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hormonal treatment

Nicholas E Brown, Andrew M Paluch, Madison A Nashu, Kakajan Komurov, Susan E Waltz
Current treatment strategies provide minimal results for patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Attempts to target the androgen receptor have shown promise, but resistance ultimately develops, often due to androgen receptor reactivation. Understanding mechanisms of resistance, including androgen receptor reactivation, is crucial for development of more efficacious CRPC therapies. Here, we report that the RON receptor tyrosine kinase is highly expressed in the majority of human hormone-refractory prostate cancers...
August 14, 2018: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
Rosemary Dineen, Paul M Stewart, Mark Sherlock
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are steroid hormones, which are essential for life. They are secreted by the adrenal cortex under the control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Glucocorticoids are essential for the normal function of most organ systems and, in both, excess and deficiency can lead to significant adverse consequences. Adrenal insufficiency (AI) is a rare, life-threatening disorder characterized by insufficient production of corticosteroid hormones. Primary AI is defined by the inability of the adrenal cortex to produce sufficient amounts of glucocorticoids and/or mineralocorticoids despite normal or increased adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH)...
August 17, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
Christian Thomas, Maximilian P Brandt, Stephanie Baldauf, Igor Tsaur, Sebastian Frees, Hendrik Borgmann, Wolfgang Jäger, Georg Bartsch, Meike Schneider, Robert Dotzauer, Andreas Neisius, Axel Haferkamp
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to define clinical factors for successful treatment response and re-exposure to docetaxel in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). METHODS: An mCRPC database of patients receiving first-line docetaxel and rechallenge courses was established. Several clinical factors were evaluated for prediction of treatment response. Multivariate cox-regression analysis was used to define pre-treatment and treatment factors for survival...
August 17, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
Chao Chen, Yonghua Zhang, Pan Ye, Xiaofeng Ma, Chaoxing Zheng, Genfa Zhang
There is a growing awareness that some dual-function enzymes may provide a directly evidence that metabolism could feed into the regulation of gene expression via metabolic enzymes. However, the mechanism by which metabolic enzymes control gene expression to optimize plant stress responses remains largely unknown in Arabidopsis thaliana. LOS2/ENO2 is a bifunctional gene transcribed a functional RNA that translates a full-length version of the ENO2 protein and a truncated version of the MBP-1 protein. Here, we report that eno2 negatively regulates plant tolerance to salinity stress...
August 17, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
Gaia Griguolo, Stephane Pouderoux, Maria Vittoria Dieci, William Jacot, Céline Bourgier, Federica Miglietta, Nelly Firmin, Pierfranco Conte, Marie Viala, Valentina Guarneri, Amélie Darlix
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer (BC) is one of the solid tumors most commonly associated with leptomeningeal disease (LMD). LMD carries a devastating prognosis; however, disease presentation and prognostic factors are uncertain. SUBJECTS, MATERIALS, AND METHODS: In order to describe patient characteristics, treatment patterns, and factors associated with survival in a contemporary multicentric cohort, 153 consecutive BC patients diagnosed with LMD at two European institutions (2002-2017) were included...
August 17, 2018: Oncologist
Bernard P Kok, Andrea Galmozzi, Nicole K Littlejohn, Verena Albert, Cristina Godio, Woojoo Kim, Sean M Kim, Jeffrey S Bland, Neile Grayson, Mingliang Fang, Wolfgang Meyerhof, Gary Siuzdak, Supriya Srinivasan, Maik Behrens, Enrique Saez
OBJECTIVES: Extracts of the hops plant have been shown to reduce weight and insulin resistance in rodents and humans, but elucidation of the mechanisms responsible for these benefits has been hindered by the use of heterogeneous hops-derived mixtures. Because hop extracts are used as flavoring agents for their bitter properties, we hypothesized that bitter taste receptors (Tas2rs) could be mediating their beneficial effects in metabolic disease. Studies have shown that exposure of cultured enteroendocrine cells to bitter tastants can stimulate release of hormones, including glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1)...
August 4, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Natali Froese, Honghui Wang, Carolin Zwadlo, Yong Wang, Andrea Grund, Anna Gigina, Melanie Hofmann, Katja Kilian, Gesine Scharf, Mortimer Korf-Klingebiel, Anna Melchert, Maria Elena Ricci Signorini, Caroline Halloin, Robert Zweigerdt, Ulrich Martin, Ina Gruh, Kai C Wollert, Robert Geffers, Johann Bauersachs, Joerg Heineke
Maladaptive cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI) is increasingly contributing to the prevalence of chronic heart failure. Women show less severe remodeling, a reduced mortality and a better systolic function after MI compared to men. Although sex hormones are being made responsible for these differences, it remains currently unknown how this could be translated into therapeutic strategies. Because we had recently demonstrated that inhibition of the conversion of testosterone to its highly active metabolite dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by finasteride effectively reduces cardiac hypertrophy and improves heart function during pressure overload, we asked here whether this strategy could be applied to post-MI remodeling...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Dusti K Sloan, Diana S Spencer, Kathleen S Curtis
Multiple stimulatory and inhibitory neural circuits control eating, and these circuits are influenced by an array of hormonal, neuropeptide, and neurotransmitter signals. For example, estrogen and oxytocin (OT) both are known to decrease food intake, but the mechanisms by which these signal molecules influence eating are not fully understood. These studies investigated the interaction between estrogen and OT in the control of food intake. RT-qPCR studies revealed that 17β-estradiol benzoate (EB)-treated rats showed a two-fold increase in OT mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) compared to Oil-treated controls...
