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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066524/bioenergetic-differences-during-walking-and-running-in-transfemoral-amputee-runners-using-articulating-and-non-articulating-knee-prostheses
#1
M Jason Highsmith, Jason T Kahle, Rebecca M Miro, Larry J Mengelkoch
Transfemoral amputation (TFA) patients require considerably more energy to walk and run than non-amputees. The purpose of this study was to examine potential bioenergetic differences (oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate (HR), and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE)) for TFA patients utilizing a conventional running prosthesis with an articulating knee mechanism versus a running prosthesis with a non-articulating knee joint. Four trained TFA runners (n = 4) were accommodated to and tested with both conditions. VO2 and HR were significantly lower (p ≤ 0...
September 2016: Technology and Innovation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013058/leg-compressions-improve-ventilatory-efficiency-while-reducing-peak-and-post-exercise-blood-lactate-but-does-not-improve-perceived-exertion-exercise-economy-or-aerobic-exercise-capacity-in-endurance-trained-runners
#2
Eric Rivas, John D Smith, Nestor W Sherman
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to determine if leg compressions would alter cardiorespiratory and perceived exertion measures during rest, submaximal and maximal exercise in endurance-trained runners. METHOD: Thirteen young, endurance trained runners (10 males, 20.9±3y, 58.9±5.7mlkgmin(-1)) completed a randomized design, leg compressions and non-compression control condition. The incremental graded exercise test consisted of baseline rest and submaximal intensities at 23%, 70%, 75%, 85% and then a progressive increase to 100% VO2max...
December 21, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012036/no-influence-of-ischemic-preconditioning-on-running-economy
#3
Gungeet Kaur, Megan Binger, Claire Evans, Tiffany Trachte, Gary P Van Guilder
PURPOSE: Many of the potential performance-enhancing properties of ischemic preconditioning suggest that the oxygen cost for a given endurance exercise workload will be reduced, thereby improving the economy of locomotion. The aim of this study was to identify whether ischemic preconditioning improves exercise economy in recreational runners. METHODS: A randomized sham-controlled crossover study was employed in which 18 adults (age 27 ± 7 years; BMI 24.6 ± 3 kg/m(2)) completed two, incremental submaximal (65-85% VO2max) treadmill running protocols (3 × 5 min stages from 7...
December 23, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000620/aerobic-exercise-in-polluted-urban-environments-effects-on-airway-defense-mechanisms-in-young-healthy-amateur-runners
#4
Matheus Cavalcante de Sá, Naomi Kondo Nakagawa, Carmen Diva Saldiva de André, Regiani Carvalho-Oliveira, Tômas de Santana Carvalho, Marina Lazzari Nicola, Paulo Afonso de André, Paulo Hilario Nascimento Saldiva, Mauro Vaisberg
In this study, the effects of aerobic exercise on the upper airways and their defense mechanisms were investigated in athletes. The athletes ran in two different environments: the downtown streets of the city of São Paulo (Street), more polluted, and an urban forest (Forest), less polluted. Thirty-eight young healthy athletes ran for 45 min d(-1) randomly during five consecutive days, with an interval of 48 h before changing environment. Clinical parameters and respiratory tract defense markers were evaluated before and after the first run on Mondays (1 d) and on Fridays (5 d)...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900173/how-accurate-are-the-wrist-based-heart-rate-monitors-during-walking-and-running-activities-are-they-accurate-enough
#5
Sarah E Stahl, Hyun-Sung An, Danae M Dinkel, John M Noble, Jung-Min Lee
BACKGROUND: Heart rate (HR) monitors are valuable devices for fitness-orientated individuals. There has been a vast influx of optical sensing blood flow monitors claiming to provide accurate HR during physical activities. These monitors are worn on the arm and wrist to detect HR with photoplethysmography (PPG) techniques. Little is known about the validity of these wearable activity trackers. AIM: Validate the Scosche Rhythm (SR), Mio Alpha (MA), Fitbit Charge HR (FH), Basis Peak (BP), Microsoft Band (MB), and TomTom Runner Cardio (TT) wireless HR monitors...
