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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924272/achievements-of-healthcare-services-vis-a-vis-the-mdg-targets-evidence-from-pakistan
#1
Saeeda Batool, Ather Maqsood Ahmed
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of public healthcare facilities and socio-economic circumstances on the status of child health. METHODS: The study was conducted at the School of Social Sciences and Humanities of the National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan. The human opportunity index framework was used to measure the trends in health inequalities and coverage using Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurement dataset from year 2001-02 to 2012-13 at national and provincial levels...
September 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923897/controlled-human-malaria-infection-applications-advances-and-challenges
#2
Danielle I Stanisic, James S McCarthy, Michael F Good
Controlled Human Malaria Infection (CHMI) entails deliberate infection with malaria parasites either by mosquito bite or direct injection of sporozoites or parasitised erythrocytes. When required, the resulting blood-stage infection is curtailed by the administration of anti-malarial drugs. Inducing a malaria infection via inoculation with infected blood was first used as a treatment (malariotherapy) for neurosyphilis in Europe and the United States in the early 1900s. More recently, CHMI has been applied to the fields of malaria vaccine and drug development where it is used to evaluate products in well-controlled early phase proof-of-concept clinical studies thus facilitating progression of only the most promising candidates for further evaluation in malaria-endemic areas...
September 18, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918379/infanrix-hexa-and-sudden-death-a-review-of-the-periodic-safety-update-reports-submitted-to-the-european-medicines-agency
#3
Jacob Puliyel, C Sathyamala
There have been a number of spontaneous reports of sudden unexpected death soon after the administration of Infanrix hexa (combined diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, hepatitis B, inactivated poliomyelitis and Haemophilus influenza type B vaccine). The manufacturer, GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), submits confidential periodic safety update reports (PSURs) on Infanrix hexa to the European Medicines Agency (EMA). The latest is the PSUR 19. Each PSUR contains an analysis of observed/expected sudden deaths, which shows that the number of observed deaths soon after immunisation is lower than that expected by chance...
September 5, 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917537/hbcag-produced-in-transgenic-tobacco-triggers-th1-and-th2-response-when-intramuscularly-delivered
#4
Marcin Pyrski, Anna Rugowska, Kamil Robert Wierzbiński, Anna Kasprzyk, Maria Bogusiewicz, Piotr Bociąg, Sławomir Samardakiewicz, Marcin Czyż, Maciej Kurpisz, Tomasz Pniewski
Hepatitis B core Antigen (HBcAg) assembled into Capsid-Like Particles (CLPs) is investigated as a therapeutic vaccine in treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and in diagnostic tests or as a carrier for various epitopes. While the expression of HBcAg has been thoroughly clarified in E. coli and yeast, it has also been investigated in other expression systems. Stably transformed tobacco expressed HBcAg at a level of 110-250µg/g fresh weight, therefore in view of its large leaf biomass it offers a production platform comparable with transient expression systems regarding the final yield of HBcAg...
