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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30100507/typeability-of-maldi-tof-assay-for-identification-of-non-aureus-staphylococci-associated-with-bovine-intramammary-infections-and-teat-apex-colonization
#1
Yasser S Mahmmod, Bettina Nonnemann, Line Svennesen, Karl Pedersen, Ilka Christine Klaas
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF), a culture-dependent assay, has recently been implemented for routine identification of non-aureus staphylococci (NAS) species from milk, but the assay has never been investigated for NAS from nonmilk or environmental samples. The objective of this study was to evaluate the typeability of the MALDI-TOF assay for the identification and differentiation of bovine-associated NAS species on aseptically collected quarter milk and teat skin samples in dairy herds...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30095376/disparate-effects-of-antibiotics-on-hypertension
#2
Sarah Galla, Saroj Chakraborty, Xi Cheng, Jiyoun Yeo, Blair Mell, Helen Zhang, Anna V Mathew, Matam Vijay-Kumar, Bina Joe
Gut microbiota are associated with a variety of complex polygenic diseases. The usage of broad-spectrum antibiotics by patients affected by such diseases, is an important environmental factor to consider, because antibiotics, which are widely prescribed to curb pathological bacterial infections, also indiscriminately eliminate gut commensal microbiota. However, the extent to which antibiotics reshape gut microbiota and per se contribute to these complex diseases is understudied. Because genetics play an important role in predisposing individuals to these modern diseases, we hypothesize that the extent to which antibiotics influence complex diseases depends on host genome and metagenome...
August 10, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30089532/diagnostic-values-of-c-reactive-protein-and-complete-blood-cell-to-identify-invasive-bacterial-infection-in-young-febrile-infants
#3
I-Min Chiu, Lin-Chi Huang, I-Lun Chen, Kuo-Su Tang, Ying-Hsien Huang
BACKGROUND: Newborn infants younger than 3 months old with a fever are frequently evaluated for the risk of invasive bacterial infections (IBIs), which include bacteremia and/or bacterial meningitis, in the pediatric emergency department (PED). The purpose of this study was to determine the individual complete blood cell count and biochemistry levels associated with IBIs in febrile infants. METHODS: We carried out this retrospective study using a pediatric emergency department at a tertiary medical center in southern Taiwan, where we also evaluated the clinical characteristics and routine blood tests between experimental groups...
June 13, 2018: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30087140/a-culture-shift-broad-bacterial-detection-identification-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-directly-from-whole-blood
#4
Nadya Andini, Anne Hu, Luming Zhou, Steven Cogill, Tza-Huei Wang, Carl T Wittwer, Samuel Yang
BACKGROUND: The time required for bloodstream pathogen detection, identification (ID), and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) does not satisfy the acute needs of disease management. Conventional methods take up to 3 days for ID and AST. Molecular diagnostics have reduced times for ID, but their promise to supplant culture is unmet because AST times remain slow. We developed a combined quantitative PCR (qPCR)-based ID+AST assay with sequential detection, ID, and AST of leading nosocomial bacterial pathogens...
August 7, 2018: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30083721/diagnosis-of-kawasaki-disease-using-a-minimal-whole-blood-gene-expression-signature
#5
Victoria J Wright, Jethro A Herberg, Myrsini Kaforou, Chisato Shimizu, Hariklia Eleftherohorinou, Hannah Shailes, Anouk M Barendregt, Stephanie Menikou, Stuart Gormley, Maurice Berk, Long Truong Hoang, Adriana H Tremoulet, John T Kanegaye, Lachlan J M Coin, Mary P Glodé, Martin Hibberd, Taco W Kuijpers, Clive J Hoggart, Jane C Burns, Michael Levin
Importance: To date, there is no diagnostic test for Kawasaki disease (KD). Diagnosis is based on clinical features shared with other febrile conditions, frequently resulting in delayed or missed treatment and an increased risk of coronary artery aneurysms. Objective: To identify a whole-blood gene expression signature that distinguishes children with KD in the first week of illness from other febrile conditions. Design, Setting, and Participants: The case-control study comprised a discovery group that included a training and test set and a validation group of children with KD or comparator febrile illness...
