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Respiratory System

Edgardo D'Angelo, Edoardo Calderini, Mario Tavola, Matteo Pecchiari
In 9 anesthetized, paralyzed dogs lung and chest-wall standard (viscous resistance, Rint, and quasi-static elastance, Est) and viscoelastic parameters (resistance, Rvel, and time constant, τvel) were measured in the supine posture before and after rib-cage block, after application of an expiratory threshold load, and after 75° head-up tilting before and after wide chest opening. Lung and chest-wall τvel were the same under all conditions. Rvel was independent of volume and posture, and greater for the lung...
December 13, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Liujing Zhuang, Bin Zhang, Zhen Qin, Ping Wang
γ oscillations (30-120 Hz) are generated intrinsically within local networks in the mammalian olfactory bulb (OB). The OB directly receives peripheral input from olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) that can respond to nasal airflow, and centrifugal input from neuromodulatory systems whose activities are affected by the behavioral states of animal. How peripheral and centrifugal input dynamically modulate γ oscillations is unclear. By simultaneously recording respiration signal and local field potentials (LFPs) in the OB of freely moving mice throughout at least one sleep-wake cycle, we observed that γ oscillations were highest during awake exploratory (AE) state, and successively lower during awake resting (AR) state, rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep...
December 13, 2018: Neuroscience
Alice R Bird, David J Bird, Matthew W McMillan
OBJECTIVES: To determine the endotracheal tube cuff pressure produced with two inflation techniques, in two brands of endotracheal tube in cats. To determine the inspiratory pressure which produces an audible leak when the intracuff pressure is 30 cmH2 O. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, clinical, randomized study. ANIMALS: A total of 40 client-owned healthy adult cats. METHODS: Following induction of anaesthesia, endotracheal intubation was performed with a Parker Flex-Tip PFLP (Parker; n = 20) or Flexicare VentiSeal (Flexicare; n = 20) endotracheal tube...
October 13, 2018: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
Kamal Dua, Vamshikrishna Malyla, Gautam Singhvi, Ridhima Wadhwa, Rapalli Vamshi Krishna, Shakti Dhar Shukla, Madhur D Shastri, Dinesh Kumar Chellappan, Pawan Kumar Maurya, Saurabh Satija, Meenu Mehta, Monica Gulati, Nicole Hansbro, Trudi Collet, Rajendra Awasthi, Gaurav Gupta, Alan Hsu, Philip M Hansbro
Oxidative stress is intensely involved in enhancing the severity of various chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), infections and lung cancer. Even though there are various existing anti-inflammatory therapies, which are not enough to control the inflammation caused due to various contributing factors such as anti-inflammatory genes and antioxidant enzymes. This leads to an urgent need of novel drug delivery systems to combat the oxidative stress...
December 13, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
Takashi Kimoto, Hyejin Kim, Satoko Sakai, Etsuhisa Takahashi, Hiroshi Kido
We reported previously that a synthetic mucosal adjuvant SF-10, which mimics human pulmonary surfactant, delivers antigen to mucosal dendritic cells in the nasal cavity and promotes induction of humoral and cellular immunity. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of oral administration of antigen combined with SF-10 (antigen-SF-10) on systemic and local immunity. Oral administration of ovalbumin, a model antigen, combined with SF-10 enhanced ovalbumin uptake into intestinal antigen presenting MHC II+ CD11c+ cells and their CD11b+ CD103+ and CD11b+ CD103- subtype dendritic cells, which are the major antigen presenting subsets of the intestinal tract, more efficiently compared to without SF-10...
December 13, 2018: Vaccine
Bahare Salehi, Zorica Stojanović-Radić, Jelena Matejić, Mehdi Sharifi-Rad, Nanjangud V Anil Kumar, Natália Martins, Javad Sharifi-Rad
Curcuma longa L., its derived extracts and even its major compound curcumin has a long history of use and doubtless effectiveness, reported through increasingly detailed in vitro, ex vivo, in vivo and even clinical trials. Regarding its biological effects, multiple health-promoting, disease-preventing and even treatment attributes has been remarkably highlighted. Clinical trials, although have increased in a progressive manner, significant disproportionalities have been stated in terms of biological effects assessment...
