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hormonal treatment

Morgan M McNeil, Amanda F Nahhas, Taylor L Braunberger, Iltefat H Hamzavi
Afamelanotide, an α-melanocyte stimulating hormone analogue, has become an emerging therapeutic option for a variety of skin conditions previously refractory to other treatments. Its efficacy has been demonstrated in several dermatologic conditions, including erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP), solar urticaria, polymorphic light eruption (PMLE), vitiligo, acne, and Hailey-Hailey disease. Its relatively low risk side effect profile makes it an attractive treatment option and also paves the way for innovative use in other disorders...
November 2018: Skin Therapy Letter
Qing Peng, Carrie A Karvonen-Gutierrez, John F Randolph, Bin Nan, Daniel McConnell, Siobán D Harlow
Context: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), but whether they develop MetS earlier than women without PCOS is unknown. Understanding the impact of PCOS on the timing of MetS onset is important for screening and clinical care in this population. Design: Women with PCOS-like status ("PCOSp") were identified from participants of the Michigan Bone Health and Metabolism Study based upon history of irregular menstrual cycles, high free-androgen index and high levels of anti-müllerian hormone...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Frederico Ribeiro Deliberador, Aline Monise Sebastiani, Jennifer Gerber, Luana Bonetto, Gabriela Tórtora, Allan Fernando Giovanini, Tatiana Miranda Deliberador, Joao César Zielak, Rafaela Scariot
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of two methods of local application of alendronate and parathyroid hormone (PTH) on bone repair and the systemic implications. A critically sized defect (5 mm) was created in the cranial region of twenty-five male Wistar rats, and the bone removed was particulated, and grafted back to the defect with different treatments. The animals were randomly divided into five groups: A1- bone graft immersion in alendronate solution (3 mg/kg) for 5 minutes; P1- bone graft immersion in PTH solution (20 µg); A2- weekly local applications of alendronate 1 mg/kg; P2- weekly local applications of PTH (20 µg); C- no drugs were used...
September 2018: Brazilian Dental Journal
Can Ozlu, Gul Yesiltepe Mutlu, Sukru Hatun
Background H syndrome ([OMIM] 602782) is an autosomal recessive disorder with systemic manifestations and characteristic skin lesions, caused by mutations of the SLC29A3 gene. Short stature and diabetes mellitus are the major endocrine problems related to H syndrome, however, clear data from clinical follow-up of H syndrome patients is lacking in the literature. Case presentation Here, we present follow-up of a Turkish girl diagnosed with H syndrome at the age of 10 with a homozygous 310(c.933T>A, p.C310X) early stop codon mutation on exon 6 of the SLC29A3 gene...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Elizabeth R Boskey, Amir H Taghinia, Oren Ganor
Importance: A growing number of transgender patients are receiving gender-affirming hormone treatments. It is unclear whether the evidence supports the current practice of routinely discontinuing these hormones prior to surgery. Objective: To determine how medications used in cross-sex hormone treatment (CSHT) affect perioperative risk. Evidence Review: A series of searches were carried out in PubMed and Excerpta Medica Database to identify articles using each of the terms testosterone, estrogen, estradiol, oral contraceptive, spironolactone, cyproterone acetate, finasteride, dutasteride, leuprolide, goserelin, and histrelin, in combination with the terms surgery, perioperative, thrombosis, thromboembolism, and operative...
December 5, 2018: JAMA Surgery
Ginger D Constantine, Dennis A Revicki, Risa Kagan, James A Simon, Shelli Graham, Brian Bernick, Sebastian Mirkin
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the clinical meaningfulness of TX-001HR in reducing moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms (VMS) in menopausal women with a uterus. METHODS: In the REPLENISH study (NCT01942668), women with moderate to severe hot flushes (≥7/d or ≥50/wk) were enrolled in a VMS substudy and randomized to four doses of daily TX-001HR (17β-estradiol/progesterone) or placebo. Participants assessed improvement of their VMS by the Clinical Global Impression and the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life (MENQOL) questionnaire, which were used to define clinical responders, clinically important differences (CIDs) or minimal CID (MCID) in VMS frequency...
December 3, 2018: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
Murat Akçay, Murat Meriç, Ömer Gedikli, Serkan Yüksel, Mahmut Şahin
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is associated with a high incidence of maternal and fetal complications when it develops during pregnancy or the early postpartum period. The pathophysiology involves various factors, including alterations in the vascular wall and hypercoagulability as a result of the hormonal and hemodynamic effects of pregnancy. It frequently occurs due to the development of a thrombus following a ruptured plaque. In addition, coronary artery dissection constitutes a significant cause of AMI in pregnancy...