August 6, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30080782/antioxidant-treatment-after-injury-suppresses-second-hit-immune-priming
#6
J Jason Hoth, Lane M Smith, Cristina M Furdui, Jonathan D Wells, Barbara K Yoza, Charles E McCall
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary contusion (PC) is a common injury that often results in priming for exaggerated inflammatory responses to a second hit. Previous studies used a mouse model of pulmonary contusion and showed an early and sustained reduction of SIRT1 protein and activity in the lung and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells of injured mice. Sustained decrease in SIRT1 was associated with a primed phenotype in injured mice challenged with an inflammatory stimulus. This study tests the hypothesis that pulmonary contusion induces oxidant production that modifies and decreases SIRT1 and primes the lung for the second-hit response...
August 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30064016/expression-analysis-of-pannexin1-channel-gene-in-response-to-immune-challenges-and-its-role-in-infection-induced-atp-release-in-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus
#7
Shuo Li, Jiafang Li, Nan Wang, Tianxu Zhang, Yaqi Xu, Jinsheng Sun
ATP released from immune cells plays an important role in activation of host innate immunity. However, the molecular mechanisms for pathogen infection-induced ATP release in fish remains unclear. Pannexin1 (Panx1) is a recently identified ATP release channel important for controlling immune responses. The immune relevance of Panx1 in fish, however, is still poorly understood. In this study, we characterized a Panx1 gene homologue (termed tPanx1) from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and analyzed its expression in response to different immune challenges...
July 28, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30060751/the-petechiae-in-children-pic-study-evaluating-potential-clinical-decision-rules-for-the-management-of-feverish-children-with-non-blanching-rashes-including-the-role-of-point-of-care-testing-for-procalcitonin-neisseria-meningitidis-dna-a-study-protocol
#8
Thomas Waterfield, Mark D Lyttle, Derek Fairley, James Mckenna, Kerry Woolfall, Fiona Lynn, Julie-Ann Maney, Damian Roland, Aoife Weir, Michael D Shields
BACKGROUND: Children commonly present to Emergency Departments (ED) with a non-blanching rash in the context of a feverish illness. While most have a self-limiting viral illness, this combination of features potentially represents invasive serious bacterial infection, including meningococcal septicaemia. A paucity of definitive diagnostic testing creates diagnostic uncertainty for clinicians; a safe approach mandates children without invasive disease are often admitted and treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics...
July 30, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30058164/microbial-contamination-of-multiple-use-bottles-of-fluorescein-ophthalmic-solution
#9
Samuel Kyei, David France, Kofi Asiedu
BACKGROUND: The contamination of ophthalmic solutions in ophthalmic practices remains an important cause of a myriad of secondary eye infections and a source of aggravation of ocular disorders such as corneal ulcers and keratitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible microbial contamination of fluorescein sodium dye solutions used in eye clinics in Ghana. METHODS: Fluorescein sodium solutions were collected from various eye clinics in Ghana. Twenty-one samples of multiple-use fluorescein ophthalmic solutions were collected from various regions in Ghana...
July 29, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30051724/procalcitonin-and-cellulitis-correlation-of-procalcitonin-blood-levels-with-measurements-of-severity-and-outcome-in-patients-with-limb-cellulitis
#10
R J Brindle, A Ijaz, P Davies
BACKGROUND: Procalcitonin levels may be raised in bacterial infections and has been used to guide antibiotic therapy. There is little data on procalcitonin and limb cellulitis. OBJECTIVES: Within a clinical trial of antibiotic therapy, we examined the correlation between clinical observations, blood tests and local measurements of skin damage, with serum procalcitonin levels. METHODS: The data is from a subset of the patients recruited into a clinical trial of antibiotic therapy for cellulitis (clindamycin for cellulitis, NCT01876628) whose procalcitonin levels were correlated with clinical and laboratory measurements...
