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Respiratory System

Mahesh Manjunath Gouda, Sadiya B Shaikh, Yashodhar Prabhakar Bhandary
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the most advanced form of acute lung injury (ALI). This is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and severe hypoxemia. According to Berlin definition of ARDS, this is defined based on the timings, radiographic changes, edema formation, and severity on the PaO2 /FiO2 ratio. During ARDS, the loss of integrity of the epithelium causes the septic shock. The degree of epithelial injury is the major prognostic marker of ARDS. In addition to this, inflammatory cell migration, fibro-proliferation, and activation of apoptosis also play an important role in the pathophysiology of ARDS...
August 18, 2018: Lung
Jan Florian Heuer, Moritz Mirschel, Annalen Bleckmann, Michael Quintel, Onnen Moerer
Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can be a lifesaving therapy for patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). ECMO is a technically complex and challenging procedure and should therefore only be performed in specialized centers. Transporting ARDS patients to ECMO centers for treatment can be dangerous because of the risk of hypoxemia during transport. This raises the question if ECMO should not be already initiated in the transferring hospital before transport. Over a 5-year period, we studied ARDS patients who had been transported to our department by our mobile ECMO team for further treatment after ECMO had already been initiated at the referring hospital...
August 18, 2018: Journal of Artificial Organs: the Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Artificial Organs
Justine Benevent, Caroline Hurault-Delarue, Mélanie Araujo, Jean-Louis Montastruc, Isabelle Lacroix, Christine Damase-Michel
INTRODUCTION: The POMME (PrescriptiOn Médicaments Mères Enfants) cohort has been implemented for the evaluation of the long-term consequences of medicine prenatal exposure. It holds anonymous medical information as well as information on medicine and healthcare reimbursement to the children, from the first day of intra-uterine life until childhood. OBJECTIVE: This article provides a description of the cohort regarding its structure and content and presents an outlook of the studies that could be performed with this new data source...
August 19, 2018: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
Gihan S Gunaratne, Yang Yang, Fang Li, Timothy F Walseth, Jonathan S Marchant
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infections are associated with a significant mortality rate, and existing drugs show poor efficacy. Identifying novel targets/pathways required for MERS infectivity is therefore important for developing novel therapeutics. As an enveloped virus, translocation through the endolysosomal system provides one pathway for cellular entry of MERS-CoV. In this context, Ca2+ -permeable channels within the endolysosomal system regulate both the luminal environment and trafficking events, meriting investigation of their role in regulating processing and trafficking of MERS-CoV...
August 9, 2018: Cell Calcium
Anthony F DiMarco, Robert T Geertman, Kutaiba Tabbaa, Krzysztof E Kowalski
OBJECTIVES: To assess the safety and efficacy of complete restoration of respiratory muscle function in subjects with Spinal Cord Injury (SCI). METHODS: This was an interventional study investigating three subjects maintained on a diaphragm pacing system who were implanted with the spinal cord stimulation (SCS) system to restore cough. Peak expiratory airflow and airway pressure generation were the primary physiologic outcome measures; an assessment of the degree of difficulty in raising secretions was the primary clinical outcome measure...
August 16, 2018: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
José Moreira, Ariane Paixão, Juliana Oliveira, Waldir Jaló, Ofélio Manuel, Rafaela Rodrigues, Alexandra Oliveira, Leonardo Tinoco, João Lima, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Valdiléa G Veloso, André M Japiassú, Cristiane C Lamas
OBJECTIVES: To compare the discriminatory capacity of the quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) versus the Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) score for predicting 30-day mortality and intensive care unit (ICU) admission in patients with suspicion of infection at an HIV reference center. METHODS: Prospective cohort study including consecutive adult patients who had suspected infection and subsequently admitted to the medical ward. Variables related to qSOFA and SIRS were measured at admission...
August 14, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Kunse Lee, Hae Li Ko, Eun-Young Lee, Hyo-Jung Park, Young Seok Kim, Yeon-Sook Kim, Nam-Hyuk Cho, Man-Seong Park, Sang-Myeong Lee, Jihye Kim, Hun Kim, Baik Lin Seong, Jae-Hwan Nam
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a single-stranded RNA virus that causes severe respiratory disease in humans with a high rate of fatality. The binding of the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike (S) glycoprotein to dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DDP4) is the critical step in MERS-CoV infection of a host cell. No vaccines or clinically applicable treatments are currently available for MERS-CoV. Therefore, rapid diagnosis is important for improving patient outcomes through prompt treatment and protecting against viral outbreaks...
