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Blood test for bacterial infection

Joy Garrett, Carol H Sampson, P Artur Plett, Robin Crisler, Jeffrey Parker, Richard Venezia, Hui Lin Chua, Debra L Hickman, Catherine Booth, Thomas MacVittie, Christie M Orschell, Joseph R Dynlacht
Several investigators performing bone marrow transplantation studies have previously reported sporadic increases in mortality that were associated with pronounced swelling in the face, head and neck of mice. Over the past few years, we and others have noted an increasing number of experiments in which mice that have received total-body irradiation (TBI) or partial-body irradiation (PBI) develop swollen muzzles, drastic thickening of the upper lip and redness, bruising and/or swelling around the nose and muzzle and sometimes over the top of the head...
October 19, 2018: Radiation Research
Takeshi Ichikawa, Nobuaki Machida, Hiroaki Kaneko, Itaru Oi, Masayuki A Fujino
Objective The aim of this study was to identify patients with a high risk of early mortality after acute esophageal variceal bleeding by measuring the C-reactive protein (CRP) level. Methods We retrospectively evaluated 154 consecutive cirrhotic patients admitted with esophageal variceal bleeding. Differences between categorical variables were assessed by the chi-square test. Continuous variables were compared using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Multivariate logistic regression analyses consisting of clinical laboratory parameters were performed to identify risk factors associated with the six-week mortality...
October 17, 2018: Internal Medicine
Jia-Huei Yan, Xin-Yuan Cai, Ying-Hsien Huang
BACKGROUND: Febrile children are often evaluated for the risk of bacterial infections in the pediatric emergency department (PER). Hepcidin is an acute phase inflammatory protein. In this study, we examined the plasma hepcidin levels in febrile children. METHODS: This study was conducted at a pediatric emergency department with 123 febrile children. We measured plasma hepcidin levels using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We further evaluated clinical characteristics and routine blood tests along with the hepcidin levels...
September 20, 2018: Pediatrics and Neonatology
F-C Kuo, Y-D Lu, C-T Wu, H-L You, G-B Lee, M S Lee
AIMS: The aim of this study was to compare the results of 16S/28S rRNA sequencing with the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP) level, and synovial fluid analysis in the diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection (PJI). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between September 2015 and August 2016, 214 consecutive patients were enrolled. In the study population, there were 25 patients with a PJI and 189 controls. Of the PJI patients, 14 (56%) were women, and the mean age at the time of diagnosis was 65 years (38 to 83)...
October 2018: Bone & Joint Journal
Yasmine Chetouane, Pierre Gallian, Kahina Chetouane, Gregory Dubourg, Jacques Chiaroni, Didier Raoult, Laurence Camoin-Jau
BACKGROUND: The transfusion of platelet concentrates (PCs) contaminated with bacteria may cause serious, and even fatal, septic reactions in patients. The aim of this study was to compare the VersaTREK with the BACTEC FX automated culture systems for screening bacterial contamination, directly after the delay of 24 hours of preparation to obtain the final pooled buffy coat PCs, to prevent transfusion-transmitted bacterial infections. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Seven bacterial strains were each inoculated into five replicate pooled buffy coat PCs at approximately 100 colony-forming units/unit, and 5- or 10-mL samples were inoculated into duplicate aerobic culture bottles...
October 7, 2018: Transfusion
Balew Arega, Yimtubezinash Woldeamanuel, Kelemework Adane, Abdulaziz A Sherif, Daniel Asrat
Background: The spectrum of pathogens causing bloodstream infections (BSIs) in cancer patients has shown significant fluctuations in different geographical areas and time. We studied the microbial spectrum and drug-resistance profile of pathogens causing BSIs in febrile cancer patients at a referral hospital in Ethiopia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between December 2011 and June 2012 at Tikur Anbessa Hospital in Addis Ababa. Blood cultures from febrile cancer patients (n=107) were performed...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Yosra A Helmy, Loic Deblais, Issmat I Kassem, Dipak Kathayat, Gireesh Rajashekara
Colibacillosis caused by avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC), is an economically important bacterial disease of poultry. APEC are a subgroup of extra intestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) and poultry are considered potential sources of foodborne ExPEC to humans. Currently, APEC infections in poultry are controlled by antibiotics and/or vaccination; however, their effect is limited due to emergence of antibiotic resistant strains and infections with heterologous serotypes. Therefore, novel approaches to are needed...
