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Razavi Hashemi M, Vahabpour R, Ranji N, Sanati Mh, Mapar M, Sadat Sm
BACKGROUND: Acute T Cell Leukemia (ALL) is an aggressive and prevalent human malignancy. Chemotherapy is the most frequent therapeutic strategy; however, cytotoxicity and recurrence of cancer are the main concerns. The discovery of microRNA (miRNA) drew the attention of scientists who were working on targeted cancer therapy to use the potential of gene regulation by using this small RNAs. METHODS: miRanda, TargetScan, miRDB databases, and miRWalk software were applied to find probable miRNAs targeting 3'UTR of JAK1, STAT3, SOCS6, AKT1, APAF, BID, and Caspase9 mRNA...
October 1, 2018: Clinical Laboratory
Lloyd J W Tack, Ellen Maris, Leendert H J Looijenga, Sabine E Hannema, Laura Audi, Birgit Köhler, Paul-Martin Holterhus, Stefan Riedl, Amy Wisniewski, Christa E Flück, Justin H Davies, Guy T Apos Sjoen, Angela K Lucas-Herald, Olcay Evliyaoglu, Nils Krone, Violeta Iotova, Otilia Marginean, Antonio Balsamo, Gilvydas Verkauskas, Naomi Weintrob, Mona Ellaithi, Anna Nordenström, Annemarie Verrijn Stuart, Kirsten B Kluivers, Katja P Wolffenbuttel, S Faisal Ahmed, Martine Cools
BACKGROUND: Complete and partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS, PAIS) are associated with an increased risk of gonadal germ cell cancer (GGCC). Recent guidelines recommend gonadectomy in women with CAIS in late adolescence. Nevertheless, many adult women prefer to retain their gonads. AIMS: This study aims to explore attitudes towards gonadectomy in AIS in centres around the world, estimate the proportion of adults with retained gonads and/or who developed GGCC, and explore reasons for declining gonadectomy...
October 18, 2018: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
Aidin Lak, Marco Cassani, Binh T Mai, Naomi Winckelmans, David Cabrera, Elaheh Sadrollahi, Sergio Marras, Hilke Remmer, Sergio Fiorito, Lucia Cremades-Jimeno, Fred Jochen Litterst, Frank Ludwig, Liberato Manna, Francisco J Teran, Sara Bals, Teresa Pellegrino
Herein, by studying a stepwise phase transformation of 23 nm FeO-Fe3O4 core-shell nanocubes into Fe3O4, we identify a composition at which the magnetic heating performance of the nanocubes is not affected by the medium viscosity and aggregation. Structural and magnetic characterizations reveal the transformation of the FeO-Fe3O4 nanocubes from having stoichiometric phase compositions into Fe2+ deficient Fe3O4 phases. The resultant nanocubes contain tiny compressed and randomly distributed FeO sub-domains as well as structural defects...
October 18, 2018: Nano Letters
Patricia A Parker, Smita C Banerjee, Matthew J Matasar, Carma L Bylund, Madeline Rogers, Kara Franco, Elizabeth Schofield, Yuelin Li, Tomer T Levin, Paul B Jacobsen, Alan B Astrow, Howard Leventhal, Steven Horwitz, David Kissane
BACKGROUND: Survivors of cancer often describe a sense of abandonment after treatment along with heightened uncertainty and limited knowledge of what lies ahead. This study examined the efficacy of a survivorship care plan (SCP) intervention to help physicians to address survivorship issues through communication skills training plus a new consultation focused on the use of an SCP for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. METHODS: This 4-site cluster randomized trial examined the efficacy of a survivorship planning consultation (SPC) in patients who achieved complete remission after the completion of first-line therapy (for the SPC, physicians received communication skills training and, using an SCP, applied those skills in a survivorship-focused office visit) versus a control arm in which physicians were trained in and subsequently provided a time-controlled, manualized wellness rehabilitation consultation (WRC) focused only on discussion of healthy nutrition and exercise as rehabilitation after chemotherapy...