December 2018: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
V U Nna, A B A Bakar, A Ahmad, M Mohamed
BACKGROUND: Metformin has long been used for glycemic control in diabetic state. Recently, other benefits of metformin beyond blood glucose regulation have emerged. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of metformin on the expression of testicular steroidogenesis-related genes, spermatogenesis, and fertility of male diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen adult male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups, namely normal control (NC), diabetic control (DC), and metformin-treated (300 mg/kg body weight/day) diabetic rats (D+Met)...
December 4, 2018: Andrology
Fang Wang, Zhi-Fen Zhang, Yi-Ran He, Hong-Yan Wu, Shuang-Shuang Wei
AIM: Examine the effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitor Sitagliptin on the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) signal transduction pathway in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) rats with ovarian fibrosis. METHODS: Thirty rats were divided randomly into the PCOS model group, Sitagliptin treatment group and blank control group. Dehydroepiandrosterone was administered to the model group and treatment group to establish the models. Then, the phenotype of rats was recorded, and the serum sex hormone levels were measured...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
Taro Nonaka, Makiko Takahashi, Chika Nonaka, Kazufumi Haino, Masayuki Yamaguchi, Takayuki Enomoto, Koichi Takakuwa
AIM: Recently, it is widely recognized that positivity for anti-phospholipid antibodies is a causative factor for a range of reproductive failures. Anti-cardiolipin beta2 glycoprotein I antibody (anti-CL-beta2-GPI) is a representative anti-phospholipid antibody, which strongly correlates with the development of thrombotic events and diversity of adverse pregnancies. In this series, we aimed to elucidate effective treatment for patients with recurrent fetal losses positive for anti-CL-beta2-GPI using Japanese-modified Chinese herbal medicine...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
Yi-Fang Tsai, Ling-Ming Tseng, Pei-Ju Lien, Chih-Yi Hsu, Yen-Shu Lin, Kuang-Liang King, Yu-Ling Wang, Ta-Chung Chao, Chun-Yu Liu, Jen-Hwey Chiu, Muh-Hwa Yang
AIMS: Invasive breast cancer patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) immunohistochemical (IHC) scores of 3+ or 2+ with reflex in situ hybridization (ISH) positivity are suitable for anti-HER2 therapies. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the prognoses between IHC 3+ patients and IHC 2+/ISH+ patients are different. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed the clinicopathological information of 886 consecutive cases of HER2-positive early breast cancer...
December 4, 2018: Histopathology
Peyman Hadji, Oliver Stoetzer, Thomas Decker, Christian M Kurbacher, Frederik Marmé, Andreas Schneeweiss, Christoph Mundhenke, Andrea Distelrath, Peter A Fasching, Michael P Lux, Diana Lüftner, Wolfgang Janni, Mathias Muth, Julia Kreuzeder, Claudia Quiering, Eva-Marie Grischke, Hans Tesch
Background: Breast cancer and its treatments are associated with a detrimental effect on bone health. Here we report the results of an exploratory analysis assessing changes in levels of biomarkers of bone metabolism in patients enrolled in the phase IIIb 4EVER study. Methods: The 4EVER trial investigated everolimus in combination with exemestane in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer...