September 29, 2018: Virulence
Agata Cieślik-Bielecka, Paweł Reichert, Rafał Skowroński, Aleksandra Królikowska, Tomasz Bielecki
The current literature suggests that the antibacterial effect of leukocyte- and platelet-rich plasma (L-PRP) is directly related to platelet and leukocyte concentrations. The aim of this study was twofold: first, to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of L-PRP against selected bacterial strains in vitro, and second, to correlate this effect with leukocyte and platelet content in the final concentration. Blood was collected from 20 healthy males, and L-PRP, acellular plasma (AP), and autologous thrombin were consecutively prepared...
September 25, 2018: Platelets
Lucien Barnes, Douglas M Heithoff, Scott P Mahan, Gary N Fox, Andrea Zambrano, Jane Choe, Lynn N Fitzgibbons, Jamey D Marth, Jeffrey C Fried, H Tom Soh, Michael J Mahan
BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need for rapid, sensitive, and affordable diagnostics for microbial infections at the point-of-care. Although a number of innovative systems have been reported that transform mobile phones into potential diagnostic tools, the translational challenge to clinical diagnostics remains a significant hurdle to overcome. METHODS: A smartphone-based real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification (smaRT-LAMP) system was developed for pathogen ID in urinary sepsis patients...
September 8, 2018: EBioMedicine
Cheryl L Day, Deborah A Abrahams, Rubina Bunjun, Lynnett Stone, Marwou de Kock, Gerhard Walzl, Robert J Wilkinson, Wendy A Burgers, Willem A Hanekom
Persistent antigen stimulation in chronic infections has been associated with antigen-specific T cell dysfunction and upregulation of inhibitory receptors, including programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1). Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) disease is characterized by high levels of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), yet the relationship between bacterial load, PD-1 expression, and Mtb-specific T cell function in human TB has not been well-defined. Using peripheral blood samples from adults with LTBI and with pulmonary TB disease, we tested the hypothesis that PD-1 expression is associated with bacterial load and functional capacity of Mtb-specific T cell responses...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Kristin Hollister, Praveen Kusumanchi, Ruth Ann Ross, Kristina Chandler, AdePeju Oshodi, Laura Heathers, Sean Teagarden, Li Wang, Alexander L Dent, Suthat Liangpunsakul
Background: Excessive drinkers (ED) and patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) are several times more susceptible to bacterial and viral infections and have a decrease in antibody responses to vaccinations. Follicular helper T (TFH) cells are essential to select B cells in the germinal center and to produce antibodies. TFH cells express both a membrane-associated and a soluble form of CD40 ligand (sCD40L); in which the latter form is released to circulation upon T cell activation...
March 2018: Liver Research
Shankaramurthy Channabasappa, Ravisha Chikkamadaiah, Murali Durgaiah, Senthil Kumar, Keerthi Ramesh, Aparna Sreekanthan, Bharathi Sriram
Objectives: P128 is a recombinant chimeric ectolysin with potent antistaphylococcal activity. P128 was evaluated as monotherapy and in combination with two standard-of-care (SoC) antibiotics, vancomycin and daptomycin, in mouse models of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia. Methods: Healthy BALB/c mice were challenged (intraperitoneally) with 109 cfu of MRSA strain COL or USA300 and treated with a single dose of P128 (0.2-10 mg/kg). Drug synergy was tested using a single dose of P128 (0...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Marine Desroches, Olivier Clermont, Bruno Lafeuillade, Christophe Rodriguez, Mélanie Darty, Guilhem Royer, Odile Bouvet, Nadra Ounnoughene, France Noizat-Pirenne, Erick Denamur, Jean-Winoc Decousser
BACKGROUND: Transfusion-transmitted bacterial infections (TTBIs) are the main residual infectious complications of transfusions. Escherichia coli and platelet (PLT) concentrates may be epidemiologically associated, leading to severe, if not lethal, TTBIs. We investigated the genotypic and phenotypic reasons for this clinically deleterious combination. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We investigated a French national E. coli strain collection related to six independent episodes of TTBIs...
