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AML Treatment

Jacques M Azzi, Andreas Kyvernitakis, Dimpy P Shah, Lynn El Haddad, Sminil N Mahajan, Shashank S Ghantoji, Ella Heredia-Ariza, Roy F Chemaly
Objectives: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection causes morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. However, studies describing this infection in patients with haematological malignancies are scarce. We sought to evaluate the clinical impact of RSV infection on this patient population. Methods: We reviewed the records of patients with haematological malignancies and RSV infections cared for at our institution between January 2000 and March 2013. Results: Of the 181 patients, 71 (39%) had AML, ALL or myelodysplastic syndrome, 12 (7%) had CML or CLL, 4 (2%) had Hodgkin lymphoma, 35 (19%) had non-Hodgkin lymphoma and 59 (33%) had multiple myeloma...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Chen Tian, Yue-Yang Li, Dong-Zhi Hu
Although the application of combined chemotherapy has made a great progress in treatment of adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the overall survival rate is still not high, mainly because of high recurrence rate and drug resistance. The treatment regimen for relapsed/refractory AML is always strong. Due to the chemotherapy drugs lacking of specific identification of tumor cells, significant adverse reactions often come out and sometimes even endanger the life of patients. In order to improve the life quality and survival rate, the new treatment strategy is urgently needed...
August 2018: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
Yan-Bin Pang, Ping Wu, Luo-Ming Hua, Xin DU, Jing Wang
The myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of clonal myeloid disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis and increased risk of transformation to acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). The treatment of MDS is highly dependent on the reliability of the prognostic evaluation model. Current clinical prognostic scoring systems are comprised of morphology, pivotal clinical trials and cytogenetic findings. However, none of the available prognostic systems incorporates disease-related molecular abnormalities, such as somatic mutations...
August 2018: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
Wei-Min Dong, Yang Cao, Li-Li Xiang, Yan Lin, Yue Liu, Jian-Nong Cen, Xiao-Bao Xie, Wei-Ying Gu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of all transretinoicacid(ATRA) combined with decitabine (5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine;DAC) on DNA methylation and gene expression of p16INK4a (p16) and retinoic acid receptor β (RARβ), and to explore their combined anti neoplastic effect on U937 cells and newly diagnose delder acute myeloid leukemia(AML) patients. METHODS: The expression levels of p16 and RARβ were determined by qRT-PCR and Western blot. Methylation-specific PCR was used to analyze their methylation status...
August 2018: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
Raza Mushtaq, David Nolte, Faryal Shareef, Mihra S Taljanovic
Acute myelogenous leukemia is a hematologic malignancy defined by the presence of myeloid blasts causing bone marrow infiltration. Evaluation and workup of acute myelogenous leukemia is based on comprehensive medical history, physical examination, laboratory evaluation, and bone marrow sampling. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the study of choice in the evaluation of this disease including the initial evaluation, treatment follow-up, and complications. Herein, we report a case of relapse of the acute myelogenic leukemia in an adult patient who presented with diffuse periostitis in his lower extremities diagnosed on MR imaging and confirmed on Technetium bone scan, which also showed periostitis along the bilateral humeri...
October 2018: Radiology Case Reports
Gitika Pant, Archana Kumar, Nishant Verma, Anil Sharma
Gallbladder (GB) empyema is an uncommon complication in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Non-specific signs and symptoms and rarity of disease in AML make it difficult to diagnose early. We report a case of 13-year-old boy who had AML and developed GB empyema in the neutropaenic period. The patient was managed with antibiotics, ultrasound-guided tapping and interval cholecystectomy and recovered well. GB empyema is a life-threatening complication which should be kept as a possibility while evaluating patients with neutropaenia with pain abdomen localised to right hypochondrium as early diagnosis and treatment can lead to better outcomes...
August 14, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Yaser Moghaddam, Alireza Andalib, Maryam Mohammad-Ganji, Vida Homayouni, Mohammadreza Sharifi, Mazdak Ganjalikhani-Hakemi
BACKGROUND: Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is a Cancer of hematopoietic stem cells with a rapid progression. TIM-3 is expressed on leukemic stem cells (LSCs) in most types of AML and might have a positive effect on maintenance of malignant phenotype. MicroRNAs play important roles in either cancer progression or suppression. In this study were evaluated, the inhibitory effect of miR-498 on TIM-3 expression and its impact on proliferation and survival of HL-60 cell line. METHODS: Firstly, the probable inhibitory effect of miR-498 on TIM-3 expression was predicted...