September 13, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917316/humoral-and-cytokine-response-elicited-during-immunisation-with-recombinant-immune-mapped-protein-1-etimp-1-and-oocysts-of-eimeria-tenella
#5
Krishnendu Kundu, Rajat Garg, Saroj Kumar, Mrityunjay Mandal, Fiona M Tomley, Damer P Blake, Partha Sarathi Banerjee
Eimeria tenella, the causative agent of caecal coccidiosis, is a pathogenic gut dwelling protozoan which can cause severe morbidity and mortality in farmed chickens. Immune mapped protein-1 (IMP-1) has been identified as an anticoccidial vaccine candidate; in the present study allelic polymorphism was assessed across the IMP-1 coding sequence in E. tenella isolates from four countries and compared with the UK reference Houghton strain. Nucleotide diversity was low, limited to expansion/contraction of a CAG triplet repeat and five substitutions, three of which were non-synonymous...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917313/field-evaluation-of-poultry-red-mite-dermanyssus-gallinae-native-and-recombinant-prototype-vaccines
#6
Kathryn Bartley, Frank Turnbull, Harry W Wright, John F Huntley, Javier Palarea-Albaladejo, Mintu Nath, Alasdair J Nisbet
Vaccination is a desirable emerging strategy to combat poultry red mite (PRM), Dermanyssus gallinae. We performed trials, in laying hens in a commercial-style cage facility, to test the vaccine efficacy of a native preparation of soluble mite extract (SME) and of a recombinant antigen cocktail vaccine containing bacterially-expressed versions of the immunogenic SME proteins Deg-SRP-1, Deg-VIT-1 and Deg-PUF-1. Hens (n=384 per group) were injected with either vaccine or adjuvant only (control group) at 12 and 17 weeks of age and then challenged with PRM 10days later...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915996/alternative-strategy-for-visceral-leishmaniosis-control-hisak70-salmonella-choleraesuis-pulsed-dendritic-cells
#7
Gustavo Domínguez-Bernal, Abel Martínez-Rodrigo, Alicia Mas, M Mar Blanco, José A Orden, Ricardo De La Fuente, Javier Carrión
Here, we describe a novel approach that exploits an attenuated mutant of Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis as carrier to deliver a plasmid encoding protein HisAK70. Subsequently, dendritic cells (DCs) were pulsed with this vaccine vector. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the prepared HisAK70-S. Choleraesuis-pulsed DCs (HisAK70-SAL DCs) against visceral leishmaniosis (VL). In our ex vivo model of infection, the prepared formulations could decrease parasite growth by up to 80% by augmenting the production of IL-12p40 and by reducing arginase activity (ARG)...
October 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911764/global-respiratory-syncytial-virus-associated-mortality-in-young-children-rsv-gold-a-retrospective-case-series
#8
Nienke M Scheltema, Angela Gentile, Florencia Lucion, D James Nokes, Patrick K Munywoki, Shabir A Madhi, Michelle J Groome, Cheryl Cohen, Jocelyn Moyes, Kentigern Thorburn, Somsak Thamthitiwat, Hitoshi Oshitani, Socorro P Lupisan, Aubree Gordon, José F Sánchez, Katherine L O'Brien, Bradford D Gessner, Agustinus Sutanto, Asuncion Mejias, Octavio Ramilo, Najwa Khuri-Bulos, Natasha Halasa, Fernanda de-Paris, Márcia Rosane Pires, Michael C Spaeder, Bosco A Paes, Eric A F Simões, Ting F Leung, Maria Tereza da Costa Oliveira, Carla Cecília de Freitas Lázaro Emediato, Quique Bassat, Warwick Butt, Hsin Chi, Uzma Bashir Aamir, Asad Ali, Marilla G Lucero, Rodrigo A Fasce, Olga Lopez, Barbara A Rath, Fernando P Polack, Jesse Papenburg, Srđan Roglić, Hisato Ito, Edward A Goka, Diederick E Grobbee, Harish Nair, Louis J Bont
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is an important cause of pneumonia mortality in young children. However, clinical data for fatal RSV infection are scarce. We aimed to identify clinical and socioeconomic characteristics of children aged younger than 5 years with RSV-related mortality using individual patient data. METHODS: In this retrospective case series, we developed an online questionnaire to obtain individual patient data for clinical and socioeconomic characteristics of children aged younger than 5 years who died with community-acquired RSV infection between Jan 1, 1995, and Oct 31, 2015, through leading research groups for child pneumonia identified through a comprehensive literature search and existing research networks...
