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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156815/the-effect-of-aspirin-on-circulating-netrin-1-levels-in-humans-is-dependent-on-the-inflammatory-status-of-the-vascular-endothelium
#1
Kerry Layne, Timothy Goodman, Albert Ferro, Gabriella Passacquale
In atherosclerotic animal models, the cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-inhibitor aspirin counteracts downregulation of endothelial-derived netrin-1, thus reducing arterial inflammation. We here explored the effect of aspirin on netrin-1 in healthy subjects undergoing influenza immunisation, which is an established experimental model of inflammation-related endothelial dysfunction. Our data showed that netrin-1 undergoes reduction (-29.25% from baseline; p=0.0017) in the presence of endothelial activation (VCAM-1 rose by 9...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155139/the-generation-and-characterisation-of-neutralising-antibodies-against-the-theiler-s-murine-encephalomyelitis-virus-tmev-gdvii-capsid-reveals-the-potential-binding-site-of-the-host-cell-co-receptor-heparan-sulfate
#2
Nicole Upfold, Caroline Ross, Özlem Tastan Bishop, Garry A Luke, Caroline Knox
The early stages of picornavirus capsid assembly and the host factors involved are poorly understood. Since the localisation of viral proteins in infected cells can provide information on their function, antibodies against purified Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) GDVII capsids were generated by immunisation of rabbits. The resultant anti-TMEV capsid antibodies recognised a C-terminal region of VP1 but not VP2 or VP3 by Western analysis. Examination of the sites of TMEV capsid assembly by indirect immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy showed that at 5hours post infection, capsid signal was diffusely cytoplasmic with strong perinuclear staining and moved into large punctate structures from 6 to 8hours post infection...
November 16, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153766/ethnicity-and-maternal-and-child-health-outcomes-and-service-coverage-in-western-china-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Yuan Huang, David Shallcross, Li Pi, Fan Tian, Jay Pan, Carine Ronsmans
BACKGROUND: There is a dearth of accurate information about health outcomes and health service coverage among ethnic minorities in China. We assessed maternal and child health (MCH) outcomes and service coverage among ethnic minorities compared with Han populations in western China. METHODS: We did a systematic review searching English (Embase, MEDLINE, Web of Science) and Chinese (China National Knowledge Infrastructure [CNKI], VIP, Wanfang) databases for population-based studies comparing MCH indicators between ethnic minorities between Jan 1, 1990, and Nov 9, 2016, in any language...
November 16, 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153266/ebola-virus-disease-an-update-on-post-exposure-prophylaxis
#4
REVIEW
William A Fischer, Pauline Vetter, Daniel G Bausch, Timothy Burgess, Richard T Davey, Robert Fowler, Frederick G Hayden, Peter B Jahrling, Andre C Kalil, Douglas L Mayers, Aneesh K Mehta, Timothy M Uyeki, Michael Jacobs
The massive outbreak of Ebola virus disease in west Africa between 2013 and 2016 resulted in intense efforts to evaluate the efficacy of several specific countermeasures developed through years of preclinical work, including the first clinical trials for therapeutics and vaccines. In this Review, we discuss how the experience and data generated from that outbreak have helped to advance the understanding of the use of these countermeasures for post-exposure prophylaxis against Ebola virus infection. In future outbreaks, post-exposure prophylaxis could play an important part in reducing community transmission of Ebola virus by providing more immediate protection than does immunisation as well as providing additional protection for health-care workers who are inadvertently exposed over the course of their work...
November 15, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150057/small-for-gestational-age-case-definition-guidelines-for-data-collection-analysis-and-presentation-of-maternal-immunisation-safety-data
#5
Elizabeth P Schlaudecker, Flor M Munoz, Azucena Bardají, Nansi S Boghossian, Asma Khalil, Hatem Mousa, Mirjana Nesin, Muhammad Imran Nisar, Vitali Pool, Hans M L Spiegel, Milagritos D Tapia, Sonali Kochhar, Steven Black
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 4, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150055/neonatal-encephalopathy-case-definition-guidelines-for-data-collection-analysis-and-presentation-of-maternal-immunisation-safety-data
#6
Erick Sell, Flor M Munoz, Aung Soe, Max Wiznitzer, Paul T Heath, E D Clarke, Hans Spiegel, Daphne Sawlwin, Maja Šubelj, Ilia Tikhonov, Khorshid Mohammad, Sonali Kochhar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 4, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150053/failure-to-thrive-case-definition-guidelines-for-data-collection-analysis-and-presentation-of-maternal-immunisation-safety-data
#7
Elizabeth Ross, Flor M Munoz, Bassey Edem, Cassandra Nan, Fyezah Jehan, Julie Quinn, Tamala Mallett Moore, Sanie Sesay, Hans Spiegel, Librada Fortuna, Sonali Kochhar, Jim Buttery
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 4, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150052/congenital-microcephaly-case-definition-guidelines-for-data-collection-analysis-and-presentation-of-safety-data-after-maternal-immunisation
#8
Malini DeSilva, Flor M Munoz, Erick Sell, Helen Marshall, Alison Tse Kawai, Alisa Kachikis, Paul Heath, Nicola P Klein, James M Oleske, Fyezah Jehan, Hans Spiegel, Mirjana Nesin, Beckie N Tagbo, Anju Shrestha, Clare L Cutland, Linda O Eckert, Sonali Kochhar, Azucena Bardají
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 4, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142508/proteomic-characterisation-of-bovine-and-avian-purified-protein-derivatives-and-identification-of-specific-antigens-for-serodiagnosis-of-bovine-tuberculosis
#9
José Antonio Infantes-Lorenzo, Inmaculada Moreno, María de Los Ángeles Risalde, Álvaro Roy, Margarita Villar, Beatriz Romero, Nieves Ibarrola, José de la Fuente, Eugenia Puentes, Lucía de Juan, Christian Gortázar, Javier Bezos, Lucas Domínguez, Mercedes Domínguez
Background: Bovine purified protein derivative (bPPD) and avian purified protein derivative (aPPD) are widely used for bovine tuberculosis diagnosis. However, little is known about their qualitative and quantitative characteristics, which makes their standardisation difficult. In addition, bPPD can give false-positive tuberculosis results because of sequence homology between Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) and M. avium proteins. Thus, the objective of this study was to carry out a proteomic characterisation of bPPD, aPPD and an immunopurified subcomplex from bPPD called P22 in order to identify proteins contributing to cross-reactivity among these three products in tuberculosis diagnosis...