2016: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824692/long-term-marathon-running-is-associated-with-low-coronary-plaque-formation-in-women
#6
William O Roberts, Robert S Schwartz, Stacia Merkel Kraus, Jonathan G Schwartz, Gretchen Peichel, Ross F Garberich, John R Lesser, Stephen N Oesterle, Kelly K Wickstrom, Thomas Knickelbine, Kevin M Harris
INTRODUCTION: Marathon running is presumed to improve cardiovascular risk, but health benefits of high volume running are unknown. High resolution coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and a cardiac risk factor assessment were completed in women with long term marathon running histories to compare to sedentary women with similar risk factors. METHODS: Women who had run at least one marathon per year for 10-25 years underwent CCTA, 12-lead ECG, blood pressure and heart rate measurement, lipid panel, and a demographic/health risk factor survey...
November 7, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776250/atrial-fibrillation-in-highly-trained-endurance-athletes-description-of-a-syndrome
#7
REVIEW
Fabian Sanchis-Gomar, Carme Perez-Quilis, Giuseppe Lippi, Gianfranco Cervellin, Roman Leischik, Herbert Löllgen, Enrique Serrano-Ostáriz, Alejandro Lucia
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common heart arrhythmia, the risk of which typically increases with age. This condition is commonly associated with major cardiovascular diseases and structural heart damage, while it is rarely observed in healthy young people. However, increasing evidence indicates that paroxysmal AF can also onset in young or middle-aged and otherwise healthy endurance athletes (e.g., cyclists, runners and cross-country skiers). Here we review the topic of AF associated with strenuous endurance exercise (SEE), for example cycling, running and cross-country skiing, especially at a competitive level, and we propose the definition of a new syndrome based on the accumulating data in the literature: SEE-related AF under the acronym of 'PAFIYAMA' ('paroxysmal AF in young and middle-aged athletes')...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766135/sex-differences-in-time-perception-during-self-paced-running
#8
Nicholas J Hanson, Janet Buckworth
Time perception during exercise may be affected by chosen intensity, and may also affect enjoyment of exercise and subsequent long-term adherence. However, little is known about how individuals perceive the passage of time during exercise, or if factors such as sex are influential. The purpose of this study was to determine if there are sex related differences in perception of time during a bout of exercise in experienced runners. Twenty-two recreational runners (11 men, 11 women) participated in a bout of treadmill running where they were allowed to select their intensity...
2016: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747777/acute-changes-in-inflammatory-biomarker-levels-in-recreational-runners-participating-in-a-marathon-or-half-marathon
#9
Markus Niemelä, Päivikki Kangastupa, Onni Niemelä, Risto Bloigu, Tatu Juvonen
BACKGROUND: Strenuous physical activity activates the participant's immune responses; however, few studies exist, observing exercise-induced simultaneous changes in mediators of inflammation. METHODS: We examined individual responses in soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), a marker of immune activation, soluble endocytic receptor for haptoglobin-hemoglobin complexes (CD163), a marker of monocyte-macrophage activation, C-reactive protein (CRP), and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines from blood samples drawn at baseline, at 3- and 48-h post-races from recreational runners who successfully completed the marathon (199 ± 8 min, n = 4) or half-marathon (132 ± 4 min, n = 4) run...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741056/differences-in-spatio-temporal-parameters-between-trained-runners-and-untrained-participants
#10
Josué Gómez-Molina, Ana Ogueta-Alday, Christopher Stickley, Jesus Camara Tobalina, Jon Cabrejas-Ugartondo, Juan García-López
