 3 trials (the first as a familiarisation), involving 2, 15-min running bouts at 45% and 65% V˙O2max, respectively, and a 1 500-m time trial in moderate normobaric hypoxia equivalent to a simulated altitude of 2 500 m (FiO2~15%)...
September 2016: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Orsolya Kiss, Nóra Sydó, Péter Vargha, Hajnalka Vágó, Csilla Czimbalmos, Eszter Édes, Endre Zima, Györgyi Apponyi, Gergő Merkely, Tibor Sydó, Dávid Becker, Thomas G Allison, Béla Merkely
OBJECTIVE: Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis has been used to evaluate patients with various cardiovascular diseases. While the vast majority of HRV studies have focused on pathological states, our study focuses on the less explored area of HRV analysis across different training intensity and sports. We aimed to measure HRV in healthy elite and masters athletes and compare to healthy, but non-athletic controls. METHODS: Time-domain HRV analysis was applied in 138 athletes (male 110, age 28...
August 2016: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
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