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urinary cell excretion

Paola Simeone, Rossella Liani, Romina Tripaldi, Augusto Di Castelnuovo, Maria Teresa Guagnano, Armando Tartaro, Riccardo C Bonadonna, Virginia Federico, Francesco Cipollone, Agostino Consoli, Francesca Santilli
Thromboxane (TX)-dependent platelet activation and lipid peroxidation, as reflected in vivo by the urinary excretion of 11-dehydro-TXB₂ and 8-iso-prostaglandin (PG)F2α , play a key role in atherothrombosis in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) since the earlier stages. Thirty-five metformin-treated obese subjects with prediabetes or newly-diagnosed T2DM were randomized to the glucagon-like peptide receptor agonist (GLP-RA) liraglutide (1.8 mg/day) or lifestyle counseling until achieving a comparable weight loss (-7% of initial body weight), to assess whether changes in subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral (VAT) adipose tissue distribution (MRI), insulin sensitivity (Matsuda Index) and beta-cell performance (multiple sampling OGTT beta-index), with either intervention, might affect TX-dependent platelet activation, lipid peroxidation and inflammation...
December 2, 2018: Nutrients
Thomas Minor, Charlotte von Horn, Andreas Paul
Short term normothermic reconditioning by machine perfusion after cold storage has shown beneficial effects in renal transplantation models. Systematic investigations concerning the inclusion of washed erythrocytes as oxygen carriers are lacking in this context. Porcine kidneys were subjected to 20h of static cold storage. Prior to reperfusion, grafts were put on a machine for 2h of oxygenated (95% O2 ; 5% CO2 ) rewarming perfusion. In one group (n=6) washed erythrocytes were added to the perfusate after temperature has reached 20°C; the other group (n=6) was run without additives...
December 4, 2018: Artificial Organs
Agata Szpera-Goździewicz, Katarzyna Kosicka, Tomasz Goździewicz, Mariola Krzyścin, Przemysław Wirstlein, Anna Siemiątkowska, Franciszek K Główka, Ewa Wender-Ożegowska, Wiesław Markwitz, Grzegorz H Bręborowicz
INTRODUCTION: Endocan plays a role in the development of vascular tissue in health and disease and is an indicator of endothelial cells activation and angiogenesis. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between endocan serum levels and various types of hypertensive disorders in pregnant women. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We created three study groups (preeclampsia [n = 60], chronic hypertension [n = 39], gestational hypertension [n = 58]) and the control group consisting of 59 healthy pregnant women...
December 2, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Guoqiang Zhang, Yanrong Ma, Dali Xi, Zhi Rao, Xiaohan Sun, Xin An Wu
Metformin is always used the baseline antidiabetic therapy of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hyperuricemia. Metformin excreted into urine through active secretion mediated by rOCTs and rMATE1.The aim of this study was to identify the effects of high uric acid on the disposition and its mechanism. In vivo study, hyperuricemic animal model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of potassium oxonate (250 mg/kg) in rats. Metformin (100mg/kg) was administered orally to investigate the pharmacokinetics in control and hyperuricemic rats, respectively...
November 28, 2018: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
Hongqiang Zhai, Yuli Wang, Menghua Wang, Shuai Liu, Feifei Yu, Chunsheng Gao, Guiling Li, Qiang Wu
Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) is an oral heavy metal chelator. Although DMSA is the most acceptable chelator in the urinary excretion of toxic elements from children and adults, its defects in plasma binding and the membrane permeability limit its interaction with intracellular elements and affect its efficacy in chelation therapy. Herein, a novel nanocomposite composed of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), disulfide bond, and DMSA was synthesized and characterized with a scanning/transmission electron microscope, IR and Raman spectra, and TGA analysis...
November 28, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jūratė Stanevičiūtė, Milda Juknevičienė, Jolita Palubinskienė, Ingrida Balnytė, Angelija Valančiūtė, Rūta Vosyliūtė, Kęstutis Sužiedėlis, Vaiva Lesauskaitė, Donatas Stakišaitis
The study objective was to investigate a possible sodium dichloroacetate (DCA) pharmacological mechanism causing an increase in diuresis in rats. The aim was to define characteristics of 24-hour urinary Na+ , K+ , Cl- , Ca2+ , and Mg2+ excretion in Wistar male rats and to evaluate effect of a single-dose DCA and repeated DCA dosage on diuresis. Six control and 6 DCA-treated male rats aged 5 to weeks after a single DCA dose and repeated dosage were tested. The single DCA dose treatment caused a significantly higher 24-hour diuresis when compared to control ( P < ...
