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Blood test for bacterial infection

Matthew R England, Frida Stock, James E T Gebo, Karen M Frank, Anna F Lau
Emergence of cell therapy programs in large academic centers has led to an increasing demand for clinical laboratories to assist with product sterility testing. Automated blood culture systems have shown promise as alternatives to the manual USP<71> compendial method, but current published data are limited by small organism test sets, particularly for molds. In 2015, failure of the BACTEC FX system to detect mold contamination in two products prompted us to evaluate three test systems (compendial USP<71>, BACTEC FX, and BacT/ALERT Dual-T) over seven different culture combinations using 118 challenge organisms representative of the NIH cGMP environment...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Thomas Waterfield, Julie-Ann Maney, Martin Hanna, Derek Fairley, Michael D Shields
BACKGROUND: The primary objective of this study was to report on the diagnostic accuracy of point-of-care testing (POCT) for procalcitonin (PCT) in identifying invasive bacterial infections in young infants. Invasive bacterial infection was defined as the isolation of a bacterial pathogen in blood or cerebrospinal fluid culture. METHODS: This was a prospective observational diagnostic accuracy study. Young infants less than 90 days of age presenting to the Royal Belfast Hospital for Sick Children with signs of possible bacterial infection were eligible for inclusion...
December 12, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Bhagirathi Dwibedi, Jyotsnamayee Sabat, Lal Mohan Ho, Satya Sunder Pati, Sailendra Panda, Shantanu Kumar Kar
The study was undertaken to find out the cause and etiology of an outbreak presumed to be due to water contamination that caused high morbidity in the western part of the state of Odisha during May, 2014. In this investigation 56 blood samples were collected and tested for HEV IgM through ELISA. Blood sample of 22 patients collected within 1 weeks post onset of symptoms and were subjected to RT-PCR and sequencing followed by phylogenetic analysis. Water samples were also analyzed for viral and bacterial contamination...
December 2018: Virusdisease
Anne Line Engsbro, Sara Najat, Karin Meinike Jørgensen, Jørgen A L Kurtzhals, Maiken Cavling Arendrup
1,3-β-D-glucan (BG), a cell-wall component of most fungi including Pneumocystis (PC), is recommended by international guidelines for screening for pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in hematologic patients. We retrospectively validated the BG test in our tertiary university hospital. Forty-five patients (median age 53 years, 33% female) tested for PC by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or immunoflourescence (IF)-microscopy with a stored blood sample within ±5 days of the PC test were tested by the Fungitell (cutoff <60 and >80 pg/ml)...
December 11, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Borja Gomez, Haydee Diaz, Alba Carro, Javier Benito, Santiago Mintegi
OBJECTIVES: To determine the performance of procalcitonin (PCT), C reactive protein (CRP) and absolute neutrophil count (ANC) in identifying invasive bacterial infection (IBI) among well-appearing infants ≤21 days old with fever without source and no leukocyturia. To compare this performance with that in those 22-90 days old. DESIGN: Substudy of a prospective single-centre registry performed between September 2008 and August 2017. SETTING: Paediatric emergency department of a tertiary teaching hospital...
November 29, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Te-Din Huang, Ekaterina Melnik, Pierre Bogaerts, Stephanie Evrard, Youri Glupczynski
Rapid identification and susceptibility testing results are of importance for the early appropriate therapy of bloodstream infections. The ePlex (GenMark Diagnostics) Blood Culture Identification (BCID) Panels are fully automated PCR-based assays designed to identify Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, fungi and bacterial resistance genes within 1.5 hours from positive blood culture. Consecutive non-duplicate positive blood culture episodes were tested by the ePlex system prospectively. The choice of panel(s) (Gram-positive/Gram-negative/fungal pathogens) was defined by Gram-stained microscopy of BC+ bottles (BactAlert, bioMérieux)...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Abdolnabi Shabani, Manoochehr Makvandi, Alireza Samarbafzadeh, Ali Teimoori, Mojtaba Rasti, Chiman Karami, Nasteran Rastegarvand, Roya Nikfar, Ahmad Shamsizadeh, Azam Salehi, Kambiz Ahmadi Angali
Background and Objectives: Human enteroviruses (EV) are the most common causes of neonatal sepsis-like disease. The frequencies of EV including coxsackievirus A, coxsackievirus B and Echovirus serotypes have been studied in young infants (younger than three months) with sepsis. So far, the role of enteroviruses among neonates with sepsis was not determined in Ahvaz, Iran. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate the frequency of EV among hospitalized young infants with clinical signs and symptoms of sepsis in Ahvaz...