2017: Clinical Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142125/emergence-of-double-and-triple-gene-reassortant-g1p-8-rotaviruses-possessing-a-ds-1-like-backbone-post-rotavirus-vaccine-introduction-in-malawi
#10
Khuzwayo C Jere, Chrispin Chaguza, Naor Bar-Zeev, Jenna Lowe, Chikondi Peno, Benjamin Kumwenda, Osamu Nakagomi, Jacqueline E Tate, Umesh D Parashar, Robert S Heyderman, Neil French, Nigel A Cunliffe, Iturriza-Gomara Miren
To combat the high burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis, multiple African countries have introduced rotavirus vaccines into their childhood immunisation programmes. Malawi incorporated a G1P[8] rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix™) into its immunisation schedule in 2012. Utilising a surveillance platform of hospitalised rotavirus gastroenteritis cases, we examined the phylodynamics of G1P[8] rotavirus strains that circulated in Malawi before (1998 - 2012) and after (2013 - 2014) vaccine introduction. Analysis of whole genomes obtained through next generation sequencing revealed that all randomly-selected pre-vaccine G1P[8] strains sequenced (n=32) possessed a Wa-like genetic constellation, whereas post-vaccine G1P[8] strains (n=18) had a DS-1-like constellation...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139107/antenatal-influenza-and-pertussis-vaccine-uptake-among-aboriginal-mothers-in-western-australia
#11
Kennia Lotter, Annette K Regan, Tyra Thomas, Paul V Effler, Donna B Mak
BACKGROUND: Antenatal influenza and pertussis vaccination prevent serious disease in mothers and infants. Aboriginal individuals are at increased risk of infection yet little is known about vaccine coverage among Aboriginal mothers. AIMS: To estimate the uptake of influenza and pertussis vaccination among pregnant Aboriginal women in Western Australia and identify barriers and enablers to vaccination. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four hundred Aboriginal women, aged ≥18 years, who gave birth to a live infant between April and October 2015, were randomly selected and invited to participate in telephone interviews...
November 14, 2017: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132993/re-evaluating-the-effect-of-favipiravir-treatment-on-rabies-virus-infection
#12
Ashley C Banyard, Karen L Mansfield, Guanghui Wu, David Selden, Leigh Thorne, Colin Birch, Penelope Koraka, Albert D M E Osterhaus, Anthony R Fooks
There is no antiviral treatment available once clinical disease following rabies virus infection has initiated. Considered a neglected tropical disease, >60,000 human rabies deaths are estimated each year despite the availability of pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis for pre-immunisation or administration following a potential exposure before the onset of clinical disease. Such post-exposure treatments include administration of rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) and vaccination at a distant site to prime a humoral immune response...
November 10, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132992/measuring-the-timeliness-of-childhood-vaccinations-using-cohort-data-and-routine-health-records-to-evaluate-quality-of-immunisation-services
#13
Suzanne Walton, Mario Cortina-Borja, Carol Dezateux, Lucy J Griffiths, Karen Tingay, Ashley Akbari, Amrita Bandyopadhyay, Ronan A Lyons, Helen Bedford
BACKGROUND: To achieve full benefits of vaccination programmes, high uptake and timely receipt of vaccinations are required. OBJECTIVES: To examine uptake and timeliness of infant and pre-school booster vaccines using cohort study data linked to health records. METHODS: We included 1782 children, born between 2000 and 2001, participating in the Millennium Cohort Study and resident in Wales, whose parents gave consent for linkage to National Community Child Health Database records at the age seven year contact...
