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Stem Cell Niche

Amina Metidji, Sara Omenetti, Stefania Crotta, Ying Li, Emma Nye, Ellie Ross, Vivian Li, Muralidhara R Maradana, Chris Schiering, Brigitta Stockinger
The epithelium and immune compartment in the intestine are constantly exposed to a fluctuating external environment. Defective communication between these compartments at this barrier surface underlies susceptibility to infections and chronic inflammation. Environmental factors play a significant, but mechanistically poorly understood, role in intestinal homeostasis. We found that regeneration of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) upon injury through infection or chemical insults was profoundly influenced by the environmental sensor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)...
August 1, 2018: Immunity
Eric D Bankaitis, Andrew Ha, Calvin J Kuo, Scott T Magness
Renewal of the intestinal epithelium occurs approximately every week and requires a careful balance between cell proliferation and differentiation to maintain proper lineage ratios and support absorptive, secretory, and barrier functions. We review models used to study the mechanisms by which intestinal stem cells (ISCs) fuel the rapid turnover of the epithelium during homeostasis and might support epithelial regeneration after injury. In anatomically defined zones of the crypt stem cell niche, phenotypically distinct active and reserve ISC populations are believed to support homeostatic epithelial renewal and injury-induced regeneration, respectively...
August 14, 2018: Gastroenterology
Eva Terzibasi Tozzini, Aurora Savino, Roberto Ripa, Giorgia Battistoni, Mario Baumgart, Alessandro Cellerino
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fncel.2014.00051.].
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Dorian Forte, Daria Sollazzo, Martina Barone, Marisole Allegri, Angela di Martella Orsi, Marco Romano, Barbara Sinigaglia, Giuseppe Auteri, Nicola Vianelli, Michele Cavo, Francesca Palandri, Lucia Catani
Inflammation may play a role in cancer. However, the contribution of cytokine-mediated crosstalk between normal hemopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) and their (inflammatory) microenvironment is largely elusive. Here we compared survival, phenotype, and function of neonatal (umbilical cord blood (CB)) and adult (normal G-CSF-mobilized peripheral blood (mPB)) CD34+ cells after in vitro exposure to combined crucial inflammatory factors such as interleukin- (IL-) 1 β , IL-6, tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α , or tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1)...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
S Pérez-Castrillo, M L González-Fernández, M E López-González, V Villar-Suárez
BACKGROUND: The development and application of biomaterials to promote stem cell proliferation and differentiation has undergone major expansion over the last few years. Decellularized stem cell matrix (DSCMs) represent bioactive and biocompatible materials which achieve similar characteristics of native extracellular matrix. DSCMs have given promising outcomes in generating novel cell culture substrates mimicking specific niche microenvironments in tissue engineering. AIMS: This research aims at producing two different DSCMs obtained from adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, characterize them and evaluate the DSCMs bioactivity on mesenchymal stem cells...
August 13, 2018: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Elizabeth P Lackey, Detlef H Heck, Roy V Sillitoe
The cerebellum is the focus of an emergent series of debates because its circuitry is now thought to encode an unexpected level of functional diversity. The flexibility that is built into the cerebellar circuit allows it to participate not only in motor behaviors involving coordination, learning, and balance but also in non-motor behaviors such as cognition, emotion, and spatial navigation. In accordance with the cerebellum's diverse functional roles, when these circuits are altered because of disease or injury, the behavioral outcomes range from neurological conditions such as ataxia, dystonia, and tremor to neuropsychiatric conditions, including autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder...
2018: F1000Research
Karolin Holzwarth, Ralf Köhler, Lars Philipsen, Koji Tokoyoda, Valeriia Ladyhina, Carolina Wählby, Raluca A Niesner, Anja E Hauser
The bone marrow (BM) consists of multiple, structured micro-environmental entities-the so called niches, which contain hematopoietic cells as well as stromal cells. These niches fulfill a variety of functions, such as control of the hematopoietic stem cell pool, differentiation of hematopoietic cells, and maintenance of immunological memory. However, due to the molecular and cellular complexity and a lack of suitable histological multiplexing methods, the composition of the various BM niches is still elusive...
August 14, 2018: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
Dongchang Zhao, Yeung-Hyen Kim, Seihwan Jeong, Joel K Greenson, Mohammed S Chaudhry, Matthias Hoepting, Erik R Anderson, Marcel Rm van den Brink, Jonathan U Peled, Antonio Lc Gomes, Ann E Slingerland, Michael J Donovan, Andrew C Harris, John E Levine, Umut Özbek, Lora V Hooper, Thaddeus S Stappenbeck, Aaron M Ver Heul, Ta-Chiang Liu, Pavan Reddy, James Lm Ferrara
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract remains the major cause of morbidity and non-relapse mortality after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The Paneth cell protein, regenerating islet-derived 3-alpha (REG3α), is a biomarker specific for GI GVHD. REG3α serum levels rose in the systematic circulation as GVHD progressively destroyed Paneth cells and reduced GI epithelial barrier function. Paradoxically, GVHD suppressed intestinal REG3γ (the mouse homologue of human REG3α), and the absence of REG3γ in BMT recipients intensified GVHD but did not change the composition of the microbiome...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Limei Wu, Surya Amarachintha, Jian Xu, