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Marijuana OR cannabinoid

Preeti Singh, Pranshu Sharma, Udayraj P Nakade, Abhishek Sharma, Manju Gari, Soumen Choudhury, Amit Shukla, Satish Kumar Garg
BACKGROUND: Endocannabinoids level are reported to increase in sepsis, however, the role of vascular cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB1R) in sepsis-induced vascular hyporeactivity is yet to be unravelled. METHODS: Polymicrobial sepsis was induced by caecal ligation and puncture in mice. Isometric tension in isolated aortic rings during early (6 h) and late (20 h) phases of sepsis was recorded and expression of mRNA of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) and cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB1R) was investigated...
July 19, 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Fabiana Plescia, Fulvio Plescia, Demetrio Raffa, Angela Cavallaro, Gianluca Lavanco, Benedetta Maggio, Maria Valeria Raimondi, Giuseppe Daidone, Anna Brancato, Carla Cannizzaro
BACKGROUND: Compounds acting on endocannabinoid system regulate different neuronal processes through the cannabinoid receptors activation. The main aim of this study was determining whether the 2-styrylquinazolin-4(3H)-one 5, a structural analogue of rimonabant, was able to counteract the behavioural signs of the activation of the endocannabinoidergic system induced by CP 55.940. METHODS: Behavioural assessment was carried out using the tetrad task and the novel object recognition test...
June 19, 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Qiong Wu, Hua Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the spatiotemporal expression of cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2R) in the hippocampus of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus rats hippocampus of pilocarpine-treated rats experiencing a status epilepticus (SE). METHODS: A total of 112 male Sprague-Dawley rats at three weeks of age, weighing 43 g-68.5 g, were used for this study. Rats were randomly divided into a control group (n = 16) and an epilepsy a SE group. The epilepsy SE group was further divided into 6 sub-groups (2 h, 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 days after status epilepticus (SE))...
October 9, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Anaïs Rodrigues, Michel Yegles, Nicolas Van Elsué, Serge Schneider
Medical cannabis is becoming increasingly popular for many different ailments and improvement of general well-being. Particularly CBD-rich extracts are easily available via online pharmacies, health stores or directly from producers. However, almost all of the extracts contain small amounts of THC. Thus, in case of continuous or heavy use of CBD rich cannabis, THC concentrations in hair may rise above accepted legal limits. In our study, we investigated THC, CBN and CBD in hair samples from regular CBD rich cannabis users...
October 6, 2018: Forensic Science International
Lara Silvia Oliveira Conegundes, Juliana Y Valente, Camila Bertini Martins, Solange Andreoni, Zila M Sanchez
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the sociodemographic, school, and family factors associated with the patterns of binge drinking and frequent or heavy drinking among adolescents. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study, nested in a randomized controlled trial, of 6285 seventh and eighth grade adolescent students from Brazilian public schools. The associations between binge drinking (consumption of five or more doses of alcohol on a single occasion) in the last 12 months and frequent or heavy drinking (alcohol consumption on six or more days) in the last month and the several factors were analyzed through weighted logistic regression...
October 11, 2018: Jornal de Pediatria
Lei Ma, Wen Niu, Jianrui Lv, Ji Jia, Miaozhang Zhu, Shuai Yang
Cannabinoid type 2 receptor (CB2R) agonist AM1241 induces anti-inflammation by ameliorating microglial phenotypes, the mechanism, however, is still unknown. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) is a transcription protein which can regulate mitochondrial biogenesis, and the aim of this study is to investigate whether PGC-1α is involved in AM1241-induced anti-inflammation in N9 microglial cells. We used 10 ng/ml lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus 10 U/ml interferon γ (IFNγ) to activate microglia into classic activated phenotype (M1 phenotype), and found that co-administration of 10 µM AM1241 increased the expressions of mitochondria biogenesis-associated proteins, including nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1), mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) and COX IV, and up-regulated the biomarker levels of microglial M2 phenotype, including arginase 1 (Arg-1) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and down-regulated biomarker levels of M1 phenotype, including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), compared to the cells treated with LPS plus IFNγ only (P < 0...
October 12, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Roberto Cilia
The endocannabinoid system is a modulator of neurotransmitter release and is involved in several physiological functions. Hence, it has been increasingly studied as a potential pharmacologic target of Parkinson's disease. Several preclinical and clinical studies evidenced a substantial rearrangement of the endocannabinoid system in the basal ganglia circuit following dopamine depletion. The endocannabinoid system has been additionally implicated in the regulation of neuroinflammation and neuroprotection through the activation of CB2 receptors, suggesting a potential target for disease modifying therapies in Parkinson's disease...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Tina Zimmermann, Mattia Maroso, Annika Beer, Sarah Baddenhausen, Susann Ludewig, Wenqiang Fan, Constance Vennin, Sebastian Loch, Benedikt Berninger, Clementine Hofmann, Martin Korte, Ivan Soltesz, Beat Lutz, Julia Leschik
Neural stem cells (NSCs) in the adult mouse hippocampus occur in a specific neurogenic niche, where a multitude of extracellular signaling molecules converges to regulate NSC proliferation as well as fate and functional integration. However, the underlying mechanisms how NSCs react to extrinsic signals and convert them to intracellular responses still remains elusive. NSCs contain a functional endocannabinoid system, including the cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1). To decipher whether CB1 regulates adult neurogenesis directly or indirectly in vivo, we performed NSC-specific conditional inactivation of CB1 by using triple-transgenic mice...
October 11, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Geneviève Lafaye, Christophe Desterke, Laurent Marulaz, Amine Benyamina
Cannabis is often used by consumers for sleep disorders. Studies show that circadian rhythm could be affected by a misuse of cannabis. Recent research has connected the role of microglial cells with psychiatric disorders such as substance abuse. The aim was to show the effect of two major components of cannabis on circadian genes regulation in microglial cells. In BV-2 microglial cells, cannabidiol (CBD) induces a deregulation of circadian genes with (P-value = 0.039) or without (P-value = 0.0015) lipopolisaccharides stimulation...
October 11, 2018: Addiction Biology
Christian Grov, H Jonathon Rendina, Steven A John, Jeffrey T Parsons
Researchers have established that substance use interferes with anti-retroviral medication adherence among gay and bisexual men (GBM) living with HIV. There is limited parallel examination of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) adherence among HIV-negative GBM. We conducted retrospective 30-day timeline follow-back interviews and prospective semi-weekly diary data for 10 weeks with 104 PrEP-using GBM, half of whom engaged in club drug use (ketamine, ecstasy, GHB, cocaine, or methamphetamine)-generating 9532 days of data...
October 10, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Scott H Waltman, David Shearer, Bret A Moore
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Post-traumatic nightmares (PTN) are a common and enduring problem for individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other clinical presentations. PTN cause significant distress, are associated with large costs, and are an independent risk factor for suicide. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options for PTN exist. A previous review in this journal demonstrated that Prazosin, an alpha blocker, was a preferred pharmacological treatment for PTN and imagery rescripting therapy (IRT) was a preferred non-pharmacological treatment...
October 11, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Hyunyoung G Kim, Jeremiah Moon, Heather Dixon, Paul Tullar
Background: Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome is a condition characterized by chronic cannabis use and cyclic episodes of nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain, relieved by compulsive bathing. The syndrome is likely to be underdiagnosed in pregnant women due to its similarity with hyperemesis gravidarum in the presentation. Case: We report a 20-year-old pregnant woman with multiple admissions for recurrent nausea and vomiting who was observed to be taking frequent hot showers...
2018: Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Fernando José Candido, Rodrigo Souza, Matheo Augusto Stumpf, Luiz Gustavo Fernandes, Rafael Veiga, Matheus Santin, Ana Kluthcovsky
INTRODUCTION: The consumption and abuse of alcohol and other drugs are increasingly present in the lives of university students and may already be considered a public health problem because of the direct impacts on the physical and mental health of these individuals. The requirements of the medical program play a vital role in the increasing rate of drug users. OBJECTIVES: To carry out a systematic review of the literature on the use of drugs, licit or not, in Brazilian medical students...
May 2018: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
Aida Habib, Dina Chokr, JingHong Wan, Pushpa Hegde, Morgane Mabire, Matthieu Siebert, Lara Ribeiro-Parenti, Maude Le Gall, Philippe Lettéron, Nathalie Pilard, Abdellah Mansouri, Arthur Brouillet, Matteo Tardelli, Emmanuel Weiss, Pauline Le Faouder, Hervé Guillou, Benjamin F Cravatt, Richard Moreau, Michael Trauner, Sophie Lotersztajn
OBJECTIVE: Sustained inflammation originating from macrophages is a driving force of fibrosis progression and resolution. Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the degradation of monoacylglycerols. It is a proinflammatory enzyme that metabolises 2-arachidonoylglycerol, an endocannabinoid receptor ligand, into arachidonic acid. Here, we investigated the impact of MAGL on inflammation and fibrosis during chronic liver injury. DESIGN: C57BL/6J mice and mice with global invalidation of MAGL (MAGL -/- ), or myeloid-specific deletion of either MAGL (MAGLMye-/- ), ATG5 (ATGMye-/- ) or CB2 (CB2Mye-/- ), were used...
October 9, 2018: Gut
Ewa Ambrożewicz, Piotr Wójcik, Adam Wroński, Wojciech Łuczaj, Anna Jastrząb, Neven Žarković, Elżbieta Skrzydlewska
Inflammatory granulocytes are characterized by an oxidative burst, which may promote oxidative stress and lipid modification both in affected tissues and on a systemic level. On the other hand, redox signaling involving lipid peroxidation products acting as second messengers of free radicals play important yet not fully understood roles in the pathophysiology of inflammation and various stress-associated disorders. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the onset of oxidative stress and alterations of enzyme-dependent lipid metabolism resulting from redox imbalance in granulocytes and plasma obtained from patients with psoriasis vulgaris or psoriatic arthritis in comparison to the healthy subjects...
October 6, 2018: Cells
Sherrica Tai, Tamara Vasiljevik, Alexander M Sherwood, Sarah Eddington, Catheryn D Wilson, Thomas E Prisinzano, William E Fantegrossi
BACKGROUND: Cannabinoids may be useful in the treatment of CNS disorders including drug abuse and addiction, where both CB1R antagonists / inverse agonists and CB2R agonists have shown preclinical efficacy. TV-5-249 and TV-6-41, two novel aminoalkylindoles with dual action as neutral CB1R antagonists and CB2R agonists, previously attenuated abuse-related effects of ethanol in mice. PURPOSE: To further characterize these drugs, TV-5-249 and TV-6-41 were compared with the CB1R antagonist / inverse agonist rimonabant in assays relevant to adverse effects and cannabinoid withdrawal...
September 25, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Nathan I Jacobs, Mark Montebello, Lauren A Monds, Nicholas Lintzeris
OBJECTIVE: To assess Australian psychiatrists' and psychiatry trainees' knowledge about and attitudes towards medicinal cannabinoids, given the recent relaxation of cannabinoid-prescribing laws in Australia. METHOD: All Australian members of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists were invited to participate in an anonymous, 64-item online questionnaire, through Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists' newsletters. The questionnaire ran for a 10-week period from March to May 2017...
October 9, 2018: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
Whitney C Brown, Weijun Wang, Maria Testa
Background: Among college students, interpersonal conflict with others is a common, yet stressful negative interpersonal experience. Research suggests that drinking episodes may contribute to the occurrence of conflict. Marijuana use, independently or in conjunction with alcohol, may also influence the likelihood of subsequent conflict. Objectives: We considered the temporal effects of independent and simultaneous alcohol and marijuana use episodes on the occurrence of interpersonal conflict...
2018: Cannabis
José A Crippa, Francisco S Guimarães, Alline C Campos, Antonio W Zuardi
Background: Among the many cannabinoids in the cannabis plant, cannabidiol (CBD) is a compound that does not produce the typical subjective effects of marijuana. Objectives: The aim of the present review is to describe the main advances in the development of the experimental and clinical use of cannabidiol CBD in neuropsychiatry. Methods: A non-systematic search was performed for studies dealing with therapeutic applications of CBD, especially performed by Brazilian researchers. Results: CBD was shown to have anxiolytic, antipsychotic and neuroprotective properties...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Nicholas Nacca, Rachel Schult, Robert Loflin, Adam Weltler, Rachel Gorodetsky, Sherri Kacinko, Jeffery Moran, Alex Krotulski, Timothy Wiegand
BACKGROUND: Synthetic cannabinoid intoxication has become difficult to diagnose and manage in the United States, in part due to varying clinical effects within this heterogeneous group of compounds. CASE REPORT: A 38-year-old man was admitted with altered mental status and bradycardia. He demonstrated progressive encephalopathy, seizure activity, second-degree atrioventricular block type I, respiratory failure, hypotension, hypothermia, and hypoglycemia. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis revealed multiple packages in the patient's stomach and rectum...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
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