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urinary cell excretion

Austin Lunney, Allan Haynes, Pranav Sharma
PURPOSE: Non - muscle - invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) can recur despite transurethral resection (TURBT) and adjuvant intravesical therapy. Tobacco products excreted in the urine are hypothesized to cause tumor - promoting effects on urothelial cells through direct contact. We determined if moderate or severe lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) (defined as International Prostate Symptom Score [IPSS] ≥ 8) was associated with increased tumor recurrence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively identified 70 consecutive men initially diagnosed with NMIBC at our institution from 2010 - 2016...
September 20, 2018: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
Duc Ninh Nguyen, Thomas Thymann, Sandra K Goericke-Pesch, Shuqiang Ren, Wei Wei, Kerstin Skovgaard, Peter Damborg, Anders Brunse, Charlotte van Gorp, Boris W Kramer, Tim G Wolfs, Per T Sangild
Prenatal inflammation is a major risk for preterm birth and neonatal morbidity, but its effects on postnatal immunity and organ functions remain unclear. Using preterm pigs as a model for preterm infants, we investigated whether prenatal intra-amniotic (IA) inflammation modulates postnatal systemic immune status and organ functions. Preterm pigs exposed to IA lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 3 days were compared with controls at birth and postnatal day 5 after formula feeding. IA LPS induced mild chorioamnionitis but extensive intra-amniotic inflammation...
October 4, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
Martin Ullrich, Josephine Liers, Mirko Peitzsch, Anja Feldmann, Ralf Bergmann, Ulrich Sommer, Susan Richter, Stefan R Bornstein, Michael Bachmann, Graeme Eisenhofer, Christian G Ziegler, Jens Pietzsch
Somatostatin receptor-targeting endoradiotherapy offers potential for treating metastatic pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas, an approach likely to benefit from combination radiosensitization therapy. To provide reliable preclinical in vivo models of metastatic disease, this study characterized the metastatic spread of luciferase-expressing mouse pheochromocytoma (MPC) cells in mouse strains with different immunologic conditions. Bioluminescence imaging showed that, in contrast to subcutaneous non-metastatic engraftment of luciferase-expressing MPC cells in NMRI-nude mice, intravenous cell injection provided only suboptimal metastatic spread in both NMRI-nude mice and hairless SCID (SHO) mice...
October 5, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
Jessica L Turnier, Hermine I Brunner, Michael Bennett, Ashwaq Aleed, Gaurav Gulati, Wendy D Haffey, Sherry Thornton, Michael Wagner, Prasad Devarajan, David Witte, Kenneth D Greis, Bruce Aronow
Objectives: We used an unbiased proteomics approach to identify candidate urine biomarkers (CUBMs) predictive of LN chronicity and pursued their validation in a larger cohort. Methods: In this cross-sectional pilot study, we selected urine collected at kidney biopsy from 20 children with varying levels of LN damage (discovery cohort) and performed proteomic analysis using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ). We identified differentially excreted proteins based on degree of LN chronicity and sought to distinguish markers exhibiting different relative expression patterns using hierarchically clustered log10-normalized relative abundance data with linked and distinct functions by biological network analyses...
October 4, 2018: Rheumatology
Jason R Barash, Joe B Castles, Stephen S Arnon
Infant botulism is an infectious intestinal toxemia that results from colonization of the infant large bowel by Clostridium botulinum (or rarely, by neurotoxigenic C. baratii or C. butyricum ), with subsequent intraintestinal production and absorption of botulinum neurotoxin that then produces flaccid paralysis. The disease is often initially misdiagnosed as suspected sepsis or meningitis, diagnoses that require prompt empiric antimicrobial therapy. Antibiotics may also be needed to treat infectious complications of infant botulism, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection...
October 1, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Paola Simeone, Andrea Boccatonda, Rossella Liani, Francesca Santilli
Platelet activation plays a key role in atherogenesisis and atherothrombosis. Biochemical evidence of increased platelet activation in vivo can be reliably obtained through non-invasive measurement of thromboxane metabolite (TXM) excretion. Persistent biosynthesis of TXA2 has been associated with several ageing-related diseases, including acute and chronic cardio-cerebrovascular diseases and cardiovascular risk factors, such as cigarette smoking, type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hyperhomocysteinemia, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, chronic inflammatory diseases...
September 28, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Romina Paula Bulacio, Evangelina Cecilia Nosetto, Anabel Brandoni, Adriana Mónica Torres
Caveolin-2 (Cav-2) is expressed in a variety of cell tissue, and it has also been found in renal tissue. The expression of Cav-2 in proximal tubules is still unclear. The aim of this study was to carry out a complete evaluation of the expression pattern of Cav-2 in rat renal cortex to clarify and deepen the knowledge about the localization of Cav-2 in the proximal tubules and also to evaluate its presence in urine. Male Wistar rats were used to assess Cav-2 expression by Western blot analysis in homogenates, apical, and basolateral membranes from kidney cortex, in lysates and total plasma membranes from renal cortical cell suspensions, in urine, and in urinary exosomes...