August 2018: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
Mohammed Lamorde, Arthur Mpimbaza, Richard Walwema, Moses Kamya, James Kapisi, Henry Kajumbula, Asadu Sserwanga, Jane Frances Namuganga, Abel Kusemererwa, Hannington Tasimwa, Issa Makumbi, John Kayiwa, Julius Lutwama, Prosper Behumbiize, Abner Tagoola, Jane Frances Nanteza, Gilbert Aniku, Meklit Workneh, Yukari Manabe, Jeff N Borchert, Vance Brown, Grace D Appiah, Eric D Mintz, Jaco Homsy, George S Odongo, Raymond L Ransom, Molly M Freeman, Robyn A Stoddard, Renee Galloway, Matthew Mikoleit, Cecilia Kato, Ronald Rosenberg, Eric C Mossel, Paul S Mead, Kiersten J Kugeler
Global health security depends on effective surveillance for infectious diseases. In Uganda, resources are inadequate to support collection and reporting of data necessary for an effective and responsive surveillance system. We used a cross-cutting approach to improve surveillance and laboratory capacity in Uganda by leveraging an existing pediatric inpatient malaria sentinel surveillance system to collect data on expanded causes of illness, facilitate development of real-time surveillance, and provide data on antimicrobial resistance...
2018: Health Security
Wenxia Zhang, Yan Guo, Jiayin Li, Yiyuan Zhang, Yang Yang, Dong Dong, Demei Zhu, Ping He, Fupin Hu
Background: In recent years, the incidence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) infections has increased rapidly. Since the CRE strain is usually resistant to most of antimicrobial agents, patients with this infection are often accompanied by a high mortality. Therefore, it instigates a severe challenge the clinical management of infection. In this study, we study the in vitro and in vivo bactericidal activity of ceftazidime-avibactam administrated either alone or in combination with aztreonam against KPC or NDM carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae , and explore a new clinical therapeutic regimen for infections induced by their resistant strains...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Takavar Mohammadian, Mahdieh Nasirpour, Mohammad Reza Tabandeh, Amir Ali Heidary, Reza Ghanei-Motlagh, Seyed Samad Hosseini
The present study was tested how Oncorhynchus mykiss can respond to dietary supplementations of autochthonous probiotics, including Lactobacillus delbrukei subsp. bulgaricus and Lactobacillus acidophilus and Citrobacter farmeri by measuring different parameters. To address that, 300 fish weighing 19.08-32.9 g were fed by probiotics-enriched diets, containing 5 × 107  CFU g-1 for 60 days. Our results indicated that probiotics, especially L. acidophilus and L. bulgaricus are involved in enhancing the growth performance of this species as compared with the control group...
November 20, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Norosoa Harline Razanajatovo, Julia Guillebaud, Aina Harimanana, Soatiana Rajatonirina, Elisoa Hariniaina Ratsima, Zo Zafitsara Andrianirina, Hervé Rakotoariniaina, Todisoa Andriatahina, Arnaud Orelle, Rila Ratovoson, Judickaelle Irinantenaina, Dina Arinalina Rakotonanahary, Lovasoa Ramparany, Frédérique Randrianirina, Vincent Richard, Jean-Michel Heraud
BACKGROUND: Few comprehensive data exist regarding the epidemiology of severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) in low income countries. This study aimed at identifying etiologies and describing clinical features of SARI-associated hospitalization in Madagascar. METHODS: It is a prospective surveillance of SARI in 2 hospitals for 3 years. Nasopharyngeal swabs, sputum, and blood were collected from SARI patients enrolled and tested for viruses and bacteria. Epidemiological and clinical information were obtained from case report forms...
2018: PloS One
Sergey Yegorov, Ronald M Galiwango, Sara V Good, Juliet Mpendo, Egbert Tannich, Andrea K Boggild, Noah Kiwanuka, Bernard S Bagaya, Rupert Kaul
BACKGROUND: Schistosoma mansoni infection has been associated with increased risk of HIV transmission in African women. This association might be causal or mediated through shared socio-behavioural factors and associated co-infections. We tested the latter hypothesis in a cross-sectional pilot study in a cohort of women from a S. mansoni endemic region of Uganda. To validate the immunological effects of S. mansoni in this cohort, we additionally assessed known schistosomiasis biomarkers...
November 19, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Valentina Feodorova, Edgar Sultanakhmedov, Yury Saltykov, Sergey Zaitsev, Sergey Utz, Michael Corbel, Charlotte Gaydos, Thomas Quinn, Vladimir Motin
Background: Chronic asymptomatic chlamydial genital infection caused by the wild-type of Chlamydia trachomatis (wtCT) is the most common bacterial infection causing human infertility. The novel 'Swedish' variant of С.trachomatis (nvCT) which contains a 377 bp deletion in a region that is specifically targeted in some nucleic acid amplification tests may impede diagnosis. Objective: The study aimed to investigate whether nvCT may be a possible cause of infertility in a couple undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF)...
