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Tong Wang, Meng Zhang, Huajun Zhou, Dawei Cui, Xujian Xu, Changgui Sun, Yuzhu Dai, Jun Cheng
This study aimed to establish a general and efficient dissociation technique for detecting antibodies in circulating immune complexes (CICs) in serum and to evaluate its clinical application. CICs were efficiently separated from specimens using polyethylene glycol double-precipitation. The best conditions for anti-HBs dissociation from HBsAg-ICs were a pH of 1.80, incubation at 15 °C for 5-10 min, and detection within 10 min after neutralization. The mean dissociation rate, reproducibility, mean dissociation recovery rate and specificity of the new technique were 64...
August 17, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Medicine
Wen-Ming Chen, Jie Jin, Taehyung Park, Kyeong-Sik Ryu, Sung-Jae Lee
BACKGROUND: Postoperative alterations in cervical spine curvature (i.e. loss of lordotic angle) are frequently observed following total disc replacement surgery. However, it remains unclear whether such changes in lordotic angle are due to preoperative spinal deformities and/or prostheses design limitations. The objective of the study is to investigate strain and segmental biomechanics of the malaligned cervical spine following total disc replacement. METHODS: Three disc prostheses were chosen, namely a metal-on-polyethylene, a metal-on-metal, and an elastomeric prosthesis, which feature different geometrical and material design characteristics...
August 10, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Evan White, Samantha Clark, Charles A Manire, Benjamin Crawford, Shunli Wang, Jason Locklin, Branson W Ritchie
From July 2015 to November 2016, 96 post-hatchling sea turtles were collected from 118 km of Atlantic coastline in Florida, USA, including loggerhead, green, and hawksbill sea turtle species. Forty-five of the recovered turtles were rehabilitated and released, but the remaining 52 died and were frozen. At necropsy, the gastrointestinal tracts of most the turtles contained visible plastic, and collected particles of 27 individuals were chemically characterized by Raman microscopy as polyethylene, polypropylene, polyethylene terephthalate, and polystyrene...
August 17, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Zhongmou Chao, Brian P Radka, Ke Xu, Garrison M Crouch, Donghoon Han, David B Go, Paul W Bohn, Susan K Fullerton-Shirey
Materials with reconfigurable optical properties are candidates for applications such as optical cloaking and wearable sensors. One approach to fabricate these materials is to use external fields to form and dissolve nanoscale conductive channels in well-defined locations within a polymer. In this study, conductive atomic force microscopy is used to electrochemically form and dissolve nanoscale conductive filaments at spatially distinct points in a polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA)-based electrolyte blended with varying amounts of ionic liquid (IL) and silver salt...
August 17, 2018: Small
Brandon L Peters, K Michael Salerno, Ting Ge, Dvora Perahia, Gary S Grest
While nearly all theoretical and computational studies of entangled polymer melts have focused on uniform samples, polymer synthesis routes always result in some dispersity, albeit narrow, of distribution of molecular weights (Đ_{M}=M_{w}/M_{n}∼1.02-1.04). Here, the effects of dispersity on chain mobility are studied for entangled, disperse melts using a coarse-grained model for polyethylene. Polymer melts with chain lengths set to follow a Schulz-Zimm distribution for the same average M_{w}=36  kg/mol with Đ_{M}=1...
August 3, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Hao Zhou, Zhiyuan Fan, Peter Y Li, Junjie Deng, Dimitrios C Arhontoulis, Christopher Y Li, Wilbur B Bowne, Hao Cheng
Research into long-circulating nanoparticles has in the past focused on reducing their clearance by macrophages. By engineering a hierarchical polyethylene glycol (PEG) structure on nanoparticle surfaces, we revealed an alternative mechanism to enhance nanoparticle blood circulation. The conjugation of a second PEG layer at a density close to, but lower than the mushroom-to-brush transition regime on conventional PEGylated nanoparticles dramatically prolongs their blood circulation via reduced nanoparticle uptake by non-Kupffer cells in the liver, especially liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs)...