October 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899625/cost-effectiveness-of-hpv-vaccination-in-the-context-of-high-cervical-cancer-incidence-and-low-screening-coverage
#9
Triin Võrno, Katrin Lutsar, Anneli Uusküla, Lee Padrik, Terje Raud, Rainer Reile, Oliver Nahkur, Raul-Allan Kiivet
BACKGROUND: Estonia has high cervical cancer incidence and low screening coverage. We modelled the impact of population-based bivalent, quadrivalent or nonavalent HPV vaccination alongside cervical cancer screening. METHODS: A Markov cohort model of the natural history of HPV infection was used to assess the cost-effectiveness of vaccinating a cohort of 12-year-old girls with bivalent, quadrivalent or nonavalent vaccine in two doses in a national, school-based vaccination programme...
September 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898612/-paediatric-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-before-universal-vaccination-1995-2015
#10
Muriel Ferreira, Henrique Oliveira, Nuno Costa Silva, Luís Januário, Fernanda Rodrigues
INTRODUCTION: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was introduced in the private market in Portugal in 2001, reaching over the years a moderately high coverage. In July 2015, it was included in the National Immunisation Program. The aim of this study was to characterize invasive pneumococcal disease in a pediatric hospital before universal use of the vaccine. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of medical records of all children with Streptococcus pneumoniae identified by culture and/or molecular biology (available since 2008), in products obtained from sterile sites, from January 1995 to June 2015...
June 30, 2017: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898512/knowledge-attitudes-and-opinions-towards-measles-and-the-mmr-vaccine-across-two-nsw-cohorts
#11
Daniel Brieger, Matthew Edwards, Poonam Mudgil, John Whitehall
OBJECTIVE: Although the number of national measles cases has greatly decreased since 1980s, there has been resurgence in disease incidence in recent years. While parental knowledge and attitudes toward both disease and vaccinations are known to influence vaccine uptake, the contribution of these factors toward vaccination rates in NSW populations has not been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge and opinions on measles and MMR vaccine in NSW Central and North Coast regions...
September 12, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898492/immunisation-for-refugees-in-australia-a-policy-review-and-analysis-across-all-states-and-territories
#12
Abela Mahimbo, Holly Seale, Anita E Heywood
OBJECTIVE: Although people of refugee background are likely to be under-immunised before and after resettlement, no study to date has evaluated refugee specific immunisation policies in Australia. We developed a framework to analyse immunisation policies across Australia to highlight the strengths and gaps so as to inform development of more effective refugee specific immunisation policies. METHODS: We sourced publicly available immunisation policy documents from state and territory government websites...
September 12, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894312/-there-s-no-touching-in-pharmacy-training-pharmacists-for-australia-s-first-pharmacist-immunization-pilot
#13
Esther T L Lau, Michelle E Rochin, Megan DelDot, Beverley D Glass, Lisa M Nissen
BACKGROUND: Vaccination is a safe, efficient, and cost-effective means of preventing, controlling, and eradicating many life-threatening infections and diseases. Globally, the World Health Organization estimates that vaccination saves between 2 million and 3 million lives annually. However, low immunization rates are a significant public health concern. Individual factors, along with the vaccination process and system, have been reported as perceived barriers and challenges to immunization...
July 2017: Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893475/impact-of-five-years-of-rotavirus-vaccination-in-finland-and-the-associated-cost-savings-in-secondary-healthcare
#14
Tuija Leino, Ulrike Baum, Peter Scott, Jukka Ollgren, Heini Salo
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to estimate the impact of the national rotavirus (RV) vaccination programme, starting 2009, on the total hospital-treated acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and severe RV disease burden in Finland during the first five years of the programme. This study also evaluated the costs saved in secondary healthcare by the RV vaccination programme. METHODS: The RV related outcome definitions were based on ICD10 diagnostic codes recorded in the Care Register for Health Care...
September 8, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893474/assessing-care-givers-satisfaction-with-child-immunisation-services-in-zambia-evidence-from-a-national-survey
#15
Chitalu Miriam Chama-Chiliba, Felix Masiye, Chrispin Mphuka
AIM: The main aim of this study was to assess care-giver satisfaction with vaccination services in public health facilities in Zambia, and examine its determinants. METHODS: This study used data from a recent population-based household survey, conducted from May to August 2015. Respondent satisfaction with vaccination services received during the last visit was measured on a five point Likert scale ranging from 1 to 5. We used an ordered logistic regression model to analyse the significance of perceived quality of vaccination services, immunisation delivery mode and a range of individual characteristics in predicting care-giver satisfaction...