August 2018: Transfusion
Li-Yun Zhao, Hong-Xin Liu, Lei Wang, Zhi-Fang Xu, Hai-Bo Tan, Sheng-Xiang Qiu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The leaves of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa are traditionally used in the treatment of infectious diseases such as wound infections in Chinese traditional medicine. The mechanisms of the activity of rhodomyrtosone B (RDSB), a natural acylphloroglucinol isolated from the leaves of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa, are still not understood. We provided a detailed investigation of the antibacterial action of RDSB against bacteria in vitro and in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The antibacterial activity of RDSB was tested by the microdilution method against a panel of bacteria, and a time-killing assay was carried out according to CLSI guidelines...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Masaya Murakami, Hiroshi Kiyota, Kanako Kasai, Shigehiro Bando, Shinichiro Kira, Haruhisa Koide, Hiroki Yamada, Takahiro Kimura, Shin Egawa
We aimed to clarify prophylactic antimicrobial effects of single-dose piperacillin (PIPC) for perioperative infections in the transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) in comparison with those of single-dose tazobactam/piperacillin (TAZ/PIPC) through a retrospective analysis. We analyzed data from 192 TURBT patients treated with single-dose (4 g) intravenous PIPC (P group) between April 2015 and April 2017. For comparison, we analyzed data from 50 TURBT patients treated with single-dose (4.5 g) intravenous TAZ/PIPC (T/P group) between June 2013 and April 2014...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Hassan O J Morad, Anna-Maria Wild, Stefan Wiehr, Genna Davies, Andreas Maurer, Bernd J Pichler, Christopher R Thornton
The human commensal yeast Candida is the fourth most common cause of hospital-acquired bloodstream infections, with Candida albicans accounting for the majority of the >400,000 life-threatening infections annually. Diagnosis of invasive candidiasis (IC), a disease encompassing candidemia (blood-borne yeast infection) and deep-seated organ infections, is a major challenge since clinical manifestations of the disease are indistinguishable from viral, bacterial and other fungal diseases, and diagnostic tests for biomarkers in the bloodstream such as PCR, ELISA, and pan-fungal β-D-glucan lack either standardization, sensitivity, or specificity...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Martin Bitzan, Omar AlKandari, Blair Whittemore, Xiao-Ling Yin
Hemolytic uremic syndrome is a rare complication of invasive pneumococcal infection (pnHUS). Its pathogenesis is poorly understood, and treatment remains controversial. The emerging role of complement in various forms of HUS warrants a new look at this "old" disease. We performed a retrospective analysis of clinical and laboratory features of three sequential cases of pnHUS since 2008 associated with pneumonia/pleural empyema, two due to Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19 A. Profound depletion of complement C3 (and less of C4) was observed in two patients...
August 29, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
S L Forster, T Real, K P Doucette, S B King
BACKGROUND: Treatment of infected otitis externa (OE) relies on the topical application of specific formulations that most often contain an antibiotic, an antifungal and a glucocorticoid. This study is to report the results of a randomized, placebo-controlled field trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of OSURNIA™ (Elanco Animal Health, a division of Eli Lilly and Company, Greenfield, IN), a novel topical ear medication containing florfenicol, terbinafine and betamethasone acetate in an adaptable gel...
August 31, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Norifumi Iseda, Tomoharu Yoshizumi, Takeo Toshima, Akinari Morinaga, Takahiro Tomiyama, Junichi Takahashi, Takashi Motomura, Yohei Mano, Shinji Itoh, Noboru Harada, Toru Ikegami, Yuji Soejima
BACKGROUND: Hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) is a rare and potentially fatal complication following liver transplantation. CASE PRESENTATION: A 63-year-old woman with decompensated liver cirrhosis secondary to hepatitis B virus infection underwent living donor liver transplantation using the right posterior section of her husband's liver (graft volume, 581 g; 56.8% of the recipient's standard liver volume). She developed small-for-size syndrome on postoperative day (POD) 7, and HPS was diagnosed on POD 12 by bone marrow aspiration (white blood cells, 300/μL; neutrophils, 30/μL)...
August 29, 2018: Surgical Case Reports
Agnieszka Szubert-Kruszyńska, Joanna Stańczak, Stella Cieniuch, Edyta Podsiadły, Tomasz Postawa, Jerzy Michalik
Hematophagous Spinturnix myoti mites and their host, the greater mouse-eared bat (Myotis myotis), were tested for the presence of Bartonella spp., Rickettsia spp., and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. In total, Bartonella spp. DNA was amplified in 28% of 134 mite pools and in 25% of 59 bats tested by PCR targeting a fragment of citrate synthase gltA gen. Adult mites were at least threefold more frequently infected compared to immature stages. The overall infection prevalence among mite pools from cave-dwelling bats was higher than for those collected from attic shelters...
August 27, 2018: Microbial Ecology
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