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Austin Henke, Timothy P Saunders, Joel A Pedersen, Robert J Hamers
Electrochemical formation of high-energy species such as hydroxyl radical in aqueous media is inefficient because oxidation of H2 O to form O2 is a more thermodynamically favorable reaction. Boron-doped diamond (BDD) is widely used as an electrode material for generating ∙OH radicals because it has a very large kinetic overpotential for O2 production, thus increasing electrochemical efficiency for ∙OH production. Yet, the underlying mechanisms of O2 and ∙OH production at diamond electrodes are not well understood...
December 14, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Zehra Betül Gümüş, Nazim Gümüş
Ultra-thin porous polyethylene has been widely preferred in orbital blow out fracture repair for many years as a safe and stable material. Delayed complications related to the implant in orbital blow out fracture repair are very rare and usually begin as a periorbital inflammation. Infections and tissue reaction to the foreign body are regarded as main causes for implant-related inflammation of which symptoms may vary among the patients and may involve subacute and chronic eyelid swelling, skin redness, pain, conjunctival injection, proptosis, and acute orbital inflammation...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
G H Yang, D M Han, H R Zang, T Wang, L F Li
Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of polyethylene glycol acrylate hybrid hydrogel degradation substance on nasal mucociliary transport system. Method: In our experiment, the complex hydrogel were formed by the combination of different ratios of polyethyleneglycol diacrylate, chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol. The experiment was divided into four groups according to the international standard of medical devices. DMEM/F12∶BEGM culture medium was used for each packing material extraction, DMEM/F12∶BEGM culture medium was used as control...
December 2018: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
L M Karamova, N V Vlasova
The article presents decade dynamics of hemogram of workers started their labor activity in factories of terephthalic acid, purifed terephthalic acid and polyethylene terephthalate. The study established a hemodynamics depended on career pattern, characterizing hematologic shifts i.e. decreasing of content of red blood elements, adaptative compensatory reactions of white blood, increasing of sensitization and allergizing.
2018: Klinicheskaia Laboratornaia Diagnostika
Rezvan Kardooni, Ali Reza Kiasat
A facile, efficient and environmentally safe strategy for the synthesis of pyrazolopyranopyrimidines via one-pot, four-component reaction of hydrazine hydrate, barbituric acid, ethyl acetoacetate, and aromatic aldehydes in polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a safe solvent in the absence of catalyst at ambient temperature has been described. The advantages of the present protocol, such as simplicity, mild conditions, high yields of products, straightforward workup procedure, a green and biodegradable reaction medium, make this new process an attractive to current methodologies...
December 13, 2018: Molecular Diversity
Katherine A Lyseng-Williamson
Macrogol 4000, a biologically inert, non-absorbable osmotic laxative, is a highly effective and well-tolerated first-line option for the treatment of the symptoms of chronic idiopathic/functional constipation in children and adults. High-molecular-weight (HMW) macrogols ± electrolytes have generally similar efficacy profiles; however, the taste of macrogol 4000 is generally preferred over that of macrogol 3350 + electrolytes. Macrogol 4000 is more effective than lactulose in improving stool frequency and consistency, and is associated with less vomiting and flatulence...
2018: Drugs & Therapy Perspectives: for Rational Drug Selection and Use
Wojciech Kazimierz Marek, Wojciech Piątkowski, Dorota Antos
The retention behavior of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on different types of hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) resins containing butyl, octyl, and phenyl ligands was analyzed. An incomplete elution or splitting of the polymer peak into two parts was observed, where the first one was eluted at the dead time of the column, whereas the second one was strongly retained. The phenomenon was attributed to conformation changes of the polymer upon its adsorption on hydrophobic surface. The effect enhanced with increasing molecular weight of the polymer and hydrophobicity of the HIC media...
2018: Chromatographia
Alessia Quitadamo, Valérie Massardier, Carlo Santulli, Marco Valente
High-density polyethylene (HDPE) and poly(lactic) acid (PLA) blends with different ratios of both polymers, namely, 30:70, 50:50, and 70:30, were produced. Polyethylene-grafted maleic anhydride and a random copolymer of ethylene and glycidyl methacrylate were also considered as compatibilizers to modify HDPE/PLA optimal blends and were added in the amounts of 1, 3, and 5 wt.%. Different properties of the blends were evaluated by performing tensile tests and scanning electron microscopy to analyze blend and interfaces morphology...
December 12, 2018: Materials
Cristina Cattò, Francesco Secundo, Garth James, Federica Villa, Francesca Cappitelli
The protease α-chymotrypsin (α-CT) was covalently immobilized on a low-density polyethylene (LDPE) surface, providing a new non-leaching material (LDPE-α-CT) able to preserve surfaces from biofilm growth over a long working timescale. The immobilized enzyme showed a transesterification activity of 1.24 nmol/h, confirming that the immobilization protocol did not negatively affect α-CT activity. Plate count viability assays, as well as confocal laser scanner microscopy (CLSM) analysis, showed that LDPE-α-CT significantly impacts Escherichia coli biofilm formation by (i) reducing the number of adhered cells (-70...
December 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Thorsten Hüffer, Florian Metzelder, Gabriel Sigmund, Sophie Slawek, Torsten C Schmidt, Thilo Hofmann
Plastics are now found in all natural environments including soil. The effects of microplastics in terrestrial systems, however, remain largely unexplored. Polyethylene is one of the mass-manufactured polymers found in terrestrial environments. It is used in many different sectors, for example in agricultural mulches, composite materials, and packaging. The presence of microplastics in soil, including polyethylene, can affect the transport of hydrophobic organic pollutants including pesticides. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of polyethylene microplastics (<250 μm) on the transport of two selected organic plant-protection agents (atrazine and 4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid) in soil under different aqueous conditions, using inverse liquid chromatography...
December 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
S Mukherjee, J A Martinez-Gonzalez, A A Gowen
Predicting the degree to which proteins adhere to a polymeric surface is an ongoing challenge in the scientific community to prevent non-specific protein adhesion and drive favourable protein - surface interactions. This work explores the potential of multivariate PLSR modelling in conjunction with Attenuated Total Reflection - Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) chemical imaging to investigate whether experimentally characterised surface chemistry can be used to predict surface protein adhesion. ATR-FTIR spectra were collected on dry and wetted polymeric surfaces, followed by evaluation of adhered fibrinogen on surfaces using the micro bicinchoninic (BCA) protein assay as a reference method...
December 13, 2018: Analyst
Da Zhang, Zhixiong Cai, Naishun Liao, Shanyou Lan, Ming Wu, Haiyan Sun, Zuwu Wei, Juan Li, Xiaolong Liu
Although photothermal therapy (PTT) has become a compelling strategy for cancer therapy, few studies concern the physiological consequences of PTT ablation. Herein, we discover that PTT-induced hyperthermia can aggravate tumor hypoxia, which may increase the risk of tumor recurrence and reduce PTT efficacy. We thus integrated the pH/hypoxia-triggered Fe(iii)-banoxantrone (AQ4N) prodrug and semiconducting polymer dots (SPs) for programmable triggered cancer photothermal-chemotherapy. A SP-hybridized mesoporous silica framework, decorated by dopamine and polyethylene glycol, named PPMSF, was synthesized by a simple method, and then served as an efficient photo-absorbing agent (PTA) and drug carrier...
October 7, 2018: Chemical Science
Iriny Ekladious, Yolonda L Colson, Mark W Grinstaff
Polymer-drug conjugates have long been a mainstay of the drug delivery field, with several conjugates successfully translated into clinical practice. The conjugation of therapeutic agents to polymeric carriers, such as polyethylene glycol, offers several advantages, including improved drug solubilization, prolonged circulation, reduced immunogenicity, controlled release and enhanced safety. In this Review, we discuss the rational design, physicochemical characteristics and recent advances in the development of different classes of polymer-drug conjugates, including polymer-protein and polymer-small-molecule drug conjugates, dendrimers, polymer nanoparticles and multifunctional systems...
December 12, 2018: Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery
Young-Hoo Kim, Jang-Won Park, Jun-Shik Kim
No study has compared the prevalence of fretting and corrosion at the trunnion of cobalt-chrome (Co-Cr) and zirconia ceramic heads in the same patients. The authors sought to compare the prevalence of fretting and corrosion at the trunnion after total hip arthroplasty with a 32-mm Co-Cr or a 32-mm zirconia ceramic head-on-polyethylene bearing. Isolated revision of the ace-tabular components was performed in 78 patients (156 hips) for polyethylene wear and osteolysis of the acetabulum. Seventy-eight Co-Cr head-titanium alloy stem pairs were compared with 78 zirconia ceramic head-titanium alloy stem pairs in the same patients...