August 14, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Alison B Edelman, Jeffrey T Jensen, Sara McCrimmon, Marci Messerle-Forbes, Andrea O'Donnell, Jon Hennebold
OBJECTIVE: To determine if a combined oral contraceptive (COC) initiated shortly after ulipristal acetate (UPA) administration interferes with its mechanism of action. STUDY DESIGN: Healthy, reproductive-age women of normal BMI with proven ovulation (serum progesterone >3ng/mL) were enrolled for 3 cycles (Cycle 1, UPA only; Cycle 2 washout; Cycle 3 UPA plus COC). During Cycles 1 and 3, subjects were monitored with transvaginal ultrasound and blood sampling for progesterone and LH every other day until a dominant follicle measuring >15 mm was visualized...
August 14, 2018: Contraception
Ralph E Vatner, Andrzej Niemierko, Madhusmita Misra, Elizabeth A Weyman, Claire P Goebel, David H Ebb, Robin M Jones, Mary S Huang, Anita Mahajan, David R Grosshans, Arnold C Paulino, Takara Stanley, Shannon M MacDonald, Nancy J Tarbell, Torunn I Yock
Purpose There are sparse data defining the dose response of radiation therapy (RT) to the hypothalamus and pituitary in pediatric and young adult patients with brain tumors. We examined the correlation between RT dose to these structures and development of endocrine dysfunction in this population. Materials and Methods Dosimetric and clinical data were collected from children and young adults (< 26 years of age) with brain tumors treated with proton RT on three prospective studies (2003 to 2016). Deficiencies of growth hormone (GH), thyroid hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and gonadotropins were determined clinically and serologically...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Soraya Puglisi, Paola Perotti, Deborah Cosentini, Elisa Roca, Vittoria Basile, Alfredo Berruti, Massimo Terzolo
Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumor characterized by poor prognosis in most cases. Moreover, in most cases ACC produces an excess of adrenal steroid hormones with relevant clinical consequences. Areas covered: After an extensive literature search, this narrative review addresses diagnostic management, including hormonal, radiological and pathological assessment, and treatment, which should be directed toward both cancer and hormone related problems. While surgery is the first option in ACC without evidence of metastatic disease, and the only possibility of cure, the therapeutic management of metastatic patients is centered on systemic therapy including mitotane alone or in combination with chemotherapy...
August 17, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Andrzej Lewiński, Joanna Smyczyńska, Renata Stawerska, Maciej Hilczer, Magdalena Stasiak, Tomasz Bednarczuk, Marek Bolanowski, Roman Junik, Marek Ruchała, Anhelli Syrenicz, Mieczysław Walczak, Wojciech Zgliczyński, Małgorzata Karbownik-Lewińska
Growth hormone (GH) has been used in the treatment of short stature in children with GH deficiency (GHD) for 60 years, and for about 30 years also in the treatment of adults with GHD, in whom such treatment is carried out due to metabolic indications. In Poland, GH treatment is reimbursed only in children with GHD, while so far it has not been refunded in adults with GHD. There are two groups of adults (or adolescents after growth completion) with GHD, who require GH therapy: patients with GHD that occurred in childhood (childhood-onset GHD - CO-GHD) and patients with GHD acquired in adulthood (adulthood-onset GHD - AO-GHD)...
August 17, 2018: Endokrynologia Polska
Yuanqing Pan, Kehu Yang, Xiue Shi, Haiqian Liang, Xiping Shen, Renjie Wang, Li Ma, Qi Cui, Runze Yu, Yi Dong
IMPORTANCE: Acupuncture can help reduce unpleasant side effects associated with endocrine therapy for breast cancer. Nevertheless, comprehensive evaluation of current evidence from randomized controlled trials(RCTs) is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the efficacy of acupuncture for the reduction of hormone therapy-related side effects in breast cancer patients. EVIDENCE REVIEW: RCTs of acupuncture in breast cancer patients that examined reductions in hormone therapy-related side effects were retrieved from PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Ovid MEDLINE, and Cochrane Library databases through April 2016...
