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Marijuana OR cannabinoid

Sri Sujana Immadi, Rachel Dopart, Zhixing Wu, Boqiao Fu, Debra A Kendall, Dai Lu
Introduction and Objective: Org27569 is a prototypical allosteric modulator of the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1 ). It belongs to the indole-2-carboxamide scaffold and has been intensively investigated in pharmacology and in structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies. Although azaindoles are rare in natural products and differ only by the presence of an extra ring nitrogen, they were demonstrated as valuable bioisosteres in many pharmacologically important molecules. To extend the SAR investigation of the indole-2-carboxamide class of CB1 allosteric modulators, azaindole (pyrrolopyridine) rings were used to replace the indole ring of Org27569 analogs to explore the potential of azaindole-2-carboxamides as CB1 allosteric modulators...
2018: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
Alison C Burggren, Prabha Siddarth, Zanjbeel Mahmood, Edythe D London, Theresa M Harrison, David A Merrill, Gary W Small, Susan Y Bookheimer
Background and Aims: Legalization of cannabis (CB) for both medicinal and, in some states, recreational use, has given rise to increasing usage rates across the country. Of particular concern are indications that frequent CB use may be selectively harmful to the developing adolescent brain compared with adult-onset usage. However, the long-term effects of heavy, adolescent CB use on brain structure and cognitive performance in late-life remain unknown. A critical brain region is the hippocampus (HC), where there is a striking intersection between high concentrations of cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptors and age-related pathology...
2018: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
Huihui Qin, Jianmin Zeng, Hong Chen, Ling Deng, Li Su
Are we placing a bet by ourselves or has our DNA already made the decision for us? Previous research has suggested that some genes related to dopamine or serotonin can influence our non-bet-placing decision-making, but little is known about whether cannabinoid-related genes can impact how much people bet. To investigate this issue, we focused on rs1049353, a single-nucleotide polymorphism of the cannabinoid receptor 1 ( CNR1 ), because it is related to addictive behavior and reward processing. In this study ( N = 377), we used a modified Cambridge gambling task to test the effect of rs1049353 polymorphism on how much people bet...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Filipa Fiel Ferreira, Filipa F Ribeiro, Rui S Rodrigues, Ana Maria Sebastião, Sara Xapelli
The adult mammalian brain can produce new neurons in a process called adult neurogenesis, which occurs mainly in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling and cannabinoid type 1 and 2 receptors (CB1R and CB2R) have been shown to independently modulate neurogenesis, but how they may interact is unknown. We now used SVZ and DG neurosphere cultures from early (P1-3) postnatal rats to study the CB1R and CB2R crosstalk with BDNF in modulating neurogenesis...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Jeannette Y Wick
The use of medical marijuana-both the psychoactive tetrahydrocannabinol and its nonpsychoactive relative cannabidiol-is a growing practice in facilities served by senior care pharmacists. Currently, 30 states have approved its use under a variety of different regulations and for a number of conditions. Its use is bolstered by a growing number of Americans who support legalization of cannabis. Though oral synthetic cannabinoid compounds are approved by the Food and Drug Administration for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and appetite stimulation associated with AIDS, synthetic products differ from plant-derived products in several ways...
December 1, 2018: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
Gokhan Zengin, Luigi Menghini, Antonella Di Sotto, Romina Mancinelli, Francesca Sisto, Simone Carradori, Stefania Cesa, Caterina Fraschetti, Antonello Filippi, Letizia Angiolella, Marcello Locatelli, Luisa Mannina, Cinzia Ingallina, Valentina Puca, Marianna D'Antonio, Rossella Grande
Due to renewed interest in the cultivation and production of Italian Cannabis sativa L., we proposed a multi-methodological approach to explore chemically and biologically both the essential oil and the aromatic water of this plant. We reported the chemical composition in terms of cannabinoid content, volatile component, phenolic and flavonoid pattern, and color characteristics. Then, we demonstrated the ethnopharmacological relevance of this plant cultivated in Italy as a source of antioxidant compounds toward a large panel of enzymes (pancreatic lipase, α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and cholinesterases) and selected clinically relevant, multidrug-sensible, and multidrug-resistant microbial strains ( Staphylococcus aureus , Helicobacter pylori , Candida , and Malassezia spp...