July 24, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
Huan Li, Na Zhao, Yihui Li, Haiyan Xing, Shuying Chen, Yingxi Xu, Kejing Tang, Zheng Tian, Min Wang, Qing Rao, Jianxiang Wang
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is initiated and maintained by a unique, small subset of leukemia cells known as leukemia stem cells (LSCs). Self-renewal, quiescence and chemotherapy resistance are key stemness properties of LSCs that are essential poor clinical responses to conventional therapies. Identifying LSC surface markers and targeting LSCs are important for the development of potential therapies. In this study, application of chemotherapy treatment in AML-ETO9a (AE9a) leukemia mice led to the enrichment of a chemotherapy-resistant cell population identified as Lin- c-Kit+ c-MPL+ ...
August 14, 2018: Stem Cells
Binyan Lin, Kai Zhao, Dawei Yang, Dongsheng Bai, Yan Liao, Yuxin Zhou, Zhou Yu, Xiaoxuan Yu, Qinglong Guo, Na Lu
Decreasing bone marrow (BM) microvessel density and circulating angiogenic cytokine levels are promising strategies for the treatment of relapsed and resistant acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Previous studies have reported that wogonoside could inhibit the progression of AML and suppress angiogenesis in a solid tumor, but the correlation of these two effects was ignored. In this research, we determined whether wogonoside could inhibit angiogenesis in this hematologic malignancy. We found that wogonoside could inhibit tumor growth and progression, and prolong the survival of nude mice inoculated with U937/MDR...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Catherine J Lee, Bipin N Savani, Mohamad Mohty, Norbert C Gorin, Myriam Labopin, Annalisa Ruggeri, Christoph Schmid, Frédéric Baron, Jordi Esteve, Sebastian Giebel, Fabio Ciceri, Arnon Nagler
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive hematopoietic malignancy generally associated with poor prognosis. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) continues to be the most potent anti-leukemia treatment for adult patients with intermediate and high-risk AML. However, disease relapse after alloHCT remains unacceptably high and is the primary cause of treatment failure and mortality following alloHCT. It is therefore that post-transplant early cellular or pharmacologic maintenance or preemptive strategies to enhance the graft-versus-leukemia effect or to eradicate persistent minimal residual disease have been of renewed interest, particularly with the availability of more sensitive technologies to measure residual AML...
August 13, 2018: Bone Marrow Transplantation
Yingyu Chen, Donghui Gan, Qinghua Huang, Xiaofeng Luo, Donghong Lin, Jianda Hu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains a hematologic malignancy with poor survival and a high risk of relapse, which is mainly caused by the emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR). The identification of novel agents to improve therapeutic strategies becomes important priority for AML treatment. It has been shown that emodin has therapeutic effects on many kinds of human malignant tumors. In this study, we investigated the anti-leukemia effects of emodin alone or in combination with cytarabine (Ara-C) on multidrug-resistant AML HL-60/ADR cells and in a mouse xenograft model of human highly tumorigenic AML HL-60/H3 cells...
August 10, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Rachel Bosshard, Karl O'Reilly, Stephen Ralston, Shkun Chadda, David Cork
BACKGROUND: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a rare hematologic malignancy largely affecting older adults. Comorbidities may compromise fitness and eligibility for high-intensity chemotherapy (HIC). This study presents the results of two systematic reviews (SRs) assessing (1) the impact of AML and current treatments on health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and (2) the economic burden and cost drivers of AML in patients who are ineligible for HIC. METHODS: Electronic searches (MEDLINE, EMBASE, EconLit, Cochrane library) were supplemented with manual searching of conference, utility, and HTA databases...
July 18, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Dimitrios Nasioudis, Konstantinos Lontos, Anastasia Tsagianni, Michael Boyiadzis, Emily M Ko
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to estimate the risk of therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML) in patients with gynecologic malignancies receiving chemotherapy using a population-based database. METHODS: The National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was accessed, and a cohort of women diagnosed with a primary ovarian, uterine, or cervical malignancy between January 1, 1992, and December 31, 2014, who received chemotherapy was selected...
August 7, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
T N Gibson, S Beeput, J Gaspard, C George, D Gibson, N Jackson, V Leandre-Broome, N Palmer-Mitchell, C Alexis, J Bird-Compton, C Bodkyn, R Boyle, S McLean-Salmon, M Reece-Mills, C Sin Quee-Brown, U Allen, S Weitzman, V Blanchette, S Gupta
BACKGROUND: English-speaking Caribbean (ESC) childhood cancer outcomes are unknown. PROCEDURE: Through the SickKids-Caribbean Initiative (SCI), we established a multicenter childhood cancer database across seven centers in six ESC countries. Data managers entered patient demographics, disease, treatment, and outcome data. Data collection commenced in 2013, with retrospective collection to 2011 and subsequent prospective collection. RESULTS: A total of 367 children were diagnosed between 2011 and 2015 with a median age of 5...