The aim of this study was to compare the spatio-temporal parameters of trained runners and untrained participants with the same foot strike pattern (rearfoot) during running at controlled speeds. Twenty-one participants were classified in two groups according to their training experience: Trained (n=10, amateur runners with long distance training experience) and Untrained (n=11, healthy non-trained participants). Anthropometric variables were recorded, and the participants performed both a submaximal (between 9 and 15 km·h) and a graded exercise running test (from 6 km·h until exhaustion) on a treadmill...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720128/deviation-from-goal-pace-body-temperature-and-body-mass-loss-as-predictors-of-road-race-performance
#11
William M Adams, Yuri Hosokawa, Luke N Belval, Robert A Huggins, Rebecca L Stearns, Douglas J Casa
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between pacing, gastrointestinal temperature (TGI), and percent body mass loss (%BML) on relative race performance during a warm weather 11.3km road race. DESIGN: Observational study of a sample of active runners competing in the 2014 Falmouth Road Race. METHODS: Participants ingested a TGI pill and donned a GPS enabled watch with heart rate monitoring capabilities prior to the start of the race...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712662/effect-of-stride-frequency-on-thermoregulatory-responses-during-endurance-running-in-distance-runners
#12
Tatsuro Amano, Masaki Ishitobi, Yukio Ogura, Yoshimitsu Inoue, Shunsaku Koga, Takeshi Nishiyasu, Narihiko Kondo
Changing stride frequency may influence oxygen uptake and heart rate during running as a function of running economy and central command. This study investigated the influence of stride frequency manipulation on thermoregulatory responses during endurance running. Seven healthy endurance runners ran on a treadmill at a velocity of 15km/h for 60min in a controlled environmental chamber (ambient temperature 27°C and relative humidity 50%), and stride frequency was manipulated. Stride frequency was intermittently manipulated by increasing and decreasing frequency by 10% from the pre-determined preferred frequency...
October 2016: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704869/caffeine-effects-on-velocity-selection-and-physiological-responses-during-rpe-production
#13
James M Green, Alyssa Olenick, Caroline Eastep, Lee Winchester
Caffeine (CAF) blunts estimated ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) but the effects on RPE production are unclear. This study examined effects of acute caffeine ingestion during treadmill exercise where participants exercised at prescribed RPE 4 and 7. Recreational runners (maximal oxygen consumption = 51.4 ± 9.8 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) (n = 16) completed a maximal treadmill test followed by trials where they selected treadmill velocity (VEL) (1% grade) to produce RPE 4 and RPE 7 (10 min each). RPE production trials followed CAF (6 mg·kg(-1)) or placebo (PLA) (counterbalanced) ingestion...
June 30, 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686166/acute-effects-of-high-intensity-intermittent-training-on-kinematics-and-foot-strike-patterns-in-endurance-runners
#14
P Á Latorre-Román, F García Pinillos, P Bujalance-Moreno, V M Soto-Hermoso
The main purpose of this study was to evaluate running kinematic characteristics and foot strike patterns (FSP) during early and late stages of actual and common high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT): 5 × 2000 m with 120-s recovery between runs. Thirteen healthy, elite, highly trained male endurance runners participated in this study. They each had a personal record in the half-marathon of 70 ± 2.24 min, and each had a minimum experience of 4 years of training and competition. Heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were monitored during HIIT...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636554/impact-of-a-submaximal-warm-up-on-endurance-performance-in-highly-trained-and-competitive-male-runners
#15
Michael C Zourdos, Caleb D Bazyler, Edward Jo, Andy V Khamoui, Bong-Sup Park, Sang-Rok Lee, Lynn B Panton, Jeong-Su Kim
PURPOSE: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of a submaximal running warm-up on running performance in male endurance athletes (n = 16, Mage = 21 ± 2 years, MVO2max = 69.3 ± 5.1 mL/kg/min). METHOD: Endurance performance was determined by a 30-min distance trial after control and submaximal running warm-up conditions in a randomized crossover fashion. The warm-up began with 5 min of quiet sitting, followed by 6 min of submaximal running split into 2-min intervals at speeds corresponding to 45%, 55%, and 65% maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max)...
