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Peter W French, Russell Ludowyke, Gilles J Guillemin
We review several lines of evidence that point to a potential fungal origin of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). ALS is the most common form of motor neuron disease (MND) in adults. It is a progressive and fatal disease. Approximately 90% cases of ALS are sporadic, and 5-10% are due to genetic mutations (familial). About 25 genes implicated in familial ALS have been identified so far, including SOD1 and TARDBP, the gene encoding 43 kDa transactive response (TAR) DNA-binding protein (TDP-43). Despite intensive research over many decades, the aetiology of sporadic ALS is still unknown...
December 5, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Wang Lin, Honghui Guo, Lingkai Wang, Dandan Zhang, Xueyang Wu, Li Li, Dapeng Li, Rong Tang
Hazardous contaminants, such as nitrite and microcystin-leucine arginine (MC-LR), are released into water bodies during cyanobacterial blooms and may adversely influence the normal physiological function of hydrobiontes. The combined effects of nitrite and MC-LR on the antioxidant defense and innate immunity were evaluated through an orthogonal experimental design (nitrite: 0, 29, 290 μM; MC-LR: 0, 3, 30 nM). Remarkable increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels have suggested that nitrite and/or MC-LR exposures induce oxidative stress in fish spleen, which were indirectly confirmed by significant downregulations of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), glutathione (GSH) contents, as well as transcriptional levels of antioxidant enzyme genes cat1, sod1 and gpx1a...
December 3, 2018: Toxins
Claudia Consales, Martina Panatta, Alessio Butera, Giuseppe Filomeni, Caterina Merla, Maria Teresa Carrì, Carmela Marino, Barbara Benassi
PURPOSE: we characterized the response to the extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) in an in vitro model of familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (fALS), carrying two mutant variants of the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, stably over-expressing the wild type, the G93A or the H46R mutant SOD1 cDNA, were exposed to either the ELF-MF (50 Hz, 1 mT) or the sham control field, up to 72 hours...
December 4, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Weixiu Ji, Linjia Wang, Shiyi He, Lu Yan, Tieying Li, Jianxiong Wang, Ah-Ng Tony Kong, Siwang Yu, Ying Zhang
BACKGROUND: Hypoxia training enhances the endurance capacity of athletes. This response may in part be attributed to the hypoxia-induced increase in antioxidant capacity in skeletal muscles. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a key transcription factor which regulates the expression of genes via binding to the antioxidant-response element (ARE) of these genes, plays a crucial role in stimulating the body's defense system and potentially responds to hypoxia. Meanwhile, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is an important player in protecting cells from hypoxic stress...
2018: PloS One
Ali Jawaid, Romesa Khan, Magdalini Polymenidou, Paul E Schulz
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) are two fatal neurodegenerative disorders with considerable clinical, pathological and genetic overlap. Both disorders are characterized by the accumulation of pathological protein aggregates that contain a number of proteins, most notably TAR DNA binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43). Surprisingly, recent clinical studies suggest that dyslipidemia, high body mass index, and type 2 diabetes mellitus are associated with better clinical outcomes in ALS...
December 4, 2018: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Chen-Min Jiang, Xin Liu, Chun-Xue Li, Hao-Cheng Qian, Di Chen, Chao-Qiang Lai, Li-Rong Shen
Royal jelly (RJ) from honeybee has been widely used as a health promotion supplement. The major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs) have been identified as the functional component of RJ. However, the question of whether MRJPs have anti-senescence activity for human cells remains. Human embryonic lung fibroblast (HFL-I) cells were cultured in media containing no MRJPs (A), MRJPs at 0.1 mg/ml (B), 0.2 mg/ml (C), or 0.3 mg/ml (D), or bovine serum albumin (BSA) at 0.2 mg/ml (E). The mean population doubling levels of cells in media B, C, D, and E were increased by 12...
2018: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
Giusy Laudati, Luigi Mascolo, Natascia Guida, Rossana Sirabella, Vincenzo Pizzorusso, Sara Bruzzaniti, Angelo Serani, Gianfranco Di Renzo, Lorella Mt Canzoniero, Luigi Formisano
In humans, mutation of glycine 93 to alanine of Cu++ /Zn++ superoxide dismutase type-1 (SOD1-G93 A) has been associated to some familial cases of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Several evidence proposed the involvement of environmental pollutants that like mercury could accelerate ALS symptoms. SH-SY5Y cells stably transfected with SOD1 and G93 A mutant of SOD1 constructs were exposed to non-toxic concentrations (0.01 µM) of ethylmercury thiosalicylate (thimerosal) for 24 hours. Interestingly, we found that thimerosal, in SOD1-G93 A cells, but not in SOD1 cells, reduced cell survival...