February 2019: Journal of Bone Oncology
Sasigarn A Bowden, Rohan Henry
Adrenal insufficiency may result from a wide variety of congenital or acquired disorders of hypothalamus, pituitary, or adrenal cortex. Destruction or dysfunction of the adrenal cortex is the cause of primary adrenal insufficiency, while secondary adrenal insufficiency is a result of pituitary or hypothalamic disease. Timely diagnosis and clinical management of adrenal insufficiency are critical to prevent morbidity and mortality. This review summarizes the etiologies, presentation, and diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency utilizing different dynamic hormone testing and describes current treatment recommendations and new therapies...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
Zhen-Juan Yin, Xiao-Lin Dong, Kui Kang, Hao Chen, Xiao-Yan Dai, Guang-An Wu, Li Zheng, Yi Yu, Yi-Fan Zhai
Diapause is a complex physiological adaptation phenotype, and the transcription factor Forkhead-box O (FoxO) is a prime candidate for activating many of its diverse regulatory signaling pathways. Hormone signaling regulates nymphal diapause in Laodelphax striatellus . Here, the function of the FoxO gene isolated from L. striatellus was investigated. After knocking-down LsFoxO in diapausal nymphs using RNA interference, the titers of juvenile hormone III and some cold-tolerance substances decreased significantly, and the duration of the nymphal developmental period was severely shorted to 25...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Kellie S Gross, Kelsey M Moore, Robert L Meisel, Paul G Mermelstein
Gonadal hormones play a vital role in driving motivated behavior. They not only modulate responses to naturally rewarding stimuli, but also influence responses to drugs of abuse. A commonality between gonadal hormones and drugs of abuse is that they both impact the neurocircuitry of reward, including the regulation of structural plasticity in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Previous hormonal studies have focused on the mechanisms and behavioral correlates of estradiol-induced dendritic spine changes in the female NAc...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Marc Vervloet
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a hormone with a central role in the regulation of phosphate homeostasis. This regulation is accomplished by the coordinated modulation of renal phosphate handling, vitamin D metabolism and parathyroid hormone secretion. Patients with kidney disease have increased circulating levels of FGF23 and in other patient populations and in healthy individuals, FGF23 levels also rise following an increase in dietary phosphate intake. Maladaptive increases in FGF23 have a detrimental effect on several organs and tissues and, importantly, these pathological changes most likely contribute to increased morbidity and mortality...
December 4, 2018: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
A Bedford, L Beckett, K Hardin, N W Dias, T Davis, V R G Mercadante, A D Ealy, R R White
Emerging data highlighting gut microbiome influences on health support evaluation of how microbial fermentation end-products influence postabsorptive systems. This study aimed to investigate the effect of increased propionate status on progesterone profiles and insulin sensitivity in dairy heifers. Eleven Holstein heifers, synchronized in estrus, were assigned to one of two continuous, 5-day IV treatments: sodium propionate (PRO; n = 5) or saline (CON; n = 6). These infusions culminated in a hyperglycemic clamp with daily blood samples for an additional 7 days...
December 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sara M Freeman, Michelle C Palumbo, Rebecca H Lawrence, Aaron L Smith, Mark M Goodman, Karen L Bales
The prosocial hormone oxytocin (OXT) has become a new target for research on the etiology and treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a condition characterized by deficits in social function. However, it remains unknown whether there are alterations in OXT receptor (OXTR) levels in the ASD brain. This study quantified the density of OXTR and of the structurally related vasopressin 1a receptor (AVPR1a) in postmortem brain tissue from individuals with ASD and typically developing individuals. We analyzed two regions known to contain OXTR across all primates studied to date: the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM), which mediates visual attention, and the superior colliculus, which controls gaze direction...
December 4, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Charlotte Steenblock, Maria F Rubin de Celis, Luis F Delgadillo Silva, Verena Pawolski, Ana Brennand, Martin Werdermann, Ilona Berger, Alice Santambrogio, Mirko Peitzsch, Cynthia L Andoniadou, Andrew V Schally, Stefan R Bornstein
The adrenal gland is a master regulator of the human body during response to stress. This organ shows constant replacement of senescent cells by newly differentiated cells. A high degree of plasticity is critical to sustain homeostasis under different physiological demands. This is achieved in part through proliferation and differentiation of adult adrenal progenitors. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a Nestin+ population of adrenocortical progenitors located under the adrenal capsule and scattered throughout the cortex...
December 4, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Blanca I Restrepo, Léanie Kleynhans, Alejandra B Salinas, Bassent Abdelbary, Happy Tshivhula, Genesis P Aguillón-Durán, Carine Kunsevi-Kilola, Gloria Salinas, Kim Stanley, Stephanus T Malherbe, Elizna Maasdorp, Moncerrato Garcia-Viveros, Ilze Louw, Esperanza M Garcia-Oropesa, Juan Carlos Lopez-Alvarenga, John B Prins, Gerhard Walzl, Larry S Schlesinger, Katharina Ronacher
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a prevalent risk factor for tuberculosis (TB), but most studies on TB-T2D have focused on TB patients, been limited to one community, and shown a variable impact of T2D on TB risk or treatment outcomes. We conducted a cross-sectional assessment of sociodemographic and metabolic factors in adult TB contacts with T2D (versus no T2D), from the Texas-Mexico border to study Hispanics, and in Cape Town to study South African Coloured ethnicities. The prevalence of T2D was 30.2% in Texas-Mexico and 17...
December 2018: Tuberculosis
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