December 7, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Jiakun Zuo, Chuntian Tu, Yalei Wang, Kezong Qi, Jiangang Hu, Zhihao Wang, Rongsheng Mi, Yan Huang, Zhaoguo Chen, Xiangan Han
Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) causes severe respiratory and systemic diseases in poultry. The wzy gene encodes the O-antigen polymerase (Wzy), which plays an important role in the synthesis of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of bacteria. However, the function of the wzy gene in APEC remains unclear. Hence, in this study, a strain harboring a wzy gene mutant (DE17Δwzy) was constructed and the characteristics of this strain were analyzed. The results showed that mutant of wzy changed the phenotype of the LPS and affected serum agglutination of the O-antigen...
December 12, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Kapil Gupta, Mahesh Nagappa, Arun Prasad, Lusine Abrahamyan, Jean Wong, Toby N Weingarten, Frances Chung
OBJECTIVE: This systematic review and meta-analysis aim to evaluate the risk factors associated with postoperative opioid-induced respiratory depression (OIRD). DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: PubMed-MEDLINE, MEDLINE in-process, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, PubMed and (January 1946 to November 2017). ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: The inclusion criteria were: (1) adult patients 18 years or older who were administered opioids after surgery and developed postoperative OIRD (OIRD group); (2) all studies which reported both OIRD events and associated risk factors; (3) all studies with reported data for each risk factor on patients with no OIRD (control group) and (4) published articles in English language...
December 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Sergio Marin, Mateu Serra-Prat, Omar Ortega, Pere Clavé
INTRODUCTION: Oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) is a major disorder following stroke. OD can produce alterations in both the efficacy and safety of deglutition and may result in malnutrition, dehydration, frailty, respiratory infections and pneumonia. These complications can be avoided by early detection and treatment of OD in poststroke patients, and hospital stays, medication and mortality rates can be reduced. In addition to acute in-hospital costs from OD complications, there are other costs related to poststroke OD such as direct non-healthcare costs or indirect costs...
December 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Chiara Autilio, Jesús Pérez-Gil
Pulmonary surfactant (PS) is a lipid-protein complex essential to stabilise the delicate structure of mammalian alveoli along with successive compression-expansion respiratory cycles. To do so, surfactant reduces dramatically surface tension at the air-liquid interface, an activity that depends critically on a proper lipid composition and the presence of some specific surfactant proteins. Lack or dysfunction of this system is associated with severe respiratory pathologies, which are in some cases treated by supplementation with exogenous surfactant materials...
December 14, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Jia Zhang, Laura Tüshaus, Néstor Nuño Martínez, Monica Moreo, Hector Verastegui, Stella M Hartinger, Daniel Mäusezahl, Walter Karlen
BACKGROUND: Mobile health (mHealth) technologies have the potential to bring health care closer to people with otherwise limited access to adequate health care. However, physiological monitoring using mobile medical sensors is not yet widely used as adding biomedical sensors to mHealth projects inherently introduces new challenges. Thus far, no methodology exists to systematically evaluate these implementation challenges and identify the related risks. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to facilitate the implementation of mHealth initiatives with mobile physiological sensing in constrained health systems by developing a methodology to systematically evaluate potential challenges and implementation risks...
December 14, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Apostolos Salmatonidis, Carla Ribalta, Vicenta Sanfélix, Spyridon Bezantakos, George Biskos, Adriana Vulpoi, Simon Simion, Eliseo Monfort, Mar Viana
Thermal spraying is widely used for industrial-scale application of ceramic coatings onto metallic surfaces. The particular process has implications for occupational health, as the high energy process generates high emissions of metal-bearing nanoparticles. Emissions and their impact on exposure were characterized during thermal spraying in a work environment, by monitoring size-resolved number and mass concentrations, lung-deposited surface area, particle morphology, and chemical composition. Along with exposure quantification, the modal analysis of the emissions assisted in distinguishing particles from different sources, while an inhalation model provided evidence regarding the potential deposition of particulate matter on human respiratory system...
December 14, 2018: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Donatella Paoli, Giulia Pecora, Francesco Pallotti, Fabiana Faja, Marianna Pelloni, Andrea Lenzi, Francesco Lombardo
STUDY QUESTION: Is ageing associated with a decline in semen quality and molecular changes to human sperm? SUMMARY ANSWER: Semen quality declines with advancing age and characteristic molecular changes take place during the ageing process, including increased sperm DNA damage, altered sperm protamination and altered seminal plasma miRNA profile. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: During ageing, the reproductive system is exposed to physiological changes and potentially damaging factors that may impair testicular function...