September 16, 2016: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632877/tibial-acceleration-and-spatiotemporal-mechanics-in-distance-runners-during-reduced-body-weight-conditions
#16
Matthew F Moran, Brendan J Rickert, Beau K Greer
CONTEXT: Treadmills that unload runners via a differential air pressure bladder (DAP; e.g. AlterG Anti-Gravity Treadmill) are commonly used to reduce effective body weight in a clinical setting, however, the relationship between the level of unloading and tibial stress is currently unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between tibial impact acceleration and level of body weight (BW) unloading during running. DESIGN: Cross-sectional...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575734/metabolic-cost-of-running-is-greater-on-a-treadmill-with-a-stiffer-running-platform
#17
James A H Smith, Alexander D McKerrow, Tertius A Kohn
Exercise testing on motorised treadmills provides valuable information about running performance and metabolism; however, the impact of treadmill type on these tests has not been investigated. This study compared the energy demand of running on two laboratory treadmills: an HP Cosmos (C) and a Quinton (Q) model, with the latter having a 4.5 times stiffer running platform. Twelve experienced runners ran identical bouts on these treadmills at a range of four submaximal velocities (reported data is for the velocity that approximated 75-81% VO2max)...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27541349/treadmill-exercise-improves-fitness-and-reduces-craving-and-use-of-cocaine-in-individuals-with-concurrent-cocaine-and-tobacco-use-disorder
#18
Richard De La Garza, Jin H Yoon, Daisy G Y Thompson-Lake, Colin N Haile, Joel D Eisenhofer, Thomas F Newton, James J Mahoney
Exercise may be a useful treatment for substance use disorders. Participants (N=24) included treatment-seeking individuals with concurrent cocaine and tobacco-use disorder (cigarette smokers). Participants were randomized to either running or walking (30min per session, 3 times per week) or sitting (control condition) for 4 consecutive weeks. Several metrics indicated significant differences among runners, walkers, and sitters during sessions, including mean distance covered and calories burned. In addition, remote physiological monitoring showed that the groups differed significantly according to mean maximum heart rate (HR), respiration, and locomotor activity...
November 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27530004/spectral-parameters-of-hrv-in-yoga-practitioners-athletes-and-sedentary-males
#19
MULTICENTER STUDY
Rosemary Peter, Sushma Sood, Ashwani Dhawan
Physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Exercise is considered an acceptable method for improving and maintaining physical and emotional health. Although yoga is historically a spiritual discipline, a growing body of evidence supports the belief that yoga benefits physical and mental health. The objective of this study was to evaluate heart rate variability which reflects autonomic control of heart among yoga practitioners, athletes and individuals with sedentary lifestyle...
October 2015: Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27494731/no-evidence-of-adverse-cardiac-remodeling-in-former-elite-endurance-athletes
#20
Fabian Sanchis-Gomar, Marta López-Ramón, Rafael Alis, Nuria Garatachea, Helios Pareja-Galeano, Alejandro Santos-Lozano, Pilar Catalán, Veronica Sansoni, Silvia Perego, Giovanni Lombardi, Herbert Löllgen, Hector Bueno, Enrique Serrano-Ostáriz, Alejandro Lucia
BACKGROUND: The impact of high exercise loads on a previously healthy heart remains controversial. We examined the consequences of decades of strenuous endurance exercise at the highest competition level on heart dimensions and volumes as well as on serum biomarkers of cardiac fibrosis/remodeling. METHODS AND RESULTS: We compared echocardiographic measurements and serum biomarkers of cardiac fibrosis/remodeling [troponin I, galectin-3, matrix metallopeptidase-2 and -9, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen, and soluble suppressor of tumorigenicity-2 (sST-2)/interleukin(IL)-1R4] in 53 male athletes [11 former professional ('elite') and 42 amateur-level ('sub-elite') cyclists or runners, aged 40-70years] and 18 aged-matched controls...
November 1, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
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