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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544102/a-multicenter-retrospective-case-cohort-study-of-the-epidemiology-and-risk-factors-for-clostridium-difficile-infection-among-cord-blood-transplant-recipients
#1
Carolyn D Alonso, David A Braun, Ishan Patel, Mona Akbari, Daniel Jungmyung Oh, Tomi Jun, Malgorzata McMasters, Sarah P Hammond, Brett Glotzbecker, Corey Cutler, Daniel Leffler, Karen K Ballen, Ciarán P Kelly
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the leading cause of health-care associated infectious diarrhea. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiology and risk factors for CDI in the 100 days following umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) at three Boston hospitals. METHODS: We performed a multicenter, retrospective, case-cohort study of 226 UCBT recipients at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, and Dana Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center from 2003-2012...
May 24, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541378/what-does-a-single-semen-sample-tell-you-implications-for-male-factor-infertility-research
#2
Yu-Han Chiu, Regina Edifor, Bernard A Rosner, Feiby L Nassan, Audrey J Gaskins, Lidia Minguez-Alarcon, Paige L Williams, Cigdem Tanrikut, Russ Hauser, Jorge E Chavarro
Semen parameters are variable within-man but it is unclear whether one sample could represent a man's long-term average in epidemiologic studies. Between 2005 and 2014, 329 men from a fertility clinic provided 768 semen samples in the EARTH study in Boston, Massachusetts.Total sperm count, concentration, morphology, motility, and ejaculate volume were assessed. We used linear mixed models to compare men's first samples to their long-term averages, and calculate intraclass correlation coefficients for each parameter...
May 24, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537349/effects-of-topical-antiseptic-solutions-used-during-total-knee-arthroplasty-on-suture-tensile-strength
#3
Jared M Newman, Jaiben George, Jeffery T Shepherd, Alison K Klika, Carlos A Higuera, Viktor E Krebs
INTRODUCTION: Irrigating a surgical wound with an antiseptic solution is commonly performed while suturing following a total knee arthroplasty (TKA) to help prevent wound complications. The purpose of this study was to: 1) evaluate the mean load to failure of different sutures, and 2) compare the mean load to failure of the sutures after soaking in four different antiseptic solutions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Load-to-failure tests were conducted on four sets of comparable sutures (eight sutures) from two different companies Ethicon Inc...
May 24, 2017: Surgical Technology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535172/invited-commentary-the-framingham-offspring-study-a-pioneering-investigation-into-familial-aggregation-of-cardiovascular-risk
#4
JoAnn E Manson, Shari S Bassuk
Launched in 1948, the Framingham Heart Study was a seminal prospective cohort study of 5,209 adult residents of Framingham, Massachusetts, that was designed to uncover the determinants and natural history of coronary heart disease. Data from this original cohort established the cardiac threat posed by high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, diabetes, and other factors. In the late 1960s, investigators conceived the innovative idea of assembling a second cohort that comprised the adult children of the original study population (and these children's spouses)...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528147/variability-and-reproducibility-of-segmental%C3%A2-longitudinal-strain-measurement-a-report-from-the-eacvi-ase-strain-standardization-task%C3%A2-force
#5
Oana Mirea, Efstathios D Pagourelias, Jurgen Duchenne, Jan Bogaert, James D Thomas, Luigi P Badano, Jens-Uwe Voigt
OBJECTIVES: In this study, we compared left ventricular (LV) segmental strain measurements obtained with different ultrasound machines and post-processing software packages. BACKGROUND: Global longitudinal strain (GLS) has proven to be a reproducible and valuable tool in clinical practice. Data about the reproducibility and intervendor differences of segmental strain measurements, however, are missing. METHODS: We included 63 volunteers with cardiac magnetic resonance-proven infarct scar with segmental LV function ranging from normal to severely impaired...
May 12, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527078/our-headache-fellowship-a-10-year-history
#6
Paul Rizzoli
There has been a clear trend in American medical education after World War II toward training specialization and subspecialization. After some early specialization efforts by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology, further efforts were undertaken by the United Council for Neurologic Subspecialties (UCNS), leading to the introduction of the neurologic subspecialty of Headache Medicine in March, 2005. The training program at our center at the Brigham and Women's Hospital Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, in Boston, Massachusetts, was accredited in 2008 and has graduated 14 trainees since its inception...
May 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523921/combination-of-h120-and-1-96-avian-infectious-bronchitis-virus-vaccine-strains-protect-chickens-against-challenge-with-is-1494-06-variant-2-like-infectious-bronchitis-virus
#7
M Habibi, V Karimi, A G Langeroudi, S A Ghafouri, M Hashemzadeh, R K Farahani, H Maghsoudloo, H Abdollahi, P Seifouri
Avian infectious bronchitis (IB) is a worldwide chicken disease, caused by avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) which infects all commercial poultry lines. The present study was done to evaluate protection caused by two different serotype vaccines (Massachusetts and 793/B) in order to evaluate protection against challenge with IS/1494/06-like virus (variant 2-like virus), which is prevalent in the Middle East. SPF chickens were divided into four groups (n = 20). First and second group as negative control group and non-vaccinated-challenged group received no vaccine...