December 14, 2018: Human Reproduction
Ulla Arthur Hvidtfeldt, Mette Sørensen, Camilla Geels, Matthias Ketzel, Jibran Khan, Anne Tjønneland, Kim Overvad, Jørgen Brandt, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen
Air pollutants such as NO2 and PM2.5 have consistently been linked to mortality, but only few previous studies have addressed associations with long-term exposure to black carbon (BC) and ozone (O3 ). We investigated the association between PM2.5 , PM10 , BC, NO2 , and O3 and mortality in a Danish cohort of 49,564 individuals who were followed up from enrollment in 1993-1997 through 2015. Residential address history from 1979 onwards was combined with air pollution exposure obtained by the state-of-the-art, validated, THOR/AirGIS air pollution modelling system, and information on residential traffic noise exposure, lifestyle and socio-demography...
December 11, 2018: Environment International
Győző László Kaján, Agnieszka Lipiec, Dániel Bartha, Annika Allard, Niklas Arnberg
Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are common pathogens that can cause respiratory, gastrointestinal, urogenital, and ocular infections. They are divided into seven species containing 85 genotypes. Straightforward typing systems might help epidemiological investigations. As homologous recombination frequently shapes the evolution of HAdVs, information on a single gene is seldom sufficient to allow accurate and precise typing, and complete genome-based methods are recommended. Even so, complete genome analyses are not always easy to perform for practical reasons, and in such cases a multigene system can provide considerably more information about the strain under investigation than single-gene-based methods...
2018: PloS One
Michael McGee, Nicholas Whitehead, Scott Twadell, Nicholas Collins
OBJECTIVE: Pulmonary hypertension may be a consequence of intrinsic elevation in pulmonary vasculature resistance or complicate numerous other conditions affecting the cardiac and respiratory systems. In this review we sought to explore the relationship between pulmonary hypertension and intravenous drug use. METHODS: A narrative review was conducted using PubMed MeSH search with further papers were identified using a standard PubMed search with relevant key terms and various synonyms...
December 14, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Giuseppe Regolisti, Luigi Gerra, Francesca Di Mario, Marco Delsante, Giovani Piotti, Chiara Cantarelli, Giovani Piotti, Santo Morabito, Marco Brambilla, Vincenzo Cantaluppi, Umberto Maggiore, Enrico Fiaccadori
Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is an important issue for the healthcare system, as it is associated with high mortality and increased risk of readmission, with consequent elevated healthcare resource utilization. We investigated the incidence of AKI based on the examination of the discharge cards of all patients admitted between January 1 2011 and December 31 2015 at the Parma University Hospital, as well as the frequency and type of 30-day hospital readmission in the patients discharged with a first AKI diagnosis (index admission)...
December 2018: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
Emidio M Sivieri, Eric Eichenwald, Salma M Bakri, Soraya Abbasi
OBJECTIVE: This study compared CO2 clearance in a premature infant lung model connected to a high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) system supplied with oscillatory versus non-oscillatory flow. DESIGN/METHODS: The lung model was set to compliance 1.0 mL/cmH2 O, RR 60 breaths/min, and 6 mL tidal volume. A 100% CO2 was injected at a constant 15 mL/min. To create oscillation, HFNC flow was interrupted at rates of 4-6-8 and 10 Hz. equilibrated end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2 ) was recorded with and without oscillation at set flows of 2-8 L/min and repeated for each oscillation frequency...
December 14, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
Wataru Katano, Yuuta Moriyama, Jun K Takeuchi, Kazuko Koshiba-Takeuchi
The heart is one of the vital organs and is functionalized for blood circulation from its early development. Some vertebrates have altered their living environment from aquatic to terrestrial life over the course of evolution and obtained circulatory systems well adapted to their lifestyles. The morphology of the heart has been changed together with the acquisition of a sophisticated respiratory organ, the lung. Adaptation to a terrestrial environment requires the coordination of heart and lung development due to the intake of oxygen from the air and the production of the large amount of energy needed for terrestrial life...
December 13, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Helen C Causton
Circadian clocks are widespread among eukaryotes and generally involve feedback loops coupled with metabolic processes and redox balance. The organising power of these oscillations has not only allowed organisms to anticipate day-night cycles, but also acts to temporally compartmentalise otherwise incompatible processes, enhance metabolic efficiency, make the system more robust to noise and propagate signals among cells. While daily rhythms and the function of the circadian transcription-translation loop have been the subject of extensive research over the past four decades, cycles of shorter period and respiratory oscillations, with which they are intertwined, have received less attention...
December 13, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
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