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Respiratory System

Yishai Mintzker, Yedidia Bentur
A 70-year-old woman suffered severe irritation in her oral cavity after biting Dieffenbachia amoena petiole. She was treated a few hours after the exposure with systemic and local analgesics, as well as with systemic first generation antihistamine, and her symptoms improved rapidly. Dieffenbachia is a common household plant that contains oxalate raphides which cause irritation and microtrauma. Injuries are caused by exposure through the mouth, and also by contact with eyes or skin. Clinical presentation is dependent on the route of exposure...
October 2018: Harefuah
Kazuya Tone, Haruhiko Ogawa, Mohamed Mahdi Alshahni, Kazuyoshi Kuwano, Koichi Makimura
BACKGROUND: Filamentous basidiomycetes (f-BMs) are involved in some unexplained chronic cough (UCC) cases that can be improved by the administration of antifungal agents. The disease concept was termed fungus-associated chronic cough (FACC). The current diagnostic criteria warrant environmental fungi isolation from respiratory specimens, which is hardly conceivable for such fungi. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to detect the f-BMs Bjerkandera adusta, the most common pathogen in FACC, from respiratory specimens of patients with UCC using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
October 19, 2018: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
Luca Roncati, Antonietta Morena Gatti, Monica Roncati, Antonio Manenti
The impact of nanopathology in medicine necessarily involves also the anatomo-pathological diagnostics, because of the current large spread of nanoparticles in the environment and the wide spectrum of correlated human diseases. The main entrance gates of nanoparticles into the body are respiratory inhalation, gastro-intestinal absorption and injection of polluted drugs. In all these cases, their penetration in the lymphatic or blood streams are possible, with subsequent systemic translocation. Different diseases can be generated by nanoparticles exposure, from a direct contact irritation to the onset of granulomatous diseases...
October 5, 2018: Forensic Science International
Stefanie Francesca Pini, Giusi Alessia Sgaramella, Juan José Parra Jordán, Ana Aguilera Zubizarreta, Emilio Pariente Rodrigo, Pedro Sanroma Mendizabal
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: There are no data related to the risk factors associated with CDI in a Hospital-Based Home Care Service (HBHCS) of the Spanish health system. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Case-control study. The cases were patients admitted to the HBHCS between 01/01/2011 and 31/12/2016 who developed CDI. The controls came from the same population, with suspected CDI and CD(-) toxin. We analysed 82 variables. RESULTS: We analysed 17 cases and 95 controls, without differences in sex, age or comorbidity...
October 17, 2018: Medicina Clínica
Shinji Futami, Toru Arai, Masaki Hirose, Chikatoshi Sugimoto, Naoya Ikegami, Masanori Akira, Takahiko Kasai, Masanori Kitaichi, Seiji Hayashi, Yoshikazu Inoue
BACKGROUND: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) and connective tissue diseases (CTDs) occur more frequently among women than men. We investigated the frequency of comorbid CTD and positive serum autoantibody findings in patients with LAM. METHODS: A total of 152 patients with LAM were prospectively and consecutively registered in the National Hospital Organization Kinki-Chuo Chest Medical Centre cohort. The clinical data were retrospectively analysed, and patients were categorised into the following three groups: a CTD group, a non-CTD-autoantibody-positive group, and a non-CTD-autoantibody-negative group...
October 20, 2018: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Punkaj Gupta, Jeffrey M Gossett, Danny Kofos, Mallikarjuna Rettiganti
PURPOSE: To create a real-time prediction tool to predict probability of ECMO deployment in children with cardiac or pulmonary failure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients ≤18 years old admitted to an ICU that participated in the Virtual Pediatric Systems database (2009-2015) were included. Logistic regression models using adaptive lasso methodology were used to identify independent factors associated with ECMO use. RESULTS: A total of 538,202 ICU patients from 140 ICUs qualified for inclusion...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Critical Care
Liping Wang, Haoxiang Cheng, Dongbin Wang, Bo Zhao, Jushan Zhang, Long Cheng, Pengfei Yao, Antonio Di Narzo, Yuan Shen, Jing Yu, Yuanyuan Li, Shunqing Xu, Jia Chen, Lihong Fan, Jianwei Lu, Jingkun Jiang, Yang Zhou, Changhui Wang, Zhongyang Zhang, Ke Hao
BACKGROUND: Ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure has been associated with respiratory function decline in epidemiological studies. We hypothesize that a possible underlying mechanism is the perturbation of airway microbiome by PM exposure. METHODS: During October 2016-October 2017, on two human cohorts (n = 115 in total) in Shanghai China, we systematically collected three categories of data: (1) respiratory functions, (2) airway microbiome from sputum, and (3) PM2...