August 17, 2018: ACS Nano
Emil Sandoz-Rosado, Michael R Roenbeck, Kenneth E Strawhecker
High-performance materials like ballistic fibers have remarkable mechanical properties owing to specific patterns of organization ranging from the molecular scale, to the micro scale and macro scale. Understanding these strategies for material organization is critical to improving the mechanical properties of these high-performance materials. In this work, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to detect changes in material composition at an extremely high resolution with transverse-stiffness scanning. New methods for direct quantification of material morphology were developed, and applied as an example to these AFM scans, although these methods can be applied to any spatially-resolved scans...
2018: Scanning
Shiping Yu, Yi Zhang, Lin Chen, Qiang Li, Jinglei Du, Yuduan Gao, Li Zhang, Yongzhen Yang
To improve the bio-solubility and sustained-release properties of a carbon nanotube (CNT)-drug complex, the present study used a hydrophilic polymer, polyethylene glycol (PEG), and β-estradiol (E2), which targets the estrogen receptor in human breast cancer cells (HBCCs), to modify CNTs carrying lobaplatin (LBP) to form E2-PEG-CNT-LBP. The in vitro inhibitory effects against HBCCs and the in vivo pharmacological effect of the complex on heart, liver and kidney tissues were also evaluated. The results indicated that the inhibitory effects of this complex against HBCCs reached 80...
August 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Myoung Kyun Choi, Woo Kyum Kim, Sihyun Sung, Chaoxing Wu, Hyoun Woo Kim, Tae Whan Kim
Flexible memristive devices with a structure of Al/polyimide:mica/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate/indium-tin-oxide/polyethylene glycol naphthalate showed electrical bistability characteristics. The maximum current margin of the devices with mica nanosheets was much larger than that of the devices without mica nanosheets. For these devices, the current vs. time curves showed nonvolatile characteristics with a retention time of more than 1 × 104  s, and the current vs. number-of-cycles curves demonstrated an endurance for high resistance state/low resistance state switchings of 1 × 102 cycles...
August 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Bianca Pérez, Andrea Coletta, Jannik N Pedersen, Steen V Petersen, Xavier Periole, Jan Skov Pedersen, Richard B Sessions, Zheng Guo, Adam Perriman, Birgit Schiøtt
Bioconjugates established between anionic polyethylene glycol (PEG) based polymers and cationic proteins have proven to be a promising strategy to engineer thermostable biocatalysts. However, the enzyme activity of these bioconjugates is very low and the mechanism of non-covalent PEG-stabilization is yet to be understood. This work presents experimental and molecular dynamics simulation studies, using lipase-polymer surfactant nanoconjugates from mesophile Rhizomucor miehei (RML), performed to evaluate the effect of PEG on enzyme stability and activity...
August 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yingwu Zhou, Bin Xi, Kequan Yu, Lili Sui, Feng Xing
This paper presents the authors' newly developed hybrid ultra-high performance (HUHP) engineered cementitious composite (ECC) with steel (ST) and polyethylene (PE) fibers. From this point on it will be referred to as HUHP-ECC. The volumes of steel and PE fibers were adjusted to obtain different mechanical properties, including compressive strength, tensile, and flexural properties. We found that tensile and flexural properties, including bending strength and ductility indexes, increased with higher PE fiber amounts but reduced with the increased ST fiber volume...
August 16, 2018: Materials
Xiao Du, Shaoping Yin, Fang Zhou, Xu Du, Jianan Xu, Xiaochen Gu, Guangji Wang, Juan Li
Stimuli-responsive nanocarriers have demonstrated their potentials in optimizing chemotherapeutics and anticancer efficacy. In this study, a mixed micelle system (THSP) was prepared by combining reduction-sensitive hyaluronic acid-poly(lactide) (HA-ss-PLA) conjugates and D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS), with objective to achieve multiple functionalities of selective intracellular rapid release, active targeting capability and multidrug resistance reversal. The mixed micelle possessed desirable particle diameter of 124...