October 18, 2018: Cancer
Qiong Xu, Yu Zou, Xiao Fei Zhang
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to report the clinical features, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, clinical management, and prognoses of 7 patients with Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors (SLCT) of ovary, and to review the literature of this rare condition. METHODS: Seven patients with pathologically confirmed ovarian SLCT were included. Their clinical, CT and MRI characteristics (CT images obtained from 6 patients and MR images from 4 patients), clinical management, and prognoses of 7 patients were retrospectively analyzed...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Jianwei Lin, Yuchen Hou, Shanzhou Huang, Ziming Wang, Chengjun Sun, Zekang Wang, Xiaoshun He, Nga Lei Tam, Chenglin Wu, Linwei Wu
Exportin-T (XPOT) belongs to the RAN-GTPase exportin family that mediates export of tRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Up-regulation of XPOT indicates poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. However, the correlation between XPOT and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. Here, we found that high expression of XPOT in HCC indicated worse prognosis via bioinformatics analysis. Consistently, immunohistochemical staining of 95 pairs of tumors and adjacent normal liver tissues (ANLT) also showed up-regulation of XPOT...
October 18, 2018: Molecular Carcinogenesis
N V Mitiushkina, M M Holmatov, A R Venina, V I Tiurin, G A Yanus, T N Sokolova, O S Yatsuk, O A Zaitseva, A O Ivantsov, E Sh Kuligina, A V Togo, E N Imyanitov
In contrast to other countries with predominantly White population, Russian smoking-related lung cancers (LC) are represented mainly by squamous cell carcinomas, while approximately a half of lung adenocarcinomas (AdCa) observed in this country are not related to tobacco consumption. Given that smoking significantly influences the probability of the presence of actionable mutations in LC, one would expect that Russian lung AdCa patients would differ from other Whites with respect to distribution of EGFR, ALK, KRAS and BRAF mutations...
September 4, 2018: Neoplasma
Lufang Zhang, Lushan Wang, Dong Dong, Zhiyong Wang, Wei Ji, Man Yu, Fei Zhang, Ruifang Niu, Yunli Zhou
OBJECTIVES: MiR-34 is a tumour suppressor in breast cancer. Neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R), which is the predicted target of the miR-34 family, is overexpressed in many cancers. This study investigated the correlation and clinical significance of miR-34 and NK1R in breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Western blotting, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) and luciferase assays were conducted to analyse the regulation of NK1R by miR-34 in MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, T47D, SK-BR-3 and HEK-293 T cells...
October 17, 2018: Cell Proliferation
Rubén D Piacentini, Lara Sofía Della Ceca, Adriana Ipiña
Climate change is affecting both the environment and human behaviour. One significant impact is related to health, as detailed in the IPCC 2014 report. In the present work, and as a contribution to this commemorative special issue to Prof. Dr Jan van der Leun, we present the results of the squamous (SCC) and basal-cell carcinoma (BCC) incidence change in relation to the ambient temperature increase. This increase is produced by global warming, mainly induced by anthropogenic atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases...
October 18, 2018: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
Moshe C Ornstein, Jorge A Garcia
Background: Checkpoint inhibitors (CPI) have now been established as standard agents in the management of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Given the unique toxicity profiles of CPIs, a detailed understanding of their incidence rate and characteristics is critical. Objective: To perform a systematic review for the analysis of the incidence rate and characteristics of toxicities in mRCC patients treated with CPIs in published clinical trials. Methods: A systematic search of EMBASE (Ovid) and MEDLINE (Ovid) was conducted as per PRISMA guidelines to identify prospective clinical trials of checkpoint inhibitors in mRCC...
November 27, 2017: Kidney cancer
Moss Bruton Joe, Pauline T Truong
The abscopal effect is a rare phenomenon in the treatment of metastatic cancer where tumor regression occurs distant from the irradiated volume. It is thought that local radiation induces immunogenic cell death by systemically enhancing the host's antitumor immune system. We present a rare case of the abscopal effect in esophageal adenocarcinoma. After palliative radiation therapy to the primary tumor and adjacent lymph nodes, a complete response was observed not only in the irradiated tissues, but also in non-irradiated metastatic lymph nodes...