October 2018: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
Sei Yonezawa, Mizuho Abe, Yasushi Kawasaki, Yasuhiro Natori, Akinori Sugiyama
LXRs, which are nuclear receptors, have 2 isoforms-LXRα and LXRβ. Generally, LXRα is expressed in the liver, kidney, and a limited number of other organs, whereas LXRβ is thought to be expressed ubiquitously. Nevertheless, no clear consensus has been reached on the role of each in kidney lipid metabolism. Many researchers have reported that lipids accumulate in renal tubular epithelial cells during nephrosis. The nephrosis model we used showed the presence of urinary protein 4 days after the induction of illness...
November 21, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Shogo Minamikawa, Kandai Nozu, Shingo Maeta, Tomohiko Yamamura, Keita Nakanishi, Junya Fujimura, Tomoko Horinouchi, China Nagano, Nana Sakakibara, Hiroaki Nagase, Hideaki Shima, Kenta Noda, Takeshi Ninchoji, Hiroshi Kaito, Kazumoto Iijima
CD80, which regulates T cell activation, may provide a differential diagnostic marker between minimal change disease (MCD) and other renal diseases, including focal segmental glomerular sclerosis (FSGS). However, recent reports show contrasting results. Therefore, we evaluated the utility of urinary CD80 as a diagnostic biomarker. We collected 65 urine samples from 55 patients with MCD (n = 31), FSGS (n = 4), inherited nephrotic syndrome (n = 4), Alport syndrome (n = 5) and other glomerular diseases (n = 11), and control samples (n = 30)...
November 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ru-Chun Yang, Xiao-Ling Zhu, Jun Wang, Feng Wan, Hua-Qin Zhang, Yi Lin, Xuan-Li Tang, Bin Zhu
BACKGROUND: Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is the most common glomerular etiology of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Increasing evidence has indicated the reparative potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in damaged diseased kidneys. However, the effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on the FSGS progression remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of BMSCs on FSGS progression. METHODS: A rat model of FSGS was generated via unilateral nephrectomy plus adriamycin injection...
November 22, 2018: BMC Nephrology
Nuttha Lumlertgul, Monchai Siribamrungwong, Bertrand L Jaber, Paweena Susantitaphong
Introduction: Little is known of the clinical outcomes of secondary oxalate nephropathy. To inform clinical practice, we performed a systematic review of case reports and case series to examine the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with secondary oxalate nephropathy. Methods: Electronic databases were searched for case reports and case series of individual cases or cohorts of patients with biopsy-proven oxalate nephropathy in native or transplanted kidneys from 1950 until January 2018...
November 2018: KI Reports
Kenneth Cusi, Fernando Bril, Diana Barb, David Polidori, Sue Sha, Atalanta Ghosh, Kristin Farrell, Nishanth E Sunny, Srilaxmi Kalavalapalli, Jeremy Pettus, Theodore P Ciaraldi, Sunder Mudaliar, Robert R Henry
AIMS: Canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, improves glycemic control by increasing urinary glucose excretion, but its impact on intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) accumulation and relationship to changes in body weight and glucose metabolism remain unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, 24-week trial subjects with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM; HbA1c=7.7±0.7%) from two centers were randomly assigned (1:1) to canagliflozin 300 mg or placebo...
November 16, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Lucyna Mastalerz, Katarzyna Ewa Tyrak, Maria Ignacak, Ewa Konduracka, Filip Mejza, Adam Ćmiel, Michał Buczek, Adrianna Kot, Krzysztof Oleś, Marek Sanak
BACKGROUND: A special regulatory role for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) has been postulated in Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)-exacerbated respiratory disease (NERD). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of systemic aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) administration on airways PGE2 biosynthesis in induced sputum supernatant (ISS) among subjects with NERD or aspirin-tolerant asthma with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (ATA-CRSwNP), as well as healthy controls (HC)...
November 17, 2018: Allergy
Rong Shi, Zhangyao Xu, Xining Xu, Jingyi Jin, Yining Zhao, Tianming Wang, Yuanyuan Li, Yueming Ma
Metformin and berberine are often combined for treating diabetes. In the present study, we evaluated the drug-drug pharmacokinetic interaction between metformin and berberine after oral co-administration in vivo and the underlying mechanism. As revealed by comparison with the metformin-only group, berberine significantly decreased the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax ), area under the curve from 0 to 4 h (AUC0-4h ), and urinary and bile excretion, and increased the kidney tissue concentration of metformin in rats...