October 17, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Sina Saari, Geovana S Garcia, Katharina Bremer, Marina M Chioda, Ana Andjelković, Paul V Debes, Mikko Nikinmaa, Marten Szibor, Eric Dufour, Pierre Rustin, Marcos T Oliveira, Howard T Jacobs
The alternative respiratory chain (aRC), comprising the alternative NADH dehydrogenases (NDX) and quinone oxidases (AOX), is found in microbes, fungi and plants, where it buffers stresses arising from restrictions on electron flow in the oxidative phosphorylation system. The aRC enzymes are also found in species belonging to most metazoan phyla, including some chordates and arthropods species, although not in vertebrates or in Drosophila. We postulated that the aRC enzymes might be deployed to alleviate pathological stresses arising from mitochondrial dysfunction in a wide variety of disease states...
October 17, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease
Rupal Padhiyar, Swati Chavan, Swapnil Dhampalwar, Trupti Trivedi, Nivedita Moulick
Background: In India, it is estimated that up to 20,000 people die annually from snake bites. The present study was carried to out to estimate the snake bite related epidemiology, predictors of severity, relationship between type of snake, clinical severity, complications, outcome and usage pattern of polyvalent anti snake venom (ASV) in a tertiary care center. Methods: All indoor patients admitted in our institute with definitive history of bite by a snake, with or without presence of fang marks, Evidence of cellulitis, acute onset of neurotoxicity or bleeding diathesis were serially recruited in the study...
March 2018: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Ramesh Kumar, Divendu Bhushan, Mukesh Kumar
A 24-year-old male who presented to our emergency department with the history of having ingested mercury due to accidental breakage of the tip of mercury thermometer. He had 3 bouts of vomiting following ingestion; however, mercury beads were not seen in the vomitus. On admission, the patient was clinically stable, and his physical and systemic examinations were unremarkable. His routine investigations which included complete blood count, liver function test, kidney function tests, coagulation profiles, blood glucose, and electrocardiogram were normal...
January 2018: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Samantha LoRusso, Benjamin Weiner, W David Arnold
Myotonic dystrophy is an autosomal dominant muscular dystrophy not only associated with muscle weakness, atrophy, and myotonia but also prominent multisystem involvement. There are 2 similar, but distinct, forms of myotonic dystrophy; type 1 is caused by a CTG repeat expansion in the DMPK gene, and type 2 is caused by a CCTG repeat expansion in the CNBP gene. Type 1 is associated with distal limb, neck flexor, and bulbar weakness and results in different phenotypic subtypes with variable onset from congenital to very late-onset as well as variable signs and symptoms...
October 18, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Trishul Siddharthan, Suzanne L Pollard, Shumonta A Quaderi, Andrew J Mirelman, Maria Kathia Cárdenas, Bruce Kirenga, Natalie A Rykiel, J Jaime Miranda, Laxman Shrestha, Ram K Chandyo, Adithya Cattamanchi, Susan Michie, Julie Barber, William Checkley, John R Hurst
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the end result of a susceptible individual being exposed to sufficiently deleterious environmental stimuli. More than 90% of COPD-related deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). LMICs face unique challenges in managing COPD; for example, deficient primary care systems present challenges for proper diagnosis and management. Formal diagnosis of COPD requires quality-assured spirometry, which is often limited to urban health centres...
October 19, 2018: Trials
Akul Bhatt, Andrea Bradford, Bassim E Abbassi
A comparative cradle-to-grave life cycle assessment (LCA) of a low-impact-development (LID) parking lot test-site is performed to quantify the environmental costs of the manufacturing, construction, transportation, operation, maintenance and decommissioning of three bioretention cells and three permeable pavement systems (PPS) located in Mississauga, Ontario, as well as a hypothetical stormwater management pond. The LIDs' influent and effluent water quality and volume data is used to quantify the environmental benefits offered by the LIDs...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Adam W Westbrook, Dragan Miscevic, Shane Kilpatrick, Mark R Bruder, Murray Moo-Young, C Perry Chou
While the widespread reliance on fossil fuels is driven by their low cost and relative abundance, this fossil-based economy has been deemed unsustainable and, therefore, the adoption of sustainable and environmentally compatible energy sources is on the horizon. Biorefinery is an emerging approach that integrates metabolic engineering, synthetic biology, and systems biology principles for the development of whole-cell catalytic platforms for biomanufacturing. Due to the high degree of reduction and low cost, glycerol, either refined or crude, has been recognized as an ideal feedstock for the production of value-added biologicals, though microbial dissimilation of glycerol sometimes can be difficult particularly under anaerobic conditions...