September 30, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Richarlisson Borges de Morais, Victor Pereira do Couto Muniz, Emerson Nunes Costa, Sebastião Rodrigues Ferreira Filho, Karen Renata Nakamura Hiraki, Luiz Borges Bispo-da-Silva, Ana Paula Coelho Balbi
Considering the importance of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in diabetic nephropathy (DN) and the link between mast cells (MC) and the RAS, this study evaluated the effects of RAS blockade on the MC cell population in the kidneys from rats with experimental diabetes. Wistar rats were divided into six groups: control non-diabetic (C); sham (S); diabetic (D); and D treated with enalapril (EN), losartan (LO), or aliskiren (AL). Ninety days after diabetes induction, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urinary albumin excretion (UAE) were determined...
November 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Eriko Negishi, Noboru Fukuda, Tomoyasu Otsuki, Mayumi Katakawa, Kazutoshi Komatsu, Lan Chen, Sho Tanaka, Hiroki Kobayashi, Yoshinari Hatanaka, Takahiro Ueno, Morito Endo, Tomoji Mashimo, Akira Nishiyama, Masanaori Abe
We previously showed that complement 3 (C3) is highly expressed in mesenchymal tissues in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). We targeted C3 gene by zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN) gene editing tehchnology and investigated blood pressure and phenotype in SHR. Blood pressure was measured by tail cuff and the telemetory methods.Histology and expression of liver X receptora (LXRa), renin, Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) and E-cadhelin was evaluated in kidneys.Mesangial cells (MCs) were removed from glomeluri from three strains and evaluated the phenotype in vitro...
September 26, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Yoshinosuke Shimamura, Takuto Maeda, Yufu Gocho, Yayoi Ogawa, Kunihiko Tsuji, Hideki Takizawa
Immunoglobulin A nephropathy is the most common primary glomerulonephritis worldwide, and it can be associated with liver disease. However, cases of Immunoglobulin A nephropathy secondary to Wilson's disease are very rare. A 20-year-old Japanese man presented with microscopic hematuria, proteinuria, and renal dysfunction. A renal biopsy showed mesangial cell proliferation, immunoglobulin A deposition, and electron-dense deposit in the mesangial areas, all of which are consistent with Immunoglobulin A nephropathy...
September 25, 2018: CEN Case Reports
Jiayu Li, Rong Dong, Jiali Yu, Sun Yi, Jingjing Da, Fuxun Yu, Yan Zha
Objective: To explore the anti-inflammatory mechanism of IGF1R inhibitor in diabetic nephropathy. Methods: C57/BL6 mice were reared with high-fat diet for 8 weeks, then were injected 30 mg/kg streptozotocin intraperitoneally to induce type 2 diabetes. After 8 weeks, the type 2 diabetes nephropathy model was successfully set up the different drugs were administrated to mice with diabetes (insulin 1-2 U/day, benazepril 10 mg/kg per day intragastrically, IGF-1R inhibitor 30 mg/kg per day intragastrically)...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Shuai Li, Nan Wang, Xiaochen Guo, Junyan Li, Teng Zhang, Guiping Ren, Deshan Li
Although previous studies have shown the potential of FGF21 to regulate blood glucose in animal and humans, the precise mechanisms of the action have not been well explored. The kidney plays a crucial role for glucose homeostasis. The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of FGF21 on renal glucose reabsorption. Administration of type 2 and type 1 diabetic mice with FGF21 reduced the transport maximum of glucose in the kidney and enhanced urinary glucose excretion in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition of glucose reabsorption results showed little change in diabetic mice treated with Insulin...
September 15, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Jingbo Hu, Aiping Deng, Yufen Zhao
Sodium-dependent glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are novel, potent oral anti-diabetic agents, which act via inhibiting SGLT2-mediated renal glucose reabsorption and thus increasing urinary glucose excretion. SGLT2 inhibitors improve glycemic control in a β-cell function-independent manner, which is associated with low risk of hypoglycaemia. Ertugliflozin (SteglatroTM ) is a new oral SGLT2 inhibitor for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as a monotherapy or in combination with other anti-diabetic agents...
September 18, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Lucas Brandolt Farias, Daniel Lavinsky, Camila Zanella Benfica, Jacó Lavisnky, Luis Henrique Canani
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To evaluate retinal layer changes in patients with type 2 diabetes, microalbuminuria, and no diabetic retinopathy, and to investigate its possible relationship with age, gender, diabetes duration, urinary albumin excretion (UAE), glycosylated hemoglobin, and hypertension. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective, cross-sectional study was performed in 60 patients divided into three groups: diabetic patients with normal UAE, diabetic patients with microalbuminuria, and controls...