November 11, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Keke Wang, Chao Chu, Jiawen Hu, Yang Wang, Wenling Zheng, Yongbo Lv, Yu Yan, Qiong Ma, Jianjun Mu
BACKGROUND: Dietary sodium affects fluctuations in blood pressure (BP) and vascular function. Cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1), a stress-induced cytokine that belongs to the interleukin 6 family, is released by cells in response to potentially harmful stresses and plays a pivotal role in congestive heart failure, hypertension and arterial stiffness. In this study, we performed a randomized trial to confirm the effects of altered salt intake on the serum CT-1 levels in humans. METHODS: Forty-four subjects (18-65 years of age) were selected from a rural community in northern China...
November 8, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Maria Moura Santana Chaves, Matheus de Souza Mendes, Maximilian Pinho Schwermann, Raquel Queiroz, Regina Freitas Coelho, Francisco Thiago Santos Salmito, Gdayllon Cavalcante Meneses, Alice Maria Costa Martins, Ana Cristina de Oliveira Monteiro Moreira, Alexandre Braga Libório
INTRODUCTION: Glomerulopathy is a group of diseases that affect mainly young adults between the ages of 20 and 40 years. Recently, it has been demonstrated that syndecan-1, a biomarker of endothelial glycocalyx damage, is increased in nephrotic patients with near-normal renal function and it is important to endothelial dysfunction in these patients. Angiopoietin-2 (AGPT2) is an endothelial growth factor that promotes cell derangement. Here we evaluated AGPT2 levels in patients with nephrotic syndrome, near-normal renal function and the possible interaction of AGPT2 with endothelial glycocalyx derangement...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Qingfei Xiao, Yinghui Guan, Chenhao Li, Li Liu, Dan Zhao, Hongyue Wang
BACKGROUND: Lotensin has been shown to have a protective function in the early stage of chronic renal failure. However, its role in the intermediate and late stages of chronic renal failure remains largely unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the role and underlying mechanism of lotensin in advanced chronic kidney disease. METHODS: Female Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 10): sham group, 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6 Nx) group, and lotensin group (oral administration of lotensin for 9 weeks following 5/6 Nx)...
November 2018: Renal Failure
Hetal Damani Shah, Dhananjaya Saranath, Soma Das, Prashant Kharkar, Anjali Karande
H-Ras oncogene plays a critical role in the transformation of normal cells to a malignant phenotype through constitutive activation of the GTP bound protein leading to uncontrolled cell proliferation in several human cancers. Thus, H-Ras oncoprotein serves as an excellent target for anticancer drug discovery. To identify novel H-Ras inhibitors, we performed structure-based virtual screening of the Maybridge HitFinder™ library using Schrodinger suite. Thirty ligands from the chemical library were identified as they showed preferential in silico binding initially to H-Ras proteins with Gly12Val, Gly13Asp, and Gly12Val-Gly13Asp mutations...
October 26, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Brian G Bazzell, William E Rainey, Richard J Auchus, Davide Zocco, Marco Bruttini, Scott L Hummel, James Brian Byrd
Background mRNA in urine supernatant (US-mRNA) might encode information about renal and cardiorenal pathophysiology, including hypertension. H, whether the US-mRNA transcriptome reflects that of renal tissues and whether changes in renal physiology are detectable using US-mRNA is unknown. Methods We compared transcriptomes of human urinary extracellular vesicles and human renal cortex. To avoid similarities attributable to ubiquitously expressed genes, we separately analyzed ubiquitously expressed and highly kidney-enriched genes...
September 2018: Circulation. Genomic and precision medicine
Natsuko Tokonami, Eric Olinger, Huguette Debaix, Pascal Houillier, Olivier Devuyst
Uromodulin is produced in the thick ascending limb, but little is known about regulation of its excretion in urine. Using mouse and cellular models, we demonstrate that excretion of uromodulin by thick ascending limb cells is increased or decreased upon inactivation or activation of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), respectively. These effects reflect changes in uromodulin trafficking and likely involve alterations in intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels. Administration of the CaSR agonist cinacalcet led to a rapid reduction of urinary uromodulin excretion in healthy subjects...
November 2018: Kidney International
Alexander Bollenbach, Erik Hanff, Dimitrios Tsikas
NG -Hydroxy-l-arginine (NOHA) is the intermediate product of the conversion of l-arginine to l-citrulline and nitric oxide (NO) by nitric oxide synthase (NOS). NO is further oxidized to nitrite and nitrate which circulate in the blood and are excreted in the urine. Nitrite and nitrate may therefore serve as surrogates of NO synthesis. NOHA has been reported to occur in various cells and in blood of animals and humans. The concentration of nitrite in the circulation is comparable to the concentration of NOHA in plasma and serum of humans and laboratory animals...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
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