December 10, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Poppy McLaughlin, Peter D Maskell, Derrick Pounder, David Osselton
BACKGROUND: This paper describes the performance of four Randox drug arrays, designed for whole blood, for the near-body analysis of drugs in a range of post-mortem body specimens. METHODS: Liver, psoas muscle, femoral blood, vitreous humor and urine from 261 post-mortem cases were screened in the mortuary and results were obtained within the time taken to complete a post-mortem. Specimens were screened for the presence of amfetamine, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, benzoylecgonine, buprenorphine, cannabinoids, dextropropoxyphene, fentanyl, ketamine, lysergide, methadone, metamfetamine, methaqualone, 3,4-methylenedioxymetamfetamine, opioids, paracetamol, phencyclidine, salicylate, salicylic acid, zaleplon, zopiclone and zolpidem using the DOA I, DOA I+, DOA II and Custom arrays...
November 26, 2018: Forensic Science International
Lucas Elms, Scott Shannon, Shannon Hughes, Nicole Lewis
OBJECTIVES: Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychotomimetic cannabinoid compound that is found in plants of the genus Cannabis. Preclinical research has suggested that CBD may have a beneficial effect in rodent models of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This effect is believed to be due to the action of CBD on the endocannabinoid system. CBD has seen a recent surge in research regarding its potential value in a number of neuro-psychiatric conditions. This is the first study to date examining the clinical benefit of CBD for patients with PTSD...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
M Denise Dowd
As the number of states legalizing marijuana for medical and/or recreational use continues to grow, there are an increasing number of children exposed to marijuana-containing products in homes and communities. Increased exposure leads to a greater probability of accidental ingestion and toxicity. Because marijuana ingestion can cause a dangerous and potentially life-threatening toxicity for children, pediatric health care providers need an increased awareness of the danger. This article describes the growing problem and outlines clinical management as well as prevention...
December 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
Rose Milando, Adam Friedman
The endocannabinoid system is a complex and nearly ubiquitous network of endogenous ligands, enzymes, and receptors that can also be stimulated by exogenous compounds such as those derived from the marijuana plant, Cannabis sativa. Recent data have shown that the endocannabinoid system is fully functional in the skin and is responsible for maintaining many aspects of skin homeostasis, such as proliferation, differentiation, and release of inflammatory mediators. Because of its role in regulating these key processes, the endocannabinoid system has been studied for its modulating effects on both inflammatory disorders of the skin and skin cancer...
December 12, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
Ali Parlar, Seyfullah Oktay Arslan, Muhammed Fatih Doğan, Saliha Ayşenur Çam, Alper Yalçin, Ebru Elibol, Mehmet Kaya Özer, Fatih Üçkardeş, Halil Kara
The present study aimed to investigate the role of cannabinoid 2 (CB2) receptors in a rat model of acute inflammation. Therefore, the potential of anti-inflammatory effects of CB2 receptor agonist (GW405833), CB2 receptor antagonist (AM630), and diclofenac, were investigated in carrageenan induced paw oedema in rats: as were assessed by measuring paw oedema; myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in paw tissue; malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration; glutathione (GSH) level in paw tissue for oxidant/antioxidant balance; cytokine (interleukin-1β, IL-1β; tumour necrosis factor-α, TNF-α) levels in serum; histopathology of paw tissue for inflammatory cell accumulations...
December 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Qingjun Cao, Xueyan Liu, Fenghua Yang, Hua Wang
Epilepsy is a chronic brain disease caused by abnormal discharging in the brain, which induces momentary brain dysfunction. Cannabinoid 2 receptor (CB2R) is expressed in central nervous system (CNS) and serves an important role in the pathogenesis of CNS diseases. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of CB2R activation on phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) 110α-protein kinase B (AKT) signaling in an astrocyte model of epilepsy. Rat CTX TNA2 astrocytes were treated with Mg free solution to establish a cell model of epilepsy and were subsequently treated with a CB2R agonist (JWH133) and antagonist (AM630)...