2018: Open Microbiology Journal
Rehab M Elsaid Tash, Ahmed A Wegdan, Fatma A Amer, Rasha H A Bassyouni, Joseph M Botros
Background and Aims: Infection control is essential in anaesthetic practice for both personnel and equipment used. This study aims to evaluate knowledge of anaesthesiologists about infection control practices and to detect the pattern of anaesthetic devices contamination. Methods: Cross-sectional observational study at two university hospitals was done. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 80 anaesthesiologists and 90 nursing staff. Forty-four samples were taken from rigid laryngoscopes (22 pairs from handle and blade) for detection of bacterial or fungal contamination...
October 2018: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
Francesca Di Gaudio, Serena Indelicato, Sergio Indelicato, Maria Rita Tricoli, Giuseppe Stampone, David Bongiorno
Fast diagnosis of pathogens is critical to guarantee the most adequate therapy for infections; bacterial culture methods, which constitute the actual gold standard, are precise and sensitive but rather slow. Today, new methods have been made available to enable faster diagnosis, with the Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time Of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) technique being the most promising. Even if simpler and faster than traditional bacterial culture methods, analysis of positive blood cultures via MALDI-TOF MS requires a preliminary extraction process of samples...
October 26, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Denitsa Simeonova, Mariya Ivanovska, Mariana Murdjeva, Andre F Carvalho, Michael Maes
BACKGROUND: Increased intestinal permeability with heightened translocation of Gram-negative bacteria, also known as "leaky gut", is associated with the pathophysiology of neuroimmune disorders, such as major depressive disorder (MDD), chronic fatigue syndrome (CSF) and (deficit) schizophrenia, as well as with general medical disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome. This review aims to summarize clinical biochemistry and molecular immunology tests that may aid in the recognition of leaky gut in clinical practice...
November 14, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Claudia M Barberis, Eduardo Montalvo, Soledad Imas, Germán Traglia, Marisa N Almuzara, Carlos Hernán Rodriguez, Angela Famiglietti, Octavio Mazzocchi, Carlos Vay
Introduction: Corynebacterium coyleae is a Gram-stain-positive non-lipophilic coryneform rod first described in blood samples and pleural fluid. There is scarce information about the clinical relevance of C. coyleae and none on complicated urinary tract infections has been described so far. Case presentation: A 36-year-old woman with a history of chronic kidney failure, under thrice-weekly haemodialysis since 2014 due to polycystic kidney disease, presented with hypogastric pain, lower left quadrant pain and nausea...
September 2018: JMM Case Reports
Paul L Aronson, Marie E Wang, Eugene D Shapiro, Samir S Shah, Adrienne G DePorre, Russell J McCulloh, Christopher M Pruitt, Sanyukta Desai, Lise E Nigrovic, Richard D Marble, Rianna C Leazer, Sahar N Rooholamini, Laura F Sartori, Fran Balamuth, Christopher Woll, Mark I Neuman
: media-1vid110.1542/5840460609001PEDS-VA_2018-1879 Video Abstract OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the Rochester and modified Philadelphia criteria for the risk stratification of febrile infants with invasive bacterial infection (IBI) who do not appear ill without routine cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) testing. METHODS: We performed a case-control study of febrile infants ≤60 days old presenting to 1 of 9 emergency departments from 2011 to 2016. For each infant with IBI (defined as a blood [bacteremia] and/or CSF [bacterial meningitis] culture with growth of a pathogen), controls without IBI were matched by site and date of visit...
November 13, 2018: Pediatrics
Kocturk Yildirim, Abdulhamit Misir, Turan Bilge Kizkapan, Mustafa Ozcamdalli, Fuat Duygulu
Diagnosis in prosthetic joint infections is challenging as symptoms are variable, and currently most of the diagnostic tests are non-specific. Normal inflammatory reactions after orthopedic prosthetic surgery may generate false positives, as these tests have high sensitivity but low specificity. Thus, specific tests, as alpha defensin, are needed to distinguish bacterial infections from reactions to surgical trauma. The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of several diagnostic tools for detecting bacterial infection in prostheses...
December 2017: Acta Orthopaedica Belgica
Jeffrey T Parsons, Steven A John, Thomas H F Whitfield, Jorge Cienfuegos-Szalay, Christian Grov
BACKGROUND: Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) reduces risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection for many gay and bisexual men (GBM); however, bacterial sexually transmitted infections associated with decreasing condom use among users is of concern. Center for Disease Control and Prevention's guidelines for PrEP use recommend bacterial sexually transmitted infection screening every 6 months. We sought to investigate comprehensive PrEP care, defined as: (1) discussion of sexual behavior, (2) blood sample, (3) urine sample, (4) rectal sample (rectal swab), and (5) throat sample (throat swab), provided at the user's last PrEP appointment...
December 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
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