October 16, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
Pei Chen, Ely Chen, Luonan Chen, Xianghong Jasmine Zhou, Rui Liu
The seasonal outbreaks of influenza infection cause globally respiratory illness, or even death in all age groups. Given early-warning signals preceding the influenza outbreak, timely intervention such as vaccination and isolation management effectively decrease the morbidity. However, it is usually a difficult task to achieve the real-time prediction of influenza outbreak due to its complexity intertwining both biological systems and social systems. By exploring rich dynamical and high-dimensional information, our dynamic network marker/biomarker (DNM/DNB) method opens a new way to identify the tipping point prior to the catastrophic transition into an influenza pandemics...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Thomas Briston, Jenna M Stephen, Luke W Thomas, Cinzia Esposito, Yuen-Li Chung, Saiful E Syafruddin, Mark Turmaine, Lucas A Maddalena, Basma Greef, Gyorgy Szabadkai, Patrick H Maxwell, Sakari Vanharanta, Margaret Ashcroft
Dysregulated mitochondrial function is associated with the pathology of a wide range of diseases including renal disease and cancer. Thus, investigating regulators of mitochondrial function is of particular interest. Previous work has shown that the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein (pVHL) regulates mitochondrial biogenesis and respiratory chain function. pVHL is best known as an E3-ubiquitin ligase for the α-subunit of the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) family of dimeric transcription factors. In normoxia, pVHL recognizes and binds hydroxylated HIF-α (HIF-1α and HIF-2α), targeting it for ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Chiaki Toida, Takashi Muguruma, Katsutaka Hashiba, Masayasu Gakumazawa, Naoto Morimura
Case: Previous research has suggested that venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (vvECMO) is useful for patients refractory to conventional therapy. We report a pediatric case of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection with a good outcome following rapid initiation of vvECMO.This patient was a 13-year-old boy with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome due to influenza virus. Severe acute respiratory distress syndrome according to the Berlin definition, Murray score of 3.3, and severe air leak syndrome were found...
October 2018: Acute Medicine & Surgery
Andrea Gramegna, Stefano Aliberti, Marco Confalonieri, Angelo Corsico, Luca Richeldi, Carlo Vancheri, Francesco Blasi
Background: The European Respiratory Society recently published an important statement reviewing available evidence on diagnosis and treatment of lung disease associated to alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD). Several issues on this topic still remain unresolved and subject of interpretation according to different standard procedures and healthcare systems worldwide. The purpose of this commentary is to offer a critical contribution to most of these controversial issues in light of an Italian perspective for the management of this disease...
2018: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
Jeffrey Montes, John C Young, Richard Tandy, James W Navalta
To evaluate if the Hexoskin smart shirt (HxS) would produce valid and reliable measurements for heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), minute ventilation (VE ), step count (SC), and energy expenditure (EE) when compared to a Polar T-31 heart rate monitor, an Applied Electrochemistry Moxus Metabolic System, and a manual step count. A two-day walking treadmill protocol with participants walking for 3 minutes at 3 speeds (1.5mph, 2.5mph, 3.5mph, 0% grade) was performed. Forty-nine volunteers participated the first day, forty-six on the second, thirty-one were used for reliability...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Renato Fraga Righetti, Tabata Maruyama Dos Santos, Leandro do Nascimento Camargo, Luciana Ritha Cássia Rolim Barbosa Aristóteles, Silvia Fukuzaki, Flávia Castro Ribas de Souza, Fernanda Paula Roncon Santana, Marcus Vinicius Rodrigues de Agrela, Maysa Mariana Cruz, Maria Isabel Cardoso Alonso-Vale, Isabella Santos Genaro, Beatriz Mangueira Saraiva-Romanholo, Edna Aparecida Leick, Milton de Arruda Martins, Carla Máximo Prado, Iolanda de Fátima Lopes Calvo Tibério
Introduction: T helper 17 (Th17) has been implicated in a variety of inflammatory lung and immune system diseases. However, little is known about the expression and biological role of IL-17 in acute lung injury (ALI). We investigated the mechanisms involved in the effect of anti-IL17 in a model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. Methods: Mice were pre-treated with anti-IL17, 1h before saline/LPS intratracheal administration alongside non-treated controls and levels of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO), cytokine expression, extracellular matrix remodeling and oxidative stress, as well as immune cell counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and respiratory mechanics were assessed in lung tissue...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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