November 29, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Martin Lessard, Mylène Blais, Frédéric Beaudoin, Karine Deschene, Luca Lo Verso, Nathalie Bissonnette, Karoline Lauzon, Frédéric Guay
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the piglet growth during the first week of life on ileal expression of genes and on development of the immune system. Eight litters adjusted to 12 piglets were used. Within each litter, the piglet that showed the lowest weight gain (LWG; n = 8) and the one that showed the highest weight gain (HWG; n = 8) in their first week of life were enrolled. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated on days 8 and 16 to characterize cellular population profiles and to assess ex-vivo secretion of interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)...
December 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Supamate Tarasuntisuk, Tanapat Palaga, Hakuto Kageyama, Rungaroon Waditee-Sirisattha
Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are a group of water-soluble low-molecular-weight secondary metabolites, which are well-documented UV-screening molecules and antioxidants. We have recently demonstrated that a rare MAA, mycosporine-2-glycine (M2G), efficiently inhibited the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). Because AGEs contribute significantly to the aging process, including the pathogenesis and progression of age-related diseases, the present study further evaluated anti-inflammatory effects of M2G using an in vitro model of RAW 264...
November 28, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Yong Chen, Xin Liu, Chenmin Jiang, Liang Liu, Jose M Ordovas, Chao-Qiang Lai, Lirong Shen
Harsh climate induces physiological stress thus compromising organismal survival. Our previous studies demonstrated that curcumin (CUR) supplementation increased survival of turtle under heat stress (HS). Here, we span this work to investigate the survival and lifespan of HS Drosophila fed a diet supplemented with CUR. For this purpose, female and male flies were fed basal diet (N) and CUR diet (0.2 mg/g), and exposed to three conditions: 25°C and 29°C continuously, and 34 °C for 2 h at days 1, 4, and 7, then kept at 25 °C...
November 29, 2018: BioFactors
Jeremy Jeffrey, Hannah D'Cunha, Masatoshi Suzuki
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by specific loss of motor neurons in the spinal cord and brain stem. Currently, there are limited options for treating ALS and further investigation of the disease etiology and ALS disease progression need to be completed. There is an urgent need to identify biomarkers to detect and study disease progression in ALS. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is an intermediate filament protein that is expressed by a number of cells related to the central nervous system including glial cells and ependymal cells...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Susana Rivera-Mancía, Angélica Saraí Jiménez-Osorio, Omar Noel Medina-Campos, Eloísa Colín-Ramírez, Maite Vallejo, Ariadna Alcántara-Gaspar, Raúl Cartas-Rosado, Jesús Vargas-Barrón, José Pedraza-Chaverri
Dyslipidemia and oxidative stress are both considered to be factors involved in cardiovascular disease; however, the relationship between them has been little explored. In this work, we studied the association between the lipid profile and the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as paraoxonase-1 (PON1), superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), ceruloplasmin, and catalase, as well as total antioxidant capacity (the ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP)), in 626 volunteers without cardiovascular disease. Their lipid profile was evaluated, and they were classified as having or not having high triglycerides (↑TG), high low-density cholesterol (↑LDLC), and low high-density cholesterol (↓HDLC), resulting in eight groups: Without dyslipidemia, ↑TG, ↑LDLC, ↓HDLC, ↑TG↑LDLC, ↑TG↓HDLC, ↑LDLC↓HDLC, and ↑TG↑LDLC↓HDLC...
November 28, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Yi Fang, Jinlong Zhang, Yihai Li, Xiaofei Guo, Junjie Li, Rongzhen Zhong, Xiaosheng Zhang
Physical damage and oxidative stress may occur in prepubertal cumulus cells, due to insufficient glutathione synthesis. To determine potential epigenetic mechanisms related to antioxidant effects of melatonin on ovine prepubertal cumulus cells, 30 lambs, 4-wk-old were randomly allocated into two groups: a control (C, n=20) group and a melatonin (M, n=10) group given a subcutaneous implant containing 18mg melatonin. All lambs were superovulated (250 IU FSH and 250 IU eCG). Cumulus cells from germinal vesicle stage cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were collected by ovarian follicular aspiration and dissociated with hyaluronidase...
November 22, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Paola Crociara, Maria Novella Chieppa, Elena Vallino Costassa, Elena Berrone, Marina Gallo, Monica Lo Faro, Maria Domenica Pintore, Barbara Iulini, Antonio D'Angelo, Giovanni Perona, Alberto Botter, Donato Formicola, Alberto Rainoldi, Marianna Paulis, Paolo Vezzoni, Federica Meli, Fiorenzo A Peverali, Caterina Bendotti, Maria Chiara Trolese, Laura Pasetto, Valentina Bonetto, Giovanna Lazzari, Roberto Duchi, Andrea Perota, Irina Lagutina, Corinne Quadalti, Maria Silvia Gennero, Daniela Dezzutto, Rosanna Desiato, Marina Boido, Matilde Ghibaudi, Maria Consuelo Valentini, Maria Caramelli, Cesare Galli, Cristina Casalone, Cristiano Corona
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a neural disorder gradually leading to paralysis of the whole body. Alterations in superoxide dismutase SOD1 gene have been linked with several variants of familial ALS. Here, we investigated a transgenic (Tg) cloned swine model expressing the human pathological hSOD1G93A allele. As in patients, these Tg pigs transmitted the disease to the progeny with an autosomal dominant trait and showed ALS onset from about 27 months of age. Post mortem analysis revealed motor neuron (MN) degeneration, gliosis and hSOD1 protein aggregates in brainstem and spinal cord...