2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523674/massachusetts-health-reform-s-effect-on-hospitalizations-with-substance-use-disorder-related-diagnoses
#8
Karen E Lasser, Amresh D Hanchate, Danny McCormick, Alexander Y Walley, Richard Saitz, Meng-Yun Lin, Nancy R Kressin
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether Massachusetts (MA) health reform affected substance (alcohol or drug) use disorder (SUD)-related hospitalizations in acute care hospitals. DATA/STUDY SETTING: 2004-2010 MA inpatient discharge data. DESIGN: Difference-in-differences analysis to identify pre- to postreform changes in age- and sex-standardized population-based rates of SUD-related medical and surgical hospitalizations, adjusting for secular trends...
May 19, 2017: Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523475/insurance-transitions-and-changes-in-physician-and-emergency-department-utilization-an-observational-study
#9
Michael L Barnett, Zirui Song, Sherri Rose, Asaf Bitton, Michael E Chernew, Bruce E Landon
BACKGROUND: Shopping for health insurance is encouraged as a way to find the most affordable coverage that best meets an enrollee's needs. However, the extent to which individuals switch insurance and subsequent changes in health care utilization that might arise, particularly new physician visits, are not well understood. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between insurance switching and new physician and emergency department visits around the time of a switch...
May 18, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521888/clinical-significance-of-lipid-rich-plaque%C3%A2-detected-by-optical-coherence%C3%A2-tomography-a%C3%A2-4-year-follow-up-study
#10
Lei Xing, Takumi Higuma, Zhao Wang, Aaron D Aguirre, Kyoichi Mizuno, Masamichi Takano, Harold L Dauerman, Seung-Jung Park, Yangsoo Jang, Chong-Jin Kim, Soo-Joong Kim, So-Yeon Choi, Tomonori Itoh, Shiro Uemura, Harry Lowe, Darren L Walters, Peter Barlis, Stephen Lee, Amir Lerman, Catalin Toma, Jack Wei Chieh Tan, Erika Yamamoto, Krzysztof Bryniarski, Jiannan Dai, Thomas Zanchin, Shaosong Zhang, Bo Yu, Hang Lee, James Fujimoto, Valentin Fuster, Ik-Kyung Jang
BACKGROUND: Lipid-rich plaque (LRP) is thought to be a precursor to cardiac events. However, its clinical significance in coronary arteries has never been systematically investigated. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the prevalence and clinical significance of LRP in the nonculprit region of the target vessel in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS: The study included 1,474 patients from 20 sites across 6 countries undergoing PCI, who had optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of the target vessel...
May 23, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521814/access-to-healthcare-insurance-and-healthcare-services-among-syringe-exchange-program-clients-in-massachusetts-qualitative-findings-from-health-navigators-with-the-idu-i-do-care-collaborative
#11
Thomas J Stopka, Marguerite Hutcheson, Ashley Donahue
BACKGROUND: Little is known about access to health insurance among people who inject drugs (PWID) who attend syringe exchange programs (SEPs). The goal of the current study was to assess perceptions of SEP staff, including health navigators and program managers, on access to health insurance and healthcare access among SEP clients following implementation of state and federal policies to enhance universal healthcare access in Massachusetts. METHODS: Between December 2014 and January 2015, we conducted in-depth interviews (n = 14) with SEP staff, including both program managers and health navigators, to assess knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs related to health insurance enrollment and access to enhanced referrals among SEP clients...
May 18, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520490/contextualizing-the-social-determinants-of-health-disparities-in-disability-by-educational-attainment-across-us-states
#12
Jennifer Karas Montez, Anna Zajacova, Mark D Hayward
OBJECTIVES: To examine how disparities in adult disability by educational attainment vary across US states. METHODS: We used the nationally representative data of more than 6 million adults aged 45 to 89 years in the 2010-2014 American Community Survey. We defined disability as difficulty with activities of daily living. We categorized education as low (less than high school), mid (high school or some college), or high (bachelor's or higher). We estimated age-standardized disability prevalence by educational attainment and state...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520486/trends-in-school-related-victimization-of-lesbian-gay-and-bisexual-youths-massachusetts-1995-2015
#13
Emily O'Malley Olsen, Alana M Vivolo-Kantor, Laura Kann, Chiniqua N Milligan
OBJECTIVES: To compare changes over time in prevalence of school victimization among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) students compared with heterosexual students. METHODS: We analyzed data from 11 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys conducted among representative samples of students in grades 9 through 12 in Massachusetts during 1995 to 2015. We used multivariable logistic regression models to identify trends over time by sexual identity. RESULTS: During 1995 to 2015, the prevalence of missing school decreased overall (from 5...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509707/burden-of-psychosocial-and-cognitive-impairment-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation
#14
John A Bostrom, Jane S Saczynski, Alexandra Hajduk, Kevin Donahue, Lawrence S Rosenthal, Clifford Browning, Cynthia Ennis, Kevin C Floyd, Heather Richardson, Nada Esa, Jessica Ogarek, David D McManus
BACKGROUND: Impairments in psychosocial status and cognition relate to poor clinical outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, how often these conditions co-occur and associations between burden of psychosocial and cognitive impairment and quality of life (QoL) have not been systematically examined in patients with AF. METHODS: A total of 218 patients with symptomatic AF were enrolled in a prospective study of AF and psychosocial factors between May 2013 and October 2014 at the University of Massachusetts Medical Center...