July 27, 2018: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30047089/development-and-validation-of-multiplex-real-time-pcr-assays-for-rapid-detection-of-cytomegalovirus-epstein-barr-virus-and-polyomavirus-bk-in-whole-blood-from-transplant-candidates
#11
Kyung-Ah Hwang, Ji Hoon Ahn, Jae-Hwan Nam
Transplant recipients are more susceptible to bacterial and viral infections. Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and polyomavirus BK (BK) are risk factors for graft dysfunction. All three of them are latent viruses that can cause serious disease in immunocompromised patients. Mainly qualitative PCR tests are required for diagnosis and quantitative monitoring, which are used to follow the response to transplantation. We developed a multiplex real-time PCR (qPCR) method to detect these viruses during blood screenings of transplant recipients...
August 2018: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30042761/-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-gg-derived-soluble-mediators-modulate-adaptive-immune-cells
#12
Irene S Ludwig, Femke Broere, Sarmauli Manurung, Tim T Lambers, Ruurd van der Zee, Willem van Eden
Probiotics and probiotic-related nutritional interventions have been described to have beneficial effects on immune homeostasis and gut health. In previous studies, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) soluble mediators (LSM) have been demonstrated to exert beneficial effects in preclinical models of allergic sensitization, bacterial infection, and intestinal barrier function. In the context of allergic diseases, differentiation of dendritic cells (DCs) and their interactions with T cell populations are crucial for driving tolerogenic responses...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30037423/usefulness-of-serum-procalcitonin-as-a-marker-for-coexisting-infection-in-patients-with-acute-myocardial-infarction
#13
Itzhak Vitkon-Barkay, Tsilia Lazarovitch, Dror Marchaim, Ronit Zaidenstein, Elizabeth Temkin, Emily T Martin, Hannah E Segaloff, Ilya Litovchik, Victoria Rum, Chana Richter, Oran Tzuman, Zvi Vered, Saar Minha
A significant proportion of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) also present with clinical manifestations of inflammatory response, which may be confused with a concomitant infection. This leads to a dilemma regarding the empiric use of antibiotics. We explored if serum procalcitonin (PCT), which is known to be elevated in bacterial infections, may be utilized to rule-out bacterial infection in AMI patients. In this prospective, single center study, PCT was collected within 48hours from AMI patients...
June 2, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30034165/evaluation-of-the-general-organization-of-veterinary-services-control-program-of-animal-brucellosis-in-egypt-an-outbreak-investigation-of-brucellosis-in-buffalo
#14
H I Hosein, Hoda Mohamed Zaki, Nesreen Mohamed Safwat, Ahmed M S Menshawy, Sherin Rouby, Ayman Mahrous, Bahaa El-Deen Madkour
Background and Aim: Brucellosis is a major constraint to livestock production in Egypt as well as many developing countries worldwide. Bovine brucellosis is an economically important disease with reproductive failure as a principal manifestation resulting in abortion, premature birth and decreased milk production in females, and orchitis and epididymitis in males. In spite of the efforts of Egyptian veterinary services to overcome brucellosis, the disease is still prevalent in both animals and humans and represents one of the most important public health hazards in Egypt...
June 2018: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30028941/achieving-long-term-biocompatible-silicone-via-covalently-immobilized-s-nitroso-n-acetylpenicillamine-snap-that-exhibits-4-months-of-sustained-nitric-oxide-release
#15
Sean P Hopkins, Jitendra Pant, Marcus J Goudie, Chad Schmiedt, Hitesh Handa
Ever since the role of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) in controlling a wide variety of biological functions was discovered approximately three decades back, multiple NO-releasing polymeric materials have been developed. However, most of these materials are typically short lived due to the inefficient incorporation of the NO donor molecules within the polymer matrix. In the present study, S-nitroso- N-acetyl penicillamine (SNAP) is covalently attached to poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) to create a highly stable nitric oxide (NO) releasing material for biomedical applications...