August 17, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Marwa A Hasby Saad, Mona Watany, Mohamed Tomoum, Dalia El-Mehy, May R Elsheikh, Ragia Sharshar
AIM: The aim of this study is investigating the presence of intestinal parasitic infections in inflammatory respiratory diseases patients during the disease attack, and measuring the expression of acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) gene before and after infection eradication. METHODOLOGY: This case/control study included 123 inflammatory respiratory diseases patients and 120 apparently healthy individuals. Repeated stool examination was done, while total and specific IgE were measured...
August 17, 2018: Parasite Immunology
A Moeser, M Lerche, H Wirtz, A Stallmach
The incidence of pulmonary manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) appears to be much higher than previously assumed. In prospective studies, subclinical pulmonary interstitial infiltrates or pathological lung function were found in 40%-60% of IBD patients, both in children and adults. Pulmonary disorders can affect any part of the respiratory system, the most frequent pattern being inflammation of the large airways often associated with bronchiectasis. The differential diagnosis should include drug-related pulmonary disease and infectious causes when receiving immunosuppressive therapy...
August 16, 2018: Der Internist
Mohamad Adam Bujang, Pei Xuan Kuan, Xun Ting Tiong, Fatin Ellisya Saperi, Mastura Ismail, Feisul Idzwan Mustafa, Abd Muneer Abd Hamid
Aims: This study aims to determine the all-cause mortality and the associated risk factors for all-cause mortality among the prevalent type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients within five years' period and to develop a screening tool to determine high-risk patients. Methods: This is a cohort study of T2DM patients in the national diabetes registry, Malaysia. Patients' particulars were derived from the database between 1st January 2009 and 31st December 2009. Their records were matched with the national death record at the end of year 2013 to determine the status after five years...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Keiko Oda, Hidekazu Nishimura, Ohshi Watanabe, Toru Kubo, Shizuo Shindo
A 1-year-old boy was infected with parainfluenza virus type 4a (PIV4a) during an influenza epidemic in January 2016. His body temperature was 38.2 °C on day 1 of the illness followed by an intermittent phase of 36.5 °C on days 2 and 3, and it rose again on day 3 and peaked at 39.6 °C on day 4, of which the fever pattern was reminiscent of an influenza case with biphasic fever. However, results of rapid influenza virus (IFV) antigen tests performed at the first clinical visit and during the second fever phase on day 4 were both negative...
July 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Hua Qian, Xiaohong Zheng
The emergence of respiratory diseases, i.e., severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic in 2003, H1N1 influenza epidemic in 2011 and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreak, reiterated the significance of ventilation in buildings. The role of ventilation in removing exhaled airborne bio-aerosols and preventing cross infections has been multidisciplinary extensively studied after the SARS outbreak in 2003. The characteristics of droplet-borne, short-range airborne and long-range airborne transmission of infectious diseases were identified...
July 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Fumiaki Tokioka, Hiroshi Okamoto, Akio Yamazaki, Akihiro Itou, Tadashi Ishida
Background: Quick Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) is a new screening system for sepsis. The prognostic performance of qSOFA for patients with suspected infections outside the intensive care unit (ICU) is similar to that of full SOFA; however, its performance for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has not yet been evaluated in detail.The objectives of the present study were to compare the prognostic performance of qSOFA with existing pneumonia severity scores, such as CURB-65 (confusion, blood urea nitrogen > 19 mg/dL, respiratory rate ≥ 30/min, systolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg, or diastolic blood pressure ≤ 60 mmHg, age ≥ 65 years) and the pneumonia severity index (PSI), and examine its usefulness for predicting mortality and ICU admission in patients with CAP of high severity and mortality that requires hospitalization...