August 13, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Morgane Masse, Mickael Maton, Stéphanie Genay, Nicolas Blanchemain, Christine Barthélémy, Bertrand Décaudin, Pascal Odou
Insulin is a frequently prescribed drug in hospitals and is usually administered by syringe pumps with an extension line which can be made of various materials. Two insulin solutions were studied: an insulin analogue, Novorapid® which contains insulin aspart and two phenolic preservatives (e.g. phenol and metacresol) and Umuline rapide® with human insulin and metacresol as preservative. Some studies have indicated interactions between insulin, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyethylene (PE). The aim of this work was to study such interactions between Novorapid® or Umuline rapide® and infusion extension line materials (PVC, PE and coextruded (PE/PVC))...
2018: PloS One
Michelle Mikesh, Cameron L Ghergherehchi, Sina Rahesh, Karthik Jagannath, Amir Ali, Dale R Sengelaub, Richard C Trevino, David M Jackson, Haley O Tucker, George D Bittner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Michelle Mikesh, Cameron L Ghergherehchi, Robert Louis Hastings, Amir Ali, Sina Rahesh, Karthik Jagannath, Dale R Sengelaub, Richard C Trevino, David M Jackson, George D Bittner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Luke R Anderson, Quan Yang, Andrew M Ediger
People use polymers as materials for preparing separation media or containers. It is necessary to have a molecular level profound knowledge of gas transport in e bulk and interface regimes of different polymers, but few researchers have done a molecular level study of the bulk and interface behavior of gases in several types of non-homologen polymers thoroughly or developed expressions to correlate gas transport properties with cavity size distribution and chain oscillation flexibility. Therefore, in this work, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was employed to study the transport of methane and n-butane molecules in the bulk and interface region of polyethylene (PE), poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne) (PMP) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)...
August 16, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
David A Crawford, Keith R Berend, Adolph V Lombardi
With recent design modifications, proper patient selection, and sound surgical technique, medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty has demonstrated long-term success in the management of degenerative joint disease. Nevertheless, complications do occur, most often aseptic loosening, tibial fracture, polyethylene wear, bearing dislocation, disease progression, infection, and unexplained pain. Some failures can be managed with retention of the implant, whereas others require revision to total knee arthroplasty (TKA), possibly including augments and stems...
August 14, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
X Huang, N Duan, H Xu, T N Xie, Y-R Xue, C-H Liu
Polysaccharides influence concentration and purity of extracted DNA. Here we present rapid and efficient protocol for DNA extraction from samples rich in polysaccharides. The technique has been developed using cultures of Schizophyllum commune and involves a modification of known Cetyltrimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB) protocol. To remove polysaccharides, Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) 8000 was added during DNA precipitation. Genomic DNA obtained with the CTAB-PEG method had high integrity, with average fragment size >30 kb, the concentration higher than 100 ng/μL, and the yield more than 30 μg/g...
July 2018: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
Alex Oselu Owiti, Ashim Mitra, Mary Joseph, Dhananjay Pal
Nanomicelles (NM) enhance solubility and absorption of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). Various polymers and non-polymers are utilized to prepare nanomicellar formulations to achieve high absorption and delivery of drugs. The main purpose of this study was to develop drug-loaded nanomicelles with pentablock copolymers for paclitaxel delivery. Monomers of lactide, ε-caprolactone, and polyethylene-glycol were utilized to prepare pentablock copolymer by ring opening technique. The pentablock nanomicelles (PBNM) were formulated by evaporation and rehydration...
August 15, 2018: AAPS PharmSciTech
Alexandra G M Caron, Colette R Thomas, Kathryn L E Berry, Cherie A Motti, Ellen Ariel, Jon E Brodie
Quantifying the extent of microplastic (<5 mm) contamination in the marine environment is an emerging field of study. Reliable extraction of microplastics from the gastro-intestinal content of marine organisms is crucial to evaluate microplastic contamination in marine fauna. Extraction protocols and variations thereof have been reported, however, these have mostly focussed on relatively homogenous samples (i.e. water, sediment, etc.). Here, we present a microplastic extraction protocol for examining green turtle ( Chelonia mydas ) chyme (i...
2018: MethodsX
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