August 1, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024986/antibody-to-poly-n-acetyl-glucosamine-provides-protection-against-intracellular-pathogens-mechanism-of-action-and-validation-in-horse-foals-challenged-with-rhodococcus-equi
#16
Colette Cywes-Bentley, Joana N Rocha, Angela I Bordin, Mariana Vinacur, Safia Rehman, Tanweer S Zaidi, Mark Meyer, Sarah Anthony, McKenzie Lambert, Daniel R Vlock, Steeve Giguère, Noah D Cohen, Gerald B Pier
Immune correlates of protection against intracellular bacterial pathogens are largely thought to be cell-mediated, although a reasonable amount of data supports a role for antibody-mediated protection. To define a role for antibody-mediated immunity against an intracellular pathogen, Rhodococcus equi, that causes granulomatous pneumonia in horse foals, we devised and tested an experimental system relying solely on antibody-mediated protection against this host-specific etiologic agent. Immunity was induced by vaccinating pregnant mares 6 and 3 weeks prior to predicted parturition with a conjugate vaccine targeting the highly conserved microbial surface polysaccharide, poly-N-acetyl glucosamine (PNAG)...
July 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30019866/frequency-of-isolation-and-drug-susceptibility-of-bacterial-strains-isolated-from-child-oncohematological-patients-2011-2014-a-single-center-study
#17
Beata Kowalska-Krochmal, Radosław Chaber, Katarzyna Jermakow, Magdalena Hurkacz, Elżbieta Piątkowska, Grażyna Gościniak, Grażyna Wróbel
BACKGROUND: Infections in pediatric patients with oncohematological diseases pose a huge therapeutic and diagnostic problem. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the etiology of bacteremia and the antibiotic susceptibility of pathogenic and colonizing bacterial strains in pediatric oncohematological patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the period 2011-2014, 17,209 positive test results, including 1,129 positive blood cultures, were subjected to a detailed analysis...
July 18, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30016949/diagnosis-of-acute-canine-leptospirosis-using-multiple-laboratory-tests-and-characterization-of-the-isolated-strains
#18
Bruno Alonso Miotto, Barbara Furlan Tozzi, Manoela de Souza Penteado, Aline Gil Alves Guilloux, Luisa Zanolli Moreno, Marcos Bryan Heinemann, Andrea Micke Moreno, Walter Lilenbaum, Mitika Kuribayashi Hagiwara
BACKGROUND: Dogs presenting with acute leptospirosis may present non-specific clinical and laboratory findings, and the definitive diagnosis may require additional confirmatory tests, including bacterial culture, for the direct or indirect identification of the pathogen. The present study describes the diagnosis of leptospirosis in suspected dogs based on the use of multiple diagnostic tests, including serological, molecular and bacteriological tests, along with the characterization of the recovered leptospiral strains...
July 17, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30014826/antibiotic-therapy-in-adults-with-malaria-high-rate-of-clinically-significant-bacteremia-in-hospitalized-adults-diagnosed-with-falciparum-malaria
#19
Ne Myo Aung, Phyo Pyae Nyein, Thu Ya Htut, Zaw Win Htet, Tint Tint Kyi, Nicholas M Anstey, Mar Mar Kyi, Josh Hanson
It has been believed that concomitant bacteremia is uncommon in adults hospitalized with falciparum malaria. Accordingly, the World Health Organization treatment guidelines presently only recommended additional antibacterial therapy in these patients if they have a clinical syndrome compatible with serious bacterial infection. Admission blood cultures were collected from 20 consecutive adults in Myanmar, hospitalized with a positive immunochromatographic test and blood film, suggesting a diagnosis of falciparum malaria; four (20%) had bacteremia with a clinically significant pathogen...
July 16, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30011298/bioluminescent-murine-models-of-bacterial-sepsis-and-scald-wound-infections-for-antimicrobial-efficacy-testing
#20
Abiodun D Ogunniyi, Zlatko Kopecki, Elizabeth E Hickey, Manouchehr Khazandi, Emma Peel, Katherine Belov, Alexandra Boileau, Sanjay Garg, Henrietta Venter, Wei Yee Chan, Peter B Hill, Stephen W Page, Allison J Cowin, Darren J Trott
There are very few articles in the literature describing continuous models of bacterial infections that mimic disease pathogenesis in humans and animals without using separate cohorts of animals at each stage of disease. In this work, we developed bioluminescent mouse models of partial-thickness scald wound infection and sepsis that mimic disease pathogenesis in humans and animals using a recombinant luciferase-expressing Staphylococcus aureus strain (Xen29). Two days post-scald wound infection, mice were treated twice daily with a 2% topical mupirocin ointment for 7 days...
2018: PloS One
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