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Jennifer H MacLachlan, Benjamin C Cowie
Background: The Department of Health and Human Services in Victoria provides funded hepatitis B vaccine to many priority groups at risk of acquiring infection. We aimed to determine the uptake of vaccine ordering for at-risk groups over time, to assess any trends and identify any gaps in prevention of hepatitis B for those at risk. Methods: Routinely collected administrative data regarding the indication for vaccine ordered by practitioners were analysed for the period June 2013 to December 2014. Number of doses and courses distributed was determined and compared with the estimated size of the priority populations...
October 21, 2016: Sexual Health
Shu-Ling Hoshi, Masahide Kondo, Ichiro Okubo
Two rotavirus vaccines are currently available in Japan. We estimated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of routine infant rotavirus immunisation programme without defining which vaccine to be evaluated, which reflects the current deliberation at the Health Science Council in charge of Immunisation and Vaccine established by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan. Three ICERs were estimated, one from payers' perspective and two from societal perspective depending on the scenarios to uptake vaccines...
October 20, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Megan K Young, Joseph Bertolini, Pushpa Kotharu, Darryl Maher, Allan W Cripps
The effectiveness of passive immunisation post-exposure to measles appears subject to a dose-response effect. New Zealand and the United Kingdom have increased the recommended dose of polyclonal human immunoglobulin for post-exposure prophylaxis within the last decade in response to concerns about decreasing levels of measles antibodies in these products. This study used the plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT) to measure the titre of measles-specific antibodies in Australian immunoglobulin products for post-exposure prophylaxis and compared the utility of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to the PRNT in available Australian and international samples: Australian intramuscular (n = 10), Australian intravenous (n = 28), New Zealand intramuscular (n = 2), Hizentra (subcutaneous)(USA) (n = 3), and Privigen (intravenous)(USA) (n = 2)...
October 20, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
A Fitzner, W Niedbalski
Seroprevalence studies of RHDV antibodies in domestic rabbits were conducted between 2008-2014. A total of 12,169 sera from the provinces of central, southern and south-east Poland, including 7,570 samples collected from mixed-breed rabbits reared in smallholder farms and nearly 4,600 sera taken mainly from unvaccinated rabbits kept in industrial farms, were examined using ELISA tests. Additionally, cross-reactivity of selected tested and control archival sera using both classic RHDV and RHDVa antigens was determined by HI assay...
September 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Thaís L Oliveira, Kátia L Bacelo, Rodrigo A Schuch, Fabiana K Seixas, Tiago Collares, Oscar Ed Rodrigues, Josimar Vargas, Rafaella O do Nascimento, Odir A Dellagostin, Daiane D Hartwig
Immunisation with the C-terminal region of leptospiral immunoglobulin-like A protein (LigANI) has shown promising results against leptospirosis. We evaluated the humoral immune response and protection induced by LigANI associated with carboxyl multi-walled carbon nanotubes (COOH-MWCNTs), CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODNs), or Alhydrogel. Animals immunised with CpG ODNs were unable to develop a humoral immune response, whereas immunisation with LigANI and COOH-MWCNTs produced a high level of IgG antibodies, similar to that with LigANI and Alhydrogel, but it was not protective...
October 13, 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Sarah A Overall, Dorothée Bourges, Ian R van Driel, Paul A Gleeson
How the immune system maintains peripheral tolerance under inflammatory conditions is poorly understood. Here we assessed the fate of gastritogenic T cells following inflammatory activation in vivo. Self-reactive T cells (A23 T cells) specific for the gastric H(+) /K(+) ATPase α subunit (HKα) were transferred into immunosufficient recipient mice and immunised at a site distant to the stomach with adjuvant containing the cognate HKα peptide antigen. Activation of A23 T cells by immunisation did not impact on either immune tolerance or protection from gastric autoimmunity in wild-type BALB/c mice...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Immunology
Katrina L Randall
Rituximab is a monoclonal antibody that depletes B cells from the circulation. It was originally used to treat lymphoma but is increasingly used for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Rituximab was found to be effective in randomised controlled trials for rheumatoid arthritis, granulomatosis with polyangiitis and other antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitides. However, evidence of efficacy is very limited for many other autoimmune conditions. Before starting rituximab, it is important to check the patient's baseline immunoglobulins and immunisation status...