September 1, 2018: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
Ramy M Hanna, Umut Selamet, Patrick Bui, Shih-Fan Sun, Olivia Shenouda, Niloofar Nobakht, Marina Barsoum, Farid Arman, Anjay Rastogi
Pembrolizumab is an immune checkpoint inhibitor that targets the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) antigen and induces an immune response against tumor tissues. It has been successful in inducing remission in patients with severe metastatic disease, often refractory to other chemotherapeutic agents. The risk of injury of other organ systems has been noted with reported cases of glomerular disease and endocrine disease. In addition, hypophysitis as well as dermatological and gastroenterological side effects have been reported...
May 2018: Case Reports in Nephrology and Dialysis
Piyali Chatterjee, Valorie L Chiasson, Shelley E Kopriva, Kelsey R Bounds, M Karen Newell-Rogers, Brett M Mitchell
OBJECTIVE: Innate immune system activation and excessive inflammation contributes to hypertension during pregnancy (HTN-preg). Activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), the primary innate immune system sensor, is evident in women with HTN-preg and is sufficient to induce pregnancy-dependent, proteinuric hypertension in animals. However, whether HTN-preg is a maternal disease, a placental disease, or both is unclear. We hypothesized that activation of TLR3, the double-stranded RNA sensor, in both maternal systemic and placental cells would be necessary for the full development of HTN-preg in mice...
July 2018: Pregnancy Hypertension
Wen-Jing Yang, Yan-Ru Li, Hui Gao, Xue-Yi Wu, Xiao-Ling Wang, Xiao-Ning Wang, Lan Xiang, Dong-Mei Ren, Hong-Xiang Lou, Tao Shen
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY RELEVANCE: Rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. (Abbreviated as LC) is a frequently prescribed component in plenty of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulas which are used to treat diabetic nephropathy (DN). The aims of the present study are to investigate the protective effect of the ethanol extract of LC rhizome (EEL) against DN in vivo, evaluate its potential mechanism, and find the evidence supporting its enthopharmacological use as an anti-DN agent. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hepa 1c1c7 murine hepatoma cells, human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells, human renal glomerular endothelial cells (HRGEC), and RAW 264...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Cristina Martin-Higueras, Isis Ludwig-Portugall, Bernd Hoppe, Christian Kurts
The primary hyperoxalurias (PHs) are inborn errors of glyoxylate metabolism characterized by endogenous oxalate overproduction in the liver, and thus elevated urinary oxalate excretion. The urinary calcium-oxalate (CaOx) supersaturation and the continuous renal accumulation of insoluble CaOx crystals yield a progressive decline in renal function that often ends with renal failure. In PH Type 1 (AGXT mutated), the most frequent and severe condition, patients typically progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD); in PH Type 2 (GRHPR mutated), 20% of patients develop ESRD, while only one patient with PH Type 3 (HOGA1 mutated) has been reported with ESRD so far...
August 29, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Andrew J King, Matthew Siegel, Ying He, Baoming Nie, Ji Wang, Samantha Koo-McCoy, Natali A Minassian, Qumber Jafri, Deng Pan, Jill Kohler, Padmapriya Kumaraswamy, Kenji Kozuka, Jason G Lewis, Dean Dragoli, David P Rosenbaum, Debbie O'Neill, Allein Plain, Peter J Greasley, Ann-Cathrine Jönsson-Rylander, Daniel Karlsson, Margareta Behrendt, Maria Strömstedt, Tina Ryden-Bergsten, Thomas Knöpfel, Eva M Pastor Arroyo, Nati Hernando, Joanne Marks, Mark Donowitz, Carsten A Wagner, R Todd Alexander, Jeremy S Caldwell
Hyperphosphatemia is common in patients with chronic kidney disease and is increasingly associated with poor clinical outcomes. Current management of hyperphosphatemia with dietary restriction and oral phosphate binders often proves inadequate. Tenapanor, a minimally absorbed, small-molecule inhibitor of the sodium/hydrogen exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3), acts locally in the gastrointestinal tract to inhibit sodium absorption. Because tenapanor also reduces intestinal phosphate absorption, it may have potential as a therapy for hyperphosphatemia...
August 29, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
Nicolas Quesnot, Simon Bucher, Christina Gade, Manuel Vlach, Elise Vene, Samuel Valença, Thomas Gicquel, Helle Holst, Marie-Anne Robin, Pascal Loyer
CYP2E1 activity is measured in vitro and in vivo via hydroxylation of the Chlorzoxazone (CHZ) producing the 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone (OH-CHZ) further metabolized as a glucuronide excreted in urine. Thus, the quantification of the OH-CHZ following enzymatic hydrolysis of CHZ-derived glucuronide appears to be a reliable assay to measure the CYP2E1 activity without direct detection of this glucuronide. However, OH-CHZ hydrolyzed from urinary glucuronide accounts for less than 80% of the CHZ administrated dose in humans leading to postulate the production of other unidentified metabolites...
October 2018: Archives of Toxicology
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