November 21, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Xiaoqin Ding, Tunyu Jian, Yuexian Wu, Yuanyuan Zuo, Jiawei Li, Han Lv, Li Ma, Bingru Ren, Lei Zhao, Weilin Li, Jian Chen
As a promising new target, miR-233 may regulate oxidative stress by targeting keap1-Nrf2 system to affect the pathological process of liver injury in T2DM. Ellagic acid (EA) is versatile for protecting oxidative stress damage and metabolic disorders. In the present study, we investigated the effect of EA on oxidative stress and insulin resistance in high glucose-induced T2DM HepG2 cells and examined the role of miR-223/keap1-Nrf2 pathway in system. HepG2 cells were incubated in 30 mM of glucose, with or without EA (15 and 30 μM) or metformin (Met, 150 μM) for 12 h...
November 19, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Jannatul Mawa, Md Atiar Rahman, M A Hashem, Md Juwel Hosen
This research investigated the functional food effect of Leea macrophylla (Roxb.) ex Hornem root extract on pancreatic necrosis in Streptozotocin-induced type-2 diabetes. Prior to animal intervention, Leea macrophylla root extract (LMR) was subjected to GC-MS analysis. Across a three-week intervention of fructose-fed albino model with LMR50, LMR100 and LMR200, the fluid & food intake, body weight changes, weekly blood glucose concentrations and oral glucose tolerance (OGT) were recorded. The animals were sacrificed after intervention and serum was analyzed for insulin, ALT, AST, LDH, CK-MB, creatinine, uric acid and lipid profile and liver section was used for glycogen estimation...
November 19, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Yifan Bao, Xiaochao Ma, Theodore P Rasmussen, Xiao-Bo Zhong
Purpose of this Review: In order to combat the development of drug resistance, the clinical treatment of tuberculosis requires the combined use of several anti-tuberculosis (anti-TB) drugs, including isoniazid and rifampicin. Combinational treatment approaches are suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO) and are widely accepted throughout the world. Unfortunately, a major side effect of the treatment is the development of anti-tuberculosis drug-induced liver injury (AT-DILI). Many factors contribute to isoniazid- and rifampicin-mediated AT-DILI and genetic variations are among the most common factors...
June 2018: Current Pharmacology Reports
Yu Qian, Jing Zhang, Xianrong Zhou, Ruokun Yi, Jianfei Mu, Xingyao Long, Yanni Pan, Xin Zhao, Weiwei Liu
Chinese pickled cabbage is a traditional fermented food that contains abundant microbes produced during the process of fermentation. In this work, an in vivo animal study was conducted to investigate the effects of a newly isolated lactic acid bacterium ( Lactobacillus plantarum CQPC11, LP-CQPC11) on d-galactose-induced oxidation and aging in mice. Analysis of the serum and tissue samples of these mice using molecular biology approaches showed that LP-CQPC11 suppressed the decrease in thymus, brain, heart, liver, spleen, and kidney indices caused by oxidation and aging...
November 20, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Natalie E Farrawell, Maddison R Yerbury, Steven S Plotkin, Luke McAlary, Justin J Yerbury
Mutations in the SOD1 gene are associated with some forms of familial ALS (fALS). There are over 150 different mutations in the SOD1 gene which cause various effects to the SOD1 enzyme structure, including loss of metal binding and a decrease in dimer affinity. The copper-based therapeutic CuATSM has been proven to be effective at rescuing neuronal cells from SOD1 mutant toxicity, and has also increased the life expectancy of mice expressing the human transgenes SOD1G93A and SOD1G37R. Furthermore, CuATSM is currently the subject of a phase I/II clinical trial in Australia as a treatment for ALS...
November 21, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Kaiyuan Yu, Jian Zhang, Zheng Cao, Qiang Ji, Yanfei Han, Miao Song, Bing Shao, Yanfei Li
Oxidative stress is an important molecular mechanism for kidney injury in aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) nephrotoxicity. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a master transcription factor for regulating the cellular oxidative stress response, which has been confirmed in animal models. Lycopene (LYC), a natural carotenoid, has received extensive attention due to its antioxidant effect with the activation of Nrf2. However, the role of LYC in protecting against AFB1-induced renal injury is unknown. To evaluate the chemoprotective effect of LYC on AFB1-induced renal injury, forty-eight male mice were randomly divided into 4 groups and treated with LYC (5 mg per kg of bodyweight) and/or AFB1 (0...
November 21, 2018: Food & Function
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