November 10, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132988/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-a-novel-multiple-antigen-pneumococcal-vaccine-in-adults-a-phase-1-randomised-clinical-trial
#14
Claire Entwisle, Sue Hill, Yin Pang, Michael Joachim, Ann McIlgorm, Camilo Colaco, David Goldblatt, Polly De Gorguette D'Argoeuves, Chris Bailey
BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal vaccines, combining multiple protein antigens, provide an alternative approach to currently marketed vaccines and may provide broader protection against pneumococcal disease. This trial evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of a novel vaccine candidate PnuBioVax in healthy young adults. METHODS: In a Phase 1 double-blind study, 36 subjects (18-40 years) were randomised to receive 3 doses of PnuBioVax, 28 days apart, at one of three dose levels (50, 200, 500 µg) or placebo...
November 10, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128379/active-sms-based-influenza-vaccine-safety-surveillance-in-australian-children
#15
Alexis Pillsbury, Helen Quinn, Patrick Cashman, Alan Leeb, Kristine Macartney
INTRODUCTION: Australia's novel, active surveillance system, AusVaxSafety, monitors the post-market safety of vaccines in near real time. We analysed cumulative surveillance data for children aged 6 months to 4 years who received seasonal influenza vaccine in 2015 and/or 2016 to determine: adverse event following immunisation (AEFI) rates by vaccine brand, age and concomitant vaccine administration. METHODS: Parent/carer reports of AEFI occurring within 3 days of their child receiving an influenza vaccine in sentinel immunisation clinics were solicited by Short Message Service (SMS) and/or email-based survey...
November 8, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127227/protocol-for-hospital-based-surveillance-of-cerebral-palsy-cp-in-hanoi-using-the-paediatric-active-enhanced-disease-surveillance-mechanism-paeds-vietnam-a-study-towards-developing-hospital-based-disease-surveillance-in-vietnam
#16
Gulam Khandaker, Nguyen Van Bang, Trịnh Quang Dũng, Nguyen Thi Huong Giang, Cao Minh Chau, Nguyen Thi Van Anh, Nguyen Van Thuong, Nadia Badawi, Elizabeth J Elliott
INTRODUCTION: The epidemiology, pathogenesis, management and outcomes of cerebral palsy (CP) in low-income and middle-income countries including Vietnam are unknown because of the lack of mechanisms for standardised collection of data. In this paper, we outline the protocol for developing a hospital-based surveillance system modelled on the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) system in Australia. Using PAEDS-Vietnam we will define the aetiology, motor function and its severity, associated impairments, and nutritional and rehabilitation status of children with CP in Hanoi, Vietnam...
November 9, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124321/vaccine-responses-in-newborns
#17
REVIEW
Anja Saso, Beate Kampmann
Immunisation of the newborn represents a key global strategy in overcoming morbidity and mortality due to infection in early life. Potential limitations, however, include poor immunogenicity, safety concerns and the development of tolerogenicity or hypo-responsiveness to either the same antigen and/or concomitant antigens administered at birth or in the subsequent months. Furthermore, the neonatal immunological milieu is polarised towards Th2-type immunity with dampening of Th1-type responses and impaired humoral immunity, resulting in qualitatively and quantitatively poorer antibody responses compared to older infants...
November 9, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122995/families-first-home-visiting-programme-reduces-population-level-child-health-and-social-inequities
#18
Mariette Chartier, Nathan C Nickel, Dan Chateau, Jennifer E Enns, Michael R Isaac, Alan Katz, Joykrishna Sarkar, Elaine Burland, Carole Taylor, Marni Brownell
BACKGROUND: Home visiting has been shown to reduce child maltreatment and improve child health outcomes. In this observational study, we explored whether Families First, a home visiting programme in Manitoba, Canada, decreased population-level inequities in children being taken into care of child welfare and receiving complete childhood immunisations. METHODS: De-identified administrative health and social services data for children born 2003-2009 in Manitoba were linked to home visiting programme data...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120017/review-of-maternal-immunisation-during-pregnancy-focus-on-pertussis-and-influenza
#19
Géraldine Blanchard-Rohner, Christiane Eberhardt
Seasonal influenza and pertussis infections are known to be significant causes of morbidity and mortality in neonates and infants worldwide. Influenza has also been associated with severe complications in pregnant women and after delivery. The most efficient and safe strategy to protect mothers and their offspring is maternal immunisation during pregnancy. The maternal antibodies thus acquired are transferred to the fetus as of the second trimester and confer passive immunity until the first infant immunisations...
November 9, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096669/anti-carbamylated-protein-antibodies-precede-disease-onset-in-monkeys-with-collagen-induced-arthritis
#20
Marije K Verheul, Michel P M Vierboom, Bert A 't Hart, Rene E M Toes, Leendert A Trouw
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid factor (RF), anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) and anti-carbamylated protein (anti-CarP) antibodies are rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-associated autoantibodies. Besides their presence in human serum, anti-CarP antibodies have also been described in rodent models of arthritis, while ACPA are not consistently detectable. Data on these RA-associated autoantibodies in primates are not available. Therefore, we investigated the presence of RF, anti-CarP antibodies and ACPA in rhesus monkeys before and after collagen-induced arthritis immunizations...
November 2, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
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