August 9, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Naghmeh Niktoreh, Beate Lerius, Martin Zimmermann, Bernd Gruhn, Gabriele Escherich, Jean-Pierre Bourquin, Michael Dworzak, Lucie Sramkova, Claudia Rossig, Ursula Creutzig, Dirk Reinhardt, Mareike Rasche
Despite intensified salvage treatments, children with relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia have poor survival. We evaluated Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin (CD33-targeted drug) used on compassionate basis in patients diagnosed from 1995 until 2014 within Acute Myeloid Leukemia-Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster studies and identified 76 patients (<18 years) with highly-advanced and pretreated acute myeloid leukemia [refractory de novo acute myeloid leukemia (n=10), de novo acute myeloid leukemia refractory to relapse (1st early: n=41; 1st late: n=10; 2nd or more: n=10), and secondary acute myeloid leukemia (n=5)]...
August 9, 2018: Haematologica
J Wehmeyer, M Zaiss, C Losem, S Schmitz, B Niemeier, J Harde, C V Hannig, H-D Harich, J Müller, M Klausmann, H W Tessen, K Potthoff
OBJECTIVE: Azacitidine (Vidaza® ) is the standard treatment for patients with higher-risk MDS not eligible for allogeneic stem cell transplantation. In the non-interventional study PIAZA we evaluated the effectiveness and safety of azacitidine-treatment in 149 patients with higher-risk MDS, CMML and AML in routine clinical practice. METHOD: Patients were treated according to physician's discretion. Besides evaluation of safety and effectiveness, impact of covariates on PFS was assessed...
August 9, 2018: European Journal of Haematology
Nicolas Duployez, Alice Marceau-Renaut, Céline Villenet, Arnaud Petit, Alexandra Rousseau, Stanley W K Ng, Agnès Paquet, Fanny Gonzales, Adeline Barthélémy, Frédéric Leprêtre, Nicolas Pottier, Brigitte Nelken, Gérard Michel, André Baruchel, Yves Bertrand, Guy Leverger, Hélène Lapillonne, Martin Figeac, John E Dick, Jean C Y Wang, Claude Preudhomme, Meyling Cheok
Despite constant progress in prognostic risk stratification, children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) still relapse. Treatment failure and subsequent relapse have been attributed to acute myeloid leukemia-initiating cells (LSC), which harbor stem cell properties and are inherently chemoresistant. Although pediatric and adult AML represent two genetically very distinct diseases, we reasoned that common LSC gene expression programs are shared and consequently, the highly prognostic LSC17 signature score recently developed in adults may also be of clinical interest in childhood AML...
August 8, 2018: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
Irum Khan, Marianna Halasi, Anand Patel, Rachael Schultz, Nandini Kalakota, Yi-Hua Chen, Nathan Aardsma, Li Liu, John D Crispino, Nadim Mahmud, Olga Frankfurt, Andrei L Gartel
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with NPM1 mutations demonstrate a superior response to standard chemotherapy treatment. Our previous work has shown that these favorable outcomes are linked to the cytoplasmic relocalization and inactivation of FOXM1 driven by mutated NPM1. Here, we went on to confirm the important role of FOXM1 in increased chemoresistance in AML. A multiinstitution retrospective study was conducted to link FOXM1 expression to clinical outcomes in AML. We establish nuclear FOXM1 as an independent clinical predictor of chemotherapeutic resistance in intermediate-risk AML in a multivariate analysis incorporating standard clinicopathologic risk factors...
August 9, 2018: JCI Insight
Abdelrahman H Elsayed, Xueyuan Cao, Kristine R Crews, Varsha Gandhi, William Plunkett, Jeffrey E Rubnitz, Raul C Ribeiro, Stanley B Pounds, Jatinder K Lamba
AIM: Cytarabine (Ara-C), a mainstay of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treatment, is a prodrug requiring activation to ara-CTP for its antileukemic activity. Aim of this study was to evaluate impact of genetic variants in the key genes involved in ara-C metabolism on the leukemic cell intracellular levels of ara-CTP. METHOD:  We investigated SNPs in 14 ara-C metabolic-pathway genes, for association with intracellular ara-CTP levels, in leukemic cells obtained post-initiation of cytarabine infusion in pediatric AML patients (n = 68)...
August 8, 2018: Pharmacogenomics
Pavan Tenneti, Govardhanan Nagaiah
The prognosis of elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is poor. Intensive chemotherapy with the combination of cytarabine and anthracyclines is typically used as the first-line treatment in the elderly with newly diagnosed AML who are able to tolerate this regimen. Unfortunately, many patients are refractory to this treatment approach. The role of hypomethylating agents in the treatment of elderly patients with refractory AML has not been clearly defined. Therefore, we conducted a focused literature review to assess the role of hypomethylating agents in elderly patients with refractory AML...
June 5, 2018: Curēus
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