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Marijuana OR cannabinoid

Douglas J Hermes, Changqing Xu, Justin L Poklis, Micah J Niphakis, Benjamin F Cravatt, Ken Mackie, Aron H Lichtman, Bogna M Ignatowska-Jankowska, Sylvia Fitting
The HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat) is a neurotoxin involved in the pathogenesis of HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The neurotoxic effects of Tat are mediated directly via AMPA/NMDA receptor activity and indirectly through neuroinflammatory signaling in glia. Emerging strategies in the development of neuroprotective agents involve the modulation of the endocannabinoid system. A major endocannabinoid, anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine, AEA), is metabolized by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH)...
August 13, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Andras Bilkei-Gorzo, Onder Albayram, Frank Ativie, Safak Chasan, Till Zimmer, Karsten Bach, Andreas Zimmer
Astrocytes, key regulators of brain homeostasis, interact with neighboring glial cells, neurons and the vasculature through complex processes involving different signaling pathways. It is not entirely clear how these interactions change in the ageing brain and which factors influence astrocyte ageing. Here, we investigate the role of endocannabinoid signaling, because it is an important modulator of neuron and astrocyte functions, as well as brain ageing. We demonstrate that mice with a specific deletion of CB1 receptors on GABAergic neurons (GABA-Cnr1-/- mice), which show a phenotype of accelerated brain ageing, affects age-related changes in the morphology of astrocytes in the hippocampus...
2018: PloS One
Sascha Heinitz, Alessio Basolo, Daniele Piomelli, Jonathan Krakoff, Paolo Piaggi
Context: Skeletal muscle endocannabinoids and sphingolipids (particularly, sphingomyelins) are inversely associated with sleeping energy expenditure (SLEEP) in humans. The endocannabinoid system may increase sphingolipid synthesis via cannabinoid receptor-1. Objective: To investigate in human skeletal muscle whether endocannabinoids are responsible for the effect of sphingomyelins on SLEEP. Design: Muscle endocannabinoid (anandamide, AEA; 2-arachidonoylglycerol, 2-AG), endocannabinoid congeners (oleoylethanolamide, OEA; palmitoylethanolamide, PEA) and sphingomyelin content were measured using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Aurélie Papilloud, Isabelle Guillot de Suduiraut, Olivia Zanoletti, Jocelyn Grosse, Carmen Sandi
Play fighting is a highly rewarding behavior that helps individuals to develop social skills. Early-life stress has been shown to alter play fighting in rats and hamsters as well as to increase aggressive behaviors at adulthood. However, it is not known whether individual differences in stress-induced play fighting are related to differential developmental trajectories towards adult aggression. To address this question, we used a rat model of peripubertal stress (PPS)-induced psychopathology that involves increased aggression at adulthood...
August 15, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Francesca Gado, Maria Digiacomo, Marco Macchia, Simone Bertini, Clementina Manera
Recent findings highlight the emerging role of the endocannabinoid system in the control of symptoms and disease progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). MS is a chronic, immune-mediated, demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system with no cure so far. It is widely reported in the literature that cannabinoids might be used to control MS symptoms and that they also might exert neuroprotective effects and slow down disease progression. This review aims to give an overview of the principal cannabinoids (synthetic and endogenous) used for the symptomatic amelioration of MS and their beneficial outcomes, providing new potentially possible perspectives for the treatment of this disease...
August 15, 2018: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
José Ignacio Erices, Ángelo Torres, Ignacio Niechi, Isabel Bernales, Claudia Quezada
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive brain tumor, which causes the highest number of deaths worldwide. It is a highly vascularized tumor, infiltrative, and its tumorigenic capacity is exacerbated. All these hallmarks are therapeutic targets in GBM treatment, including surgical removal followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Current therapies have not been sufficient for the effective patient's management, so the classic therapies have had to expand and incorporate new alternative treatments, including natural compounds...