June 2017: Critical Pathways in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508011/mandated-health-insurance-and-provider-reimbursement-via-private-insurance-evidence-from-the-massachusetts-health-reform
#15
Andrew Friedson, Allison Marier
In 2006, Massachusetts passed a reform that required individuals to purchase health insurance and provided subsidized health insurance to low-income individuals. The US Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) was modeled after this reform, making Massachusetts an ideal place to look at potential outcomes from the ACA. Postreform, the proportion of the health-insured population in Massachusetts greatly increased, which potentially changed physician reimbursement for procedures as usage of care, particularly preventative care for children increased...
January 2017: Health Services Research and Managerial Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506604/the-supraciliary-space-as-a-suitable-pathway-for-glaucoma-surgery-ho-hum-or-home-run
#16
REVIEW
Michele Figus, Chiara Posarelli, Andrea Passani, Timothy G Albert, Francesco Oddone, Angela Tindara Sframeli, Marco Nardi
The supraciliary space is a physiological route for aqueous humor outflow located anteriorly between the outer surface of the ciliary body and the internal surface of the sclera. Posteriorly, the suprachoroidal space is located between the choroid and the internal surface of the sclera. These spaces have been targeted as suitable and helpful pathways for glaucoma treatment, alternatives to the traditional subconjunctival space. The subconjunctival surgical pathway is affected by several limitations such as poor cosmesis, a lifetime risk for endophthalmitis, and an unpredictable wound healing response...
May 12, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502827/provider-and-health-system-factors-associated-with-usage-of-long-acting-reversible-contraception-in-adolescents
#17
Anna Jo Bodurtha Smith, Kathleen F Harney, Tara Singh, Anita Gupta Hurwitz
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) is recommended as first-line contraception for adolescents. Surveys of primary care providers suggest that physician and clinic factors may influence LARC counseling, but their impact on usage is unknown. Our objective was to explore provider and clinic characteristics associated with LARC usage in adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 5363 women ages 15-21 years receiving primary care within a large health system in Massachusetts in 2015...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493319/an-elitist-multiobjective-tabu-search-for-optimal-design-of-groundwater-remediation-systems
#18
Yun Yang, Jianfeng Wu, Jinguo Wang, Zhifang Zhou
This study presents a new multiobjective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA), the elitist multiobjective tabu search (EMOTS), and incorporates it with MODFLOW/MT3DMS to develop a groundwater simulation-optimization (SO) framework based on modular design for optimal design of groundwater remediation systems using pump-and-treat (PAT) technique. The most notable improvement of EMOTS over the original multiple objective tabu search (MOTS) lies in the elitist strategy, selection strategy, and neighborhood move rule. The elitist strategy is to maintain all nondominated solutions within later search process for better converging to the true Pareto front...
May 10, 2017: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486370/maternal-racial-and-ethnic-disparities-in-neonatal-birth-outcomes-with-and-without-assisted-reproduction
#19
Sara Crawford, Nikhil Joshi, Sheree L Boulet, Marie A Bailey, Maria-Elena Hood, Susan E Manning, Patricia McKane, Russell S Kirby, Dmitry M Kissin, Denise J Jamieson
OBJECTIVE: To explore disparities in prematurity and low birth weight (LBW) by maternal race and ethnicity among singletons conceived with and without assisted reproductive technology (ART). METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study using resident birth certificate data from Florida, Massachusetts, and Michigan linked with data from the National ART Surveillance System from 2000 to 2010. There were 4,568,822 live births, of which 64,834 were conceived with ART...
June 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485722/how-the-discovery-of-iss-n1-led-to-the-first-medical-therapy-for-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#20
REVIEW
N N Singh, M D Howell, E J Androphy, R N Singh
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a prominent genetic disease of infant mortality, is caused by low levels of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein owing to deletions or mutations of the SMN1 gene. SMN2, a nearly identical copy of SMN1 present in humans, cannot compensate for the loss of SMN1 due to predominant skipping of exon 7 during pre-mRNA splicing. With the recent FDA approval of nusinersen (Spinraza™), the potential for correction of SMN2 exon 7 splicing as a SMA therapy has been affirmed. Nusinersen is an antisense oligonucleotide that targets intronic splicing silencer N1 (ISS-N1) discovered in 2004 at the University of Massachusetts Medical School...
May 9, 2017: Gene Therapy
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