September 2018: Integrative Cancer Therapies
Hiroshi Tsubamoto, Tomoko Ueda, Kayo Inoue, Roze Isono-Nakata, Shinichiro Saeki, Yu Kato, Hiroaki Shibahara
AIM: To investigate the effects of leuprorelin using a self-administered quality-of-life (QOL) questionnaire in patients with recurrent gynecological cancer. METHODS: Records of patients who received 3.75 mg leuprorelin every 4 weeks for the treatment of recurrent gynecological cancer were retrospectively reviewed. The physical domain of the QOL questionnaire, Care Notebook, was used to assess physical symptoms. Symptom deterioration was defined as a ≥10-point increase in baseline score; otherwise, symptoms were defined as controlled...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
Ming Tan, Guofang Li, Xiaojie Liu, Fang Cheng, Juanjuan Ma, Caiping Zhao, Dong Zhang, Mingyu Han
Although gibberellin (GA) has been reported to control branching, little is known about how GA mediates signals regulating the outgrowth of axillary buds (ABs). In the current study, the effect of the exogenous application of 5.0 mM GA3 on ABs outgrowth on 1-year-old 'Nagafu No. 2'/T337/M. robusta Rehd. apple trees was investigated and compared to the bud-activating treatments, 5 mM BA or decapitation. Additionally, the expression of genes related to bud-regulating signals and sucrose levels in ABs was examined...
August 16, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Jia Di, Qing Qian, Min Yang, Yaping Jiang, Hua Zhou, Min Li, Yun Zou
The aim of the present study was to observe the efficacy and safety of long-course treatment with tacrolimus combined with low-dose corticosteroids for idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN). A total of 76 patients with IMN diagnosed by renal biopsy between March 2012 and January 2016 form The First People's Hospital of Changzhou (Changzhou, China) were selected and randomly divided into a short-course group and a long-course group (each, n=38). Patients in the short-course group were treated with hormone combined with tacrolimus for 12 months, whereas those in the long-course group received the same treatment for 24 months...
August 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Yanqiang Geng, Qiugang Ma, Zhong Wang, Yuming Guo
Background: The effects of vitamin D on the immune function of laying hens are not well understood. This study investigated the effects of vitamin D3 (VD3 ) on laying performance and immunological functions in laying hens under Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Methods: In experiment one, 360 Jinghong-1 strain layers (32 weeks) were randomly divided into four groups with six replicates per group and 15 hens per replicate. Hens were fed a basal diet supplemented with different levels of VD3 (0; 500; 1500; or 3000 IU VD3 /kg of diet) for 10 weeks to determine laying performance, egg quality, and other parameters...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Kelly E McCann, Sara A Hurvitz
Poly-ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP-1) and PARP-2 are DNA damage sensors that are most active during S-phase of the cell cycle and that have wider-reaching roles in DNA repair than originally described. BRCA1 and BRCA2 (Breast Cancer) proteins are involved in homologous recombination repair (HRR), which requires a homologous chromosome or sister chromatid as a template to faithfully repair DNA double-strand breaks. The small-molecule NAD+ mimetics, olaparib, niraparib, rucaparib, veliparib, and talazoparib, inhibit the catalytic activity of PARP-1 and PARP-2 and are currently being studied in later-stage clinical trials...
2018: Drugs in Context
Ashraf Abou Tabl, Abedalrhman Alkhateeb, Huy Quang Pham, Luis Rueda, Waguih ElMaraghy, Alioune Ngom
Analyzing the genetic activity of breast cancer survival for a specific type of therapy provides a better understanding of the body response to the treatment and helps select the best course of action and while leading to the design of drugs based on gene activity. In this work, we use supervised and nonsupervised machine learning methods to deal with a multiclass classification problem in which we label the samples based on the combination of the 5-year survivability and treatment; we focus on hormone therapy, radiotherapy, and surgery...
2018: Evolutionary Bioinformatics Online
Sandra L Romero-Cordoba, Sergio Rodriguez-Cuevas, Veronica Bautista-Pina, Antonio Maffuz-Aziz, Elvira D'Ippolito, Giulia Cosentino, Sara Baroni, Marilena V Iorio, Alfredo Hidalgo-Miranda
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous and aggressive neoplasia lacking the expression of hormonal receptors and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2. Accumulating evidence has highlighted the importance of miRNAs dysregulation in the establishment of cancer programs, but the functional role of many miRNAs remains unclear. The description of miRNAs roles might provide novel strategies for treatment. In the present work, an integrated analysis of miRNA transcriptional landscape was performed (N = 132), identifying the significant down-modulation of miR-342-3p in TNBC, probably because of the aberrant activity of estrogen receptor, which serves as a transcription factor of the miRNA, as demonstrated by a siRNA-knockdown approach...
August 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
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