2018: Journal of Intensive Care
François Trottein, Christophe Paget
The immune system has been traditionally divided into two arms called innate and adaptive immunity. Typically, innate immunity refers to rapid defense mechanisms that set in motion within minutes to hours following an insult. Conversely, the adaptive immune response emerges after several days and relies on the innate immune response for its initiation and subsequent outcome. However, the recent discovery of immune cells displaying merged properties indicates that this distinction is not mutually exclusive. These populations that span the innate-adaptive border of immunity comprise, among others, CD1d-restricted natural killer T cells and MR1-restricted mucosal-associated invariant T cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Tulio M Fumian, Daniel Enosi Tuipulotu, Natalie E Netzler, Jennifer H Lun, Alice G Russo, Grace J H Yan, Peter A White
Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a major cause of upper respiratory tract disease in cats, with widespread distribution in the feline population. Recently, virulent systemic diseases caused by FCV infection has been associated with mortality rates up to 50%. Currently, there are no direct-acting antivirals approved for the treatment of FCV infection. Here, we tested 15 compounds from different antiviral classes against FCV using in vitro protein and cell culture assays. After the expression of FCV protease-polymerase protein, we established two in vitro assays to assess the inhibitory activity of compounds directly against the FCV protease or polymerase...
August 16, 2018: Viruses
Amram Torgeman, Arieh Schwartz, Eran Diamant, Tzadok Baruchi, Eyal Dor, Alon Ben David, Avi Pass, Ada Barnea, Arnon Tal, Amir Rosner, Osnat Rosen, Ran Zichel
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) serotypes A, B and E are responsible for most cases of human botulism. The only approved therapy for botulism is antitoxin treatment administered to patients after symptom onset. However, a recent meta-analysis of antitoxin efficacy in human botulism cases over the last century concluded that a statistically significant reduction in mortality is associated with the use of type-E and type-A but not type-B antitoxin. Animal models could be highly valuable in studying post-symptom antitoxin efficacy (PSAE)...
August 16, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Yvette L Kasamon, Chia-Wen Ko, Sriram Subramaniam, Lian Ma, Yuching Yang, Lei Nie, Stacy Shord, Donna Przepiorka, Ann T Farrell, Amy E McKee, Richard Pazdur
In April 2017, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration granted regular approval to midostaurin for the treatment of adult patients with aggressive systemic mastocytosis (ASM), systemic mastocytosis with associated hematological neoplasm (SM-AHN), or mast cell leukemia (MCL). Approval was based on results from CPKC412D2201, a single-arm trial of midostaurin (100 mg orally twice daily) in previously treated or untreated patients. For the patients with ASM and SM-AHN, efficacy was established on the basis of confirmed complete remission (CR) plus incomplete remission (ICR) by modified Valent criteria with six cycles of midostaurin...
August 16, 2018: Oncologist
F Grosselin, X Navarro-Sune, M Raux, T Similowski, M Chavez
BACKGROUND: Although cardio-respiratory (CR) system is generally controlled by the autonomic nervous system, interactions between the cortex and these primary functions are receiving an increasing interest in neurosciences. NEW METHOD: In general, the timing of such internally paced events (e.g. heartbeats or respiratory cycles) may display a large variability. For the analysis of such CR event-related EEG potentials, a baseline must be correctly associated to each cycle of detected events...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Guglielmo Pacileo, Valeria D Tozzi, Giovanni Sotgiu, Stefano Aliberti, Verdiana Morando, Francesco Blasi
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, COPD is still underdiagnosed, undertreated, and not sufficiently prevented. Health administrative databases provide a powerful way of studying COPD in the population. METHODS: This retrospective study used administrative data, collected during 2011 and 2012, retrieved from 3 Italian local health authorities (LHAs). RESULTS: The analysis through administrative databases allowed firstly to identify patients with COPD receiving services by the 3 LHAs: The estimated average is ~3% of the population aged ≥40 years...
August 16, 2018: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
Rakesh Kumar Singh, Abul Kalam Najmi
OBJECTIVE: The primary focus of this review is to highlight the current and emerging pro-inflammatory role of MK2 kinase signaling in p38MAPK pathway and to provide a detailed evaluation on the prospects of MK2 inhibition with special emphasis on the etiology of chronic inflammatory airway diseases, such as asthma, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, lung cancer, acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. BACKGROUND: Mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2) is a serine-threonine kinase downstream to p38MAPK and is activated directly by stress and inflammatory signal through p38 phosphorylation...
August 16, 2018: Current Drug Targets
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