December 11, 2018: Orthopedics
Madhumita Dash, Yordan S Yordanov, Tatyana Georgieva, Hairong Wei, Victor Busov
Using time-series transcriptomic data from poplar roots undergoing polyethylene glycol (PEG)-induced drought stress, we built a genetic network model of the involved putative molecular responses. We found that the network resembled a hierarchical structure. The highest hierarchical level in this structure is occupied by 9 genes, which we called superhubs because they were primarily connected to 18 hub genes, which are then connected to 2,934 terminal genes. We were only able to regenerate transgenic plants overexpressing two of the superhubs, suggesting that the majority of the superhubs might interfere with the regeneration process and did not allow recovery of transgenic plants...
2018: PloS One
Rong-Fu Chen, Chih-Hau Chang, Chun-Ting Wang, Yur-Ren Kuo
BACKGROUND: Oxygen free radicals play a central role in diabetic angiopathy. This study investigated whether suppression of oxygen radicals could decrease endothelial damage and increase peripheral tissue circulation in a diabetic rodent model. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were treated using streptozotocin to induce diabetes. The experiments were performed 4 weeks after diabetes induction: group 1: control, consisted of normal rats; group 2: diabetes, did not receive treatment; groups III (SOD10) and IV (SOD50): diabetes, received polyethylene glycol-conjugated superoxide dismutase (SOD), an antioxidant, 10 and 50 U/kg per day intraperitoneally for 4 weeks...
January 2019: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Behnoush Asgari, Fatemeh Kermanian, Nima Derakhshan, Mohammadreza Asna-Ashari, Zahra Rouhani Nojede Sadat, Somayeh Yaslianifard
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has been introduced by since 1983 by Marshal and Warren to play the main role in the pathophysiology of gastritis and gastric ulcers. Almost half of the world population1 is infected by H. pylori. Current therapeutic regimen against H. pylori includes the use of a proton pump inhibitor plus two or more antibiotics. However, the efficacy of this regimen is decreasing mainly due to antibiotic resistance and side effects of medications. This fact has resulted in public interest in other therapeutic options and the role of probiotics merits special attention in this regard...
July 2018: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
William Rodemer, Michael E Selzer
Spinal cord injury leads to persistent behavioral deficits because mammalian central nervous system axons fail to regenerate. A neuron's response to axon injury results from a complex interplay of neuron-intrinsic and environmental factors. The contribution of axotomy to the death of neurons in spinal cord injury is controversial because very remote axotomy is unlikely to result in neuronal death, whereas death of neurons near an injury may reflect environmental factors such as ischemia and inflammation. In lampreys, axotomy due to spinal cord injury results in delayed apoptosis of spinal-projecting neurons in the brain, beyond the extent of these environmental factors...
March 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Jinling Wang, Lifang Wang, Ying Li, Xiaohui Wang, Pengfei Tu
Introduction: Polymeric micelles (PMs) hold promise for improving solubility and oral absorption of poorly soluble drugs. Unfortunately, the oral absorption of PMs is also limited by intestinal epithelium. To improve the oral delivery efficiency of micelles, transporter-mediated micelles could enhance the transport efficiency across the epithelial barrier, and they have attracted more attention. Methods: Peptide transporter 1 (PepT1)-mediated micelles (Val-PMs/Phe-PMs) were designed by grafting valine (or phenylalanine) onto the surface of curcumin (Cur)-loaded-D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate micelles (TP-PMs)...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Roger Rosenbrand, David Barata, Pichaporn Sutthavas, Ronny Mohren, Berta Cillero-Pastor, Pamela Habibovic, Sabine van Rijt
Background: Nanoparticles have emerged as promising cell-labeling tools, as they can be precisely tailored in terms of chemical and physical properties. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), in particular, are easily tunable with regard to surface and core chemistry, and are able to confine dyes and drug molecules efficiently. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of lipid and polyethylene glycol (PEG) surface modifications on MSN stem-cell-tracking abilities...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
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