December 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Laurie-Anne Roeckel, Dominique Massotte, Mary C Olmstead, Katia Befort
Opioids are powerful analgesics but the clinical utility of these compounds is reduced by aversive outcomes, including the development of affective and substance use disorders. Opioid systems do not function in isolation so understanding how these interact with other neuropharmacological systems could lead to novel therapeutics that minimize withdrawal, tolerance, and emotional dysregulation. The cannabinoid system is an obvious candidate as anatomical, pharmacological, and behavioral studies point to opioid-cannabinoid interactions in the mediation of these processes...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Sonja Vučković, Dragana Srebro, Katarina Savić Vujović, Čedomir Vučetić, Milica Prostran
Cannabis has been used for medicinal purposes for thousands of years. The prohibition of cannabis in the middle of the 20th century has arrested cannabis research. In recent years there is a growing debate about the use of cannabis for medical purposes. The term 'medical cannabis' refers to physician-recommended use of the cannabis plant and its components, called cannabinoids, to treat disease or improve symptoms. Chronic pain is the most commonly cited reason for using medical cannabis. Cannabinoids act via cannabinoid receptors, but they also affect the activities of many other receptors, ion channels and enzymes...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Emma Leishman, Michelle N Murphy, Michelle I Murphy, Ken Mackie, Heather B Bradshaw
Relative to Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the synthetic cannabinoid CP 55,940 (CP) is significantly more potent and efficacious at cannabinoid receptors, the primary targets for endogenous cannabinoids (eCBs). eCBs belong to a large, interconnected lipidome of bioactive signaling molecules with a myriad of effects in optimal and pathological function. Recreational use of highly potent and efficacious synthetic cannabinoids is common amongst adolescents, potentially impacting brain development. Knowledge of the molecular outcomes of synthetic cannabinoid use will be important to develop more targeted therapies for synthetic cannabinoid intoxication and to prevent long-term disruption to the CNS...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Harvey L Nicholson, Jolene Vincent
BACKGROUND: Prescription opioid misuse (POM) is a significant problem among U.S. adults, including Blacks, as indicated by past research. Despite potential gender differences in POM among Black adults, previous research has yet to examine this possibility. OBJECTIVES: This study identified the prevalence and unique correlates of POM among both Black men and Black women. Results were compared to those of Whites. METHODS: We used data from 2015-2016 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (N = 60,133)...
December 13, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Davide Perruzza, Nicola Bernabò, Cinzia Rapino, Luca Valbonetti, Ilaria Falanga, Valentina Russo, Annunziata Mauro, Paolo Berardinelli, Liborio Stuppia, Mauro Maccarrone, Barbara Barboni
The relationship between varicocele and fertility has always been a matter of debate because of the absence of predictive clinical indicators or molecular markers able to define the severity of this disease. Even though accumulated evidence demonstrated that the endocannabinoid system (ECS) plays a central role in male reproductive biology, particularly in the testicular compartment, to date no data point to a role for ECS in the etiopathogenesis of varicocele. Therefore, the present research has been designed to investigate the relationship between testicular ECS gene expression and fertility, using a validated animal model of experimental varicocele (VAR), taking advantage of traditional statistical approaches and artificial neural network (ANN)...
2018: BioMed Research International
Mine Ergelen, Murat Yalçın, Rabia Bilici
Objective: The objectives of this study are, first, to explore the prevalence of lifetime violent and criminal behaviors among alcohol, opioid, and synthetic cannabinoid (SC) users in the treatment program; second, to examine and compare sociodemographic characteristics, childhood traumatic experiences, and impulsivity of these groups. Patients and method: This cross-sectional cohort study includes 110 male patients who received inpatient treatment in AMATEM (Alcohol and Substance Addiction Treatment Center) Clinic of Erenköy Training and Research Hospital for Psychiatry and Neurology between October 2014 and May 2015, diagnosed with alcohol, opioid, SC use disorder...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Hanna J Szkudlarek, Sagar J Desai, Justine Renard, Brian Pereira, Christopher Norris, Christina E L Jobson, Nagalingam Rajakumar, Brian L Allman, Steven R Laviolette
The use of cannabis for therapeutic and recreational purposes is growing exponentially. Nevertheless, substantial questions remain concerning the potential cognitive and affective side-effects associated with cannabis exposure. In particular, the effects of specific marijuana-derived phytocannabinoids on neural regions such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are of concern, given the role of the PFC in both executive cognitive function and affective processing. The main biologically active phytocannabinoids, ∆-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), interact with multiple neurotransmitter systems important for these processes directly within the PFC...
November 27, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Payahoo Laleh, Khajebishak Yaser, Ostadrahimi Alireza
Obesity as a multifactorial disorder has been shown a dramatically growing trend recently. Besides genetic and environmental factors, dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system tone is involved in the pathogenesis of obesity. This study reviewed the potential efficacy of Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) as an endocannabinoid-like compound in the energy homeostasis and appetite control in people with obesity. OEA as a lipid mediator and bioactive endogenous ethanolamide fatty acid is structurally similar to the endocannabinoid system compounds; nevertheless, it is unable to induce to the cannabinoid receptors...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
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