August 2016: Australian Prescriber
Susanna Sainio, Kaija Javela, Jarno Tuimala, Katri Haimila
Lack of reliable laboratory parameters is the main challenge in the management of fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT). Despite the long-known association between the HLA-DRB3*01:01 allele and human platelet antigen 1a (HPA-1a) alloimmunisation, maternal human leucocyte antigen (HLA) typing has been of little clinical value. Recently, other DRB3 allele variants have been suggested to predict the severity of FNAIT. In this nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study, we performed extensive HLA typing of 96 women, accounting for 87% of our cohort of 110 families with confirmed or possible HPA-1a-immunisation...
October 17, 2016: British Journal of Haematology
Julie-Anne Quinn, Flor M Munoz, Bernard Gonik, Lourdes Frau, Clare Cutland, Tamala Mallett-Moore, Aimee Kissou, Frederick Wittke, Manoj Das, Tony Nunes, Savia Pye, Wendy Watson, Ana-Maria Alguacil Ramos, Jose F Cordero, Wan-Ting Huang, Sonali Kocchar, Jim Buttery
Preterm birth is commonly defined as any birth before 37 weeks completed weeks of gestation. An estimated 15 million infants are born preterm globally, disproportionately affecting low and middle income countries (LMIC). It contributes directly to estimated one million neonatal deaths annually and is a significant contributor to childhood morbidity. However, in many clinical settings, the information available to calculate completed weeks of gestation varies widely. Accurate dating of the last menstrual period (LMP), as well as access to clinical and ultrasonographic evaluation are important components of gestational age assessment antenatally...
October 13, 2016: Vaccine
Xiu-Zhen Li, Lin Lv, Xu Zhang, Kenneth Yongabi Anchang, Auwalu Yusuf Abdullahi, Liqing Tu, Xiaohu Wang, Lijun Xia, Xiu-Xiang Zhang, Weili Feng, Chunxia Lu, Shoujun Li, Zi-Guo Yuan
We previously demonstrated that the survival time of BALB/c mice challenged with Toxoplasma gondii RH strain was prolonged by immunising the mice with a eukaryotic vector expressing the protein ROP16 of T. gondii. Building upon previous findings, we are exploring improved vaccination strategies to enhance protection. In this work, a novel recombinant canine adenovirus type 2 expressing ROP16 (CAV-2-ROP16) of T. gondii was constructed and identified to express ROP16 in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCK) cells by western blot (WB) and indirect immunofluorescence (IFA) assays...
October 11, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Julian P T Higgins, Karla Soares-Weiser, José A López-López, Artemisia Kakourou, Katherine Chaplin, Hannah Christensen, Natasha K Martin, Jonathan A C Sterne, Arthur L Reingold
OBJECTIVES:  To evaluate the effects on non-specific and all cause mortality, in children under 5, of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP), and standard titre measles containing vaccines (MCV); to examine internal validity of the studies; and to examine any modifying effects of sex, age, vaccine sequence, and co-administration of vitamin A. DESIGN:  Systematic review, including assessment of risk of bias, and meta-analyses of similar studies...
October 13, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Rama Kandasamy, Merryn Voysey, Fiona McQuaid, Karlijn de Nie, Rebecca Ryan, Olivia Orr, Ulrike Uhlig, Charles Sande, Daniel O'Connor, Andrew J Pollard
OBJECTIVE:  To identify and characterise non-specific immunological effects after routine childhood vaccines against BCG, measles, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus. DESIGN:  Systematic review of randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, and case-control studies. DATA SOURCES:  Embase, PubMed, Cochrane library, and Trip searched between 1947 and January 2014. Publications submitted by a panel of experts in the specialty were also included...
October 13, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Alice C Fraser, Sarah E Williams, Sarah X Kong, Lucy E Wells, Louise S Goodall, Sabrina Pit, Vibeke Hansen, Marianne Trent
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to explore the impact of implementation of the Public Health Amendment (Vaccination of Children Attending Child Care Facilities) Act 2013 on child-care centres in the Northern Rivers region of New South Wales (NSW), from the perspective of child-care centre directors. Importance of study: Immunisation is an effective public health intervention, but more than 75 000 Australian children are not fully vaccinated. A recent amendment to the NSW Public Health Act 2010 asks child-care facilities to collect evidence of complete vaccination or approved exemption before allowing enrolment...