September 8, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887219/novel-freeze-dried-dda-and-tpgs-liposomes-are-suitable-for-nasal-delivery-of-vaccine
#16
Helmy Yusuf, Ahlam A Ali, Natalie Orr, Helen O McCarthy, Vicky L Kett
There is a pressing need for effective needle-free vaccines that are stable enough for use in the developing world and stockpiling. The inclusion of the cationic lipid DDA and the PEG-containing moiety TPGS into liposomes has the potential to improve mucosal delivery. The aim of this study was to develop stable lyophilized cationic liposomes based on these materials suitable for nasal antigen delivery. Liposomes containing DDA and TPGS were developed. Size and zeta potential measurements, ex vivo, CLSM cell penetration study and cell viability investigations were made...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883023/time-to-consider-a-targeted-hpv-vaccination-programme-for-male-military-recruits
#17
William M J Sharp, T Nadarzynski, N E Dufty
Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the most common type of sexually transmitted infection in men but also related to high-risk cancers. This article considers the epidemiology of HPV in the male military population, the UK vaccination programme and the current UK Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation recommendations. Military men may not benefit from HPV herd immunity and may have a different risk profile; vaccination may in turn reduce the operational burden of HPV-related disease within this population...
September 6, 2017: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882916/incidence-of-laboratory-confirmed-influenza-disease-among-infants-under-6-months-of-age-a-systematic-review
#18
Deshayne B Fell, Jeanene Johnson, Zohar Mor, Mark A Katz, Becky Skidmore, Kathleen M Neuzil, Justin R Ortiz, Niranjan Bhat
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this systematic review was to assess incidence rates of laboratory-confirmed influenza (LCI) outcomes among infants under 6 months of age. DESIGN: Systematic literature search and review of indexed studies in PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and CINAHL Plus from inception to 19 April 2017. SETTING: Population-based estimates from community or hospital settings. PARTICIPANTS: Infants under 6 months of age...
September 7, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882914/procedural-pain-scale-evaluation-propose-study-protocol-for-an-evaluation-of-the-psychometric-properties-of-behavioural-pain-scales-for-the-assessment-of-procedural-pain-in-infants-and-children-aged-6-42-months
#19
Dianne J Crellin, Denise Harrison, Adrian Hutchinson, Tibor Schuster, Nick Santamaria, Franz E Babl
INTRODUCTION: Infants and children are frequently exposed to painful medical procedures such as immunisation, blood sampling and intravenous access. Over 40 scales for pain assessment are available, many designed for neonatal or postoperative pain. What is not well understood is how well these scales perform when used to assess procedural pain in infants and children. AIM: The aim of this study was to test the psychometric and practical properties of the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry and Consolability (FLACC) scale, the Modified Behavioural Pain Scale (MBPS) and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) observer pain scale to quantify procedural pain intensity in infants and children aged from 6-42 months to determine their suitability for clinical and research purposes...
September 6, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871608/paediatric-invasive-haemophilus-influenzae-in-queensland-australia-2002-2011-young-indigenous-children-remain-at-highest-risk
#20
Gavin Cleland, Clare Leung, Jenny Wan Sai Cheong, Joshua Francis, Claire Heney, Clare Nourse
AIM: Haemophilus influenzae continues to cause invasive disease in children despite widespread Hib immunisation. The significance of non-B serotypes continues to be investigated, with evidence of increased invasive non-typeable H. influenzae (NTHi) world-wide. The aim of this study was to examine the current epidemiological and clinical features of invasive H. influenzae disease in children in Queensland, Australia. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of all cases of invasive H...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
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