August 15, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Ashley Waddell
AIM: Describe and analyze Facebook and Twitter content associated with three United States national nursing organizations during the month preceding the 2016 United States presidential election. BACKGROUND: Social media is increasingly significant in political and civil society dialogue. Many professional nursing organizations have an explicit commitment to advancing health policy and have established a presence on social media platforms; yet, little is known about what policy topics professional nursing organizations choose to disseminate...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Patrícia Schonhofen, Ivi Juliana Bristot, José Alexandre Crippa, Jaime Eduardo Cecílio Hallak, Antônio Waldo Zuardi, Richard B Parsons, Fábio Klamt
The endocannabinoid retrograde signaling pathway is widely expressed in the central nervous system, where it plays major roles in regulating synaptic plasticity (excitatory and inhibitory) through long-term potentiation and long-term depression. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) components-cannabinoid receptors, endocannabinoids and synthesis/degradation enzymes-are expressed and are functional from early developmental stages and throughout adolescent cortical development, regulating progenitor cell fate, neural differentiation, migration and survival...
August 14, 2018: CNS Drugs
Sam Z Bacharach, Helen M Nasser, Natalie E Zlebnik, Hannah M Dantrassy, Daniel E Kochli, Utsav Gyawali, Joseph F Cheer, Donna J Calu
RATIONALE: Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are critical gatekeepers of dopaminergic signaling, and disrupting cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB1) signaling alters DA dynamics to attenuate cue-motivated behaviors. Prior studies suggest that dopamine (DA) release plays a critical role in driving sign-tracking. OBJECTIVES: Here, we determine whether systemic injections of rimonabant, a CB1 receptor inverse agonist, during Pavlovian lever autoshaping impair the expression of sign-tracking...
August 14, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Samuel D Banister, Mark Connor
Synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRAs) are the largest and most structurally diverse class of new psychoactive substances (NPS). Although the earliest SCRA NPS were simply repurposed from historical academic manuscripts or pharmaceutical patents describing cannabinoid ligands, recent examples bear hallmarks of rational design. SCRA NPS manufacturers have applied traditional medicinal chemistry strategies (such as molecular hybridization, bioisosteric replacement, and scaffold hopping) to existing cannabinoid templates in order to generate new molecules that circumvent structure-based legislation...
August 14, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Robert Kronstrand, Davide Guerrieri, Svante Vikingsson, Ariane Wohlfarth, Henrik Gréen
This chapter describes how new psychoactive substances (NPS) have been involved in fatal intoxications from 2010 and onwards. It summarizes the circumstances, antemortem symptoms, and adverse effects that have led to death after ingestion of one or more NPS and tabulates concentrations, and postmortem findings from these intoxications.Consumption of NPS exerts health problems and unknown risks for the users. Data on toxicity of many NPS are scarce or nonexistent and long-term toxicity and risks are still largely unknown...
August 14, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Hashini M Batugedara, Donovan Argueta, Jessica C Jang, Dihong Lu, Marissa Macchietto, Jaspreet Kaur, Shaokui Ge, Adler R Dillman, Nicholas V DiPatrizio, Meera G Nair
Helminths have co-evolved with their hosts resulting in the development of specialized host immune mechanisms and parasite-specific regulatory products. Identification of new pathways that regulate helminth infection could provide a better understanding of host-helminth interaction and may identify new therapeutic targets for helminth infection. Here we identify the endocannabinoid system as a new mechanism that influences host immunity to helminths. Endocannabinoids are lipid-derived signaling molecules that control important physiologic processes such as feeding behavior and metabolism...
August 13, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Weronika Micula-Gondek, Vanessa Ruales, Colleen Zorn, Andrew Angelino
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 30, 2018: Psychosomatics
Ryan R Wyrofsky, Beverly A S Reyes, Daohai Yu, Lynn G Kirby, Elisabeth J Van Bockstaele
Cannabinoids are capable of modulating mood, arousal, cognition, and behavior, in part via their effects on the noradrenergic nucleus locus coeruleus (LC). Dysregulation of LC signaling and norepinephrine (NE) efflux in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) can lead to the development of psychiatric disorders, and CB1r deletion results in alterations of α2- and β1-adrenoceptors in the mPFC, suggestive of increased LC activity. To determine how CB1r deletion alters LC signaling, whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology was conducted in LC-NE neurons of male and female wild type (WT) and CB1r-knock out (KO) mice...