August 2, 2018: Curēus
Mi Deng, Xun Gui, Jaehyup Kim, Li Xie, Weina Chen, Zunling Li, Licai He, Yuanzhi Chen, Heyu Chen, Weiguang Luo, Zhigang Lu, Jingjing Xie, Hywyn Churchill, Yixiang Xu, Zhan Zhou, Guojin Wu, Chenyi Yu, Samuel John, Kouyuki Hirayasu, Nam Nguyen, Xiaoye Liu, Fangfang Huang, Leike Li, Hui Deng, Haidong Tang, Ali H Sadek, Lingbo Zhang, Tao Huang, Yizhou Zou, Benjamin Chen, Hong Zhu, Hisashi Arase, Ningshao Xia, Youxing Jiang, Robert Collins, M James You, Jade Homsi, Nisha Unni, Cheryl Lewis, Guo-Qiang Chen, Yang-Xin Fu, X Charlene Liao, Zhiqiang An, Junke Zheng, Ningyan Zhang, Cheng Cheng Zhang
Immune checkpoint blockade therapy has been successful in treating some types of cancer but has not shown clinical benefits for treating leukaemia1 . This result suggests that leukaemia uses unique mechanisms to evade this therapy. Certain immune inhibitory receptors that are expressed by normal immune cells are also present on leukaemia cells. Whether these receptors can initiate immune-related primary signalling in tumour cells remains unknown. Here we use mouse models and human cells to show that LILRB4, an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif-containing receptor and a marker of monocytic leukaemia, supports tumour cell infiltration into tissues and suppresses T cell activity via a signalling pathway that involves APOE, LILRB4, SHP-2, uPAR and ARG1 in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) cells...
October 17, 2018: Nature
Yuh-Cheng Yang, Tzu-Yang Chang, Tze-Chien Chen, Wen-Shan Lin, Chiung-Ling Lin, Yann-Jinn Lee
Genetic epidemiological studies show that genetic factors contribute significantly to cervical cancer carcinogenesis. Several genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed novel genetic variants associated with cervical cancer susceptibility. We aim to replicate 4 GWAS-identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which were associated with invasive cervical cancer in Chinese women, in a Taiwanese population. The rs13117307 C/T, rs8067378 A/G, rs4282438 G/T, and rs9277952 A/G SNPs were genotyped in 507 women with cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) and 432 age/sex matched healthy controls by using TaqMan PCR Assay...
October 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Saad O Atiq, Osman O Atiq, Mohammad O Atiq, Kara C Phillips, Blake B Jacks, Mauricio Moreno, Sanjay Maraboyina, Omar T Atiq
BACKGROUND Cancer is the second leading cause of death internationally, resulting in millions of deaths each year. While treatment in the past has heavily relied on surgery and radiotherapy, chemotherapy and immunotherapy are being increasingly utilized depending on disease presentation. CASE REPORT A 56-year-old male presented to the Emergency Department with a 3-week history of a rapidly enlarging left supraclavicular neck mass. Computed tomography scan revealed a 12×13 cm mass extending from the angle of the mandible to the supraclavicular area...
October 18, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
Heather L Kinkead, Alexander Hopkins, Eric Lutz, Annie A Wu, Mark Yarchoan, Kayla Cruz, Skylar Woolman, Teena Vithayathil, Laura H Glickman, Chudi O Ndubaku, Sarah M McWhirter, Thomas W Dubensky, Todd D Armstrong, Elizabeth M Jaffee, Neeha Zaidi
Tumor neoantigens arising from somatic mutations in the cancer genome are less likely to be subject to central immune tolerance and are therefore attractive targets for vaccine immunotherapy. We utilized whole-exome sequencing, RNA sequencing (RNASeq), and an in silico immunogenicity prediction algorithm, NetMHC, to generate a neoantigen-targeted vaccine, PancVAX, which was administered together with the STING adjuvant ADU-V16 to mice bearing pancreatic adenocarcinoma (Panc02) cells. PancVAX activated a neoepitope-specific T cell repertoire within the tumor and caused transient tumor regression...
October 18, 2018: JCI Insight
Naoki Takasaka, Robert I Seed, Anthony Cormier, Andrew J Bondesson, Jianlong Lou, Ahmed Elattma, Saburo Ito, Haruhiko Yanagisawa, Mitsuo Hashimoto, Royce Ma, Michelle D Levine, Jean Publicover, Rashaun Potts, Jillian M Jespersen, Melody G Campbell, Fraser Conrad, James D Marks, Yifan Cheng, Jody L Baron, Stephen L Nishimura
TGF-β is a promising immunotherapeutic target. It is expressed ubiquitously in a latent form that must be activated to function. Determination of where and how latent TGF-β (L-TGF-β) is activated in the tumor microenvironment could facilitate cell- and mechanism-specific approaches to immunotherapeutically target TGF-β. Binding of L-TGF-β to integrin αvβ8 results in activation of TGF-β. We engineered and used αvβ8 antibodies optimized for blocking or detection, which - respectively - inhibit tumor growth in syngeneic tumor models or sensitively and specifically detect β8 in human tumors...
October 18, 2018: JCI Insight
Farideh Ordikhani, Mayuko Uehara, Vivek Kasinath, Li Dai, Siawosh K Eskandari, Baharak Bahmani, Merve Yonar, Jamil R Azzi, Yousef Haik, Peter T Sage, George F Murphy, Nasim Annabi, Tobias Schatton, Indira Guleria, Reza Abdi
Recent studies in cancer research have focused intensely on the antineoplastic effects of immune checkpoint inhibitors. While the development of these inhibitors has progressed successfully, strategies to further improve their efficacy and reduce their toxicity are still needed. We hypothesized that the delivery of anti-PD-1 antibody encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles (anti-PD-1 NPs) to the spleen would improve the antitumor effect of this agent. Unexpectedly, we found that mice treated with a high dose of anti-PD-1 NPs exhibited significantly higher mortality compared with those treated with free anti-PD-1 antibody, due to the overactivation of T cells...
October 18, 2018: JCI Insight
Tracy Murray Stewart, Tiffany T Dunston, Patrick M Woster, Robert A Casero
Polyamines (PAs) are indispensable polycations ubiquitous to all living cells. Among their many critical functions, PAs contribute to the oxidative balance of the cell. Beginning with studies by the Tabor laboratory in bacteria and yeast, the requirement for PAs as protectors against oxygen radical-mediated damage has been well established in many organisms, including mammals. However, PAs also serve as substrates for oxidation reactions that produce hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) both intra- and extracellularly...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Yuqing Zhang, Amanda Kirane, Huocong Huang, Noah B Sorrelle, Francis J Burrows, Michael T Dellinger, Rolf A Brekken
Resistance to standard therapy remains a major challenge in the treatment of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). Although anti-VEGF therapy delays PDA progression, therapy-induced hypoxia results in a less differentiated mesenchymal-like tumor cell phenotype, which reinforces the need for effective companion therapies. COX-2 inhibition has been shown to promote tumor cell differentiation and improve standard therapy response in PDA. Here, we evaluate the efficacy of COX-2 inhibition and VEGF blockade in preclinical models of PDA...
October 17, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Xiudong Guan, Lanxin Luo, Gulnaz Begum, Gary Kohanbash, Qingkun Song, Aparna Rao, Nduka Amankulor, Baoshan Sun, Dandan Sun, Wang Jia
BACKGROUND: Sodium/hydrogen exchanger 1 (NHE1), encoded by the SLC9A1 gene (SoLute Carrier family 9A1) in humans, is the main H+ efflux mechanism in maintaining alkaline intracellular pH (pHi ) and Warburg effects in glioma. However, to date, there are no clinical studies exploring pharmacological inhibition of NHE1 protein in cancer treatment. In this study, we investigated NHE1 expression in gliomas and its relationship with glioma clinical outcome. METHODS: The Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA) dataset containing transcriptome sequencing data of 325 glioma samples and the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) with 698 glioma mRNAseq data were analyzed in this study...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
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