April 15, 2016: Public Health Research & Practice
Grigoriy E Gurvits, Gloria Lan, Amy Tan, Arlene Weissman
BACKGROUND: Increasing prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) poses significant challenges to medical community. Preventive medicine, including vaccination against opportunistic infections, is important in decreasing morbidity and mortality in patients with IBD. We conduct first study to evaluate general awareness and adherence to immunisation guidelines by primary care physicians in the USA. METHODS: We administered an electronic questionnaire to the research panel of the American College of Physicians (ACP) assessing current vaccination practices, barriers to vaccination and provider responsibility for administering vaccinations and compared responses with the European Crohn's and Colitis Organization consensus guidelines and expert opinion from the USA...
October 12, 2016: Postgraduate Medical Journal
Harry W Wright, Kathryn Bartley, John F Huntley, Alasdair J Nisbet
BACKGROUND: Dermanyssus gallinae is the most economically important haematophagous ectoparasite in commercial egg laying flocks worldwide. It infests the hens during the night where it causes irritation leading to restlessness, pecking and in extreme cases anaemia and increased cannibalism. Due to an increase in the occurrence of acaricide-resistant D. gallinae populations, new control strategies are required and vaccination may offer a sustainable alternative to acaricides. In this study, recombinant forms of D...
October 12, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Shoaib Fahad Hussain, Peter Boyle, Preeti Patel, Richard Sullivan
Since the launch of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in 1988 the global incidence of poliomyelitis has fallen by nearly 99 %. From a situation where wild type poliovirus was endemic in 125 countries across five continents, transmission is now limited to regions of just three countries - Pakistan, Afghanistan and Nigeria. A sharp increase in Pakistan's poliomyelitis cases in 2014 prompted the International Health Regulations Emergency Committee to declare the situation a 'public health emergency of international concern'...
October 12, 2016: Globalization and Health
K Sanchayan, R Fernandopulle, A Amarasinghe, S N Thiyahiny, S Sri Ranganathan
OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to describe the safety profile of the single dose live attenuated Japanese encephalitis vaccine (LJEV) SA-14-14-2 given at the age of 9 months in the National Immunisation programme of Sri Lanka. METHODS: cohort event monitoring (CEM) was conducted in the Jaffna district during November 2012 to January 2015. A representative sample of 3041 infants who received the LJEV at the age of 9 months was followed up actively over telephone interviews on days 1, 3, 14, 30 and 45 for adverse events (AE)...
2016: Ceylon Medical Journal
Esther van Kleef, Sarah R Deeny, Mark Jit, Barry Cookson, Simon D Goldenberg, W John Edmunds, Julie V Robotham
BACKGROUND: Early clinical trials of a Clostridium difficile toxoid vaccine show efficacy in preventing C. difficile infection (CDI). The optimal patient group to target for vaccination programmes remains unexplored. This study performed a model-based evaluation of the effectiveness of different CDI vaccination strategies, within the context of existing infection prevention and control strategies such as antimicrobial stewardship. METHODS: An individual-based transmission model of CDI in a high-risk hospital setting was developed...
October 7, 2016: Vaccine
Alasdair Bamford, Emma C Manno, Maria Jose Mellado, Vana Spoulou, Laura Marques, Henriette J Scherpbier, Tim Niehues, Agnieszka Oldakowska, Paolo Rossi, Paolo Palma
BACKGROUND: Current national immunisation schedules differ between countries in terms of vaccine formulation, timing of vaccinations and immunisation programme funding and co-ordination. As a result, some HIV infected paediatric population may be left susceptible to vaccine preventable infections. Vaccines used in healthy population should be subjected to high quality ethical research and be explicitly validated for use in children with special vaccination needs such as those infected with HIV...
October 7, 2016: Vaccine
Erik Tenland, Gisela Håkansson, Nader Alaridah, Nataliya Lutay, Anna Rönnholm, Oskar Hallgren, Gunilla Westergren-Thorsson, Gabriela Godaly
Mycobacterium bovis bacilli Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is used as a benchmark to compare the immunogenicity of new vaccines against tuberculosis. This live vaccine is administered intradermal, but several new studies show that changing the route to mucosal immunisation represents an improved strategy. We analysed the immunomodulatory functions of BCG on human neutrophils and primary airway epithelial cells (AECs), as the early events of mucosal immune activation are unclear. Neutrophils and the primary epithelial cells were found to express the IL-17A receptor subunit IL-17RA, while the expression of IL-17RE was only observed on epithelial cells...
2016: PloS One
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