August 13, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Rose L Szabady, Christopher Louissaint, Anneke Lubben, Bailu Xie, Shaun Reeksting, Christine Tuohy, Zachary Demma, Sage E Foley, Christina S Faherty, Alejandro Llanos-Chea, Andrew J Olive, Randall J Mrsny, Beth A McCormick
Neutrophil influx into the intestinal lumen is a critical response to infectious agents, but is also associated with severe intestinal damage observed in idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease. The chemoattractant hepoxilin A3, an eicosanoid secreted from intestinal epithelial cells by the apically restricted efflux pump multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2), mediates this neutrophil influx. Information about a possible counterbalance pathway that could signal the lack of or resolution of an apical inflammatory signal, however, has yet to be described...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Andrew S Neish
Under normal conditions, there is a paucity of neutrophils within the intestinal mucosa; however, these innate immune cells rapidly infiltrate the mucosa in response to infection and are critical for pathogen control. Unfortunately, these cells can cause extensive damage to the intestine if the initial inflammatory influx is not resolved. Factors that promote resolution of inflammation are of great interest, as they have therapeutic potential for limiting uncontrolled inflammatory damage. In this issue of the JCI, Szabady et al...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Pedro H Gobira, Ana C Oliveira, Julia S Gomes, Vivian T da Silveira, Laila Asth, Juliana R Bastos, Edleusa M Batista, Ana C Issy, Bright N Okine, Antonio C de Oliveira, Fabiola M Ribeiro, Elaine A Del Bel, Daniele C Aguiar, David P Finn, Fabricio A Moreira
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) bind to CB1 and CB2 receptors in the brain and modulate the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway. This neurocircuitry is engaged by psychostimulant drugs, including cocaine. Although it is known that CB1 antagonism as well as CB2 activation inhibit certain effects of cocaine, they have been investigated separately. Here we tested the hypothesis that there is a reciprocal interaction between CB1 blockade and CB2 activation in modulating behavioural responses to cocaine...
August 12, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Zachary L Mannes, Larry E Burrell, Erin G Ferguson, Zhi Zhou, Huiyin Lu, Charurut Somboonwit, Robert L Cook, Nicole Ennis
Purpose: Marijuana use is common among people living with HIV (PLWH), but its association with antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence is unclear. This study examined the association between reason for marijuana use and ART adherence in a sample of adults living with HIV. Patients and methods: Participants (N=703) recruited from seven community health centers in Florida completed a 45-minute questionnaire assessing demographics, symptoms of anxiety and depression, ART adherence, and substance use, including reasons for marijuana use...
2018: Patient Preference and Adherence
Dennis H Li, Patrick Janulis, Brian Mustanski
It is unknown if estimates of illicit drug use among young men who have sex with men and transgender women (YMSM/TW) may be biased due to historical distrust of research or reliable due to more accepting norms for use. Research is needed to examine the validity of drug use self-reports among YMSM/TW. Data came from an ongoing longitudinal study of YMSM/TW aged 16-29 living in Chicago (analytic N = 1029). Baseline urinalysis screens for marijuana, ecstasy, amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine, benzodiazepine, and opiate metabolites were compared to self-reported use within different recall periods using measures of concordance...
August 6, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Susana Mato, Fuencisla Pilar-Cuéllar, Elsa M Valdizán, Javier González-Maeso, Rafael Rodríguez-Puertas, Javier Meana, Joan Sallés, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro, Ángel Pazos
Brain endocannabinoid system is proposed to play a role in the pathogenesis of affective disorders. In the present study, we analyzed the functionality of the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 receptor) at different transduction levels in prefrontal cortex (PFC) of depressed suicide victims. We examined stimulation of [35 S]GTPγS binding, activation Gα protein subunits and inhibition of adenylyl cyclase by the cannabinoid agonist WIN55,212-2, as well as [3 H]CP55,940 binding, in PFC homogenates from suicide victims with major depression (MD) and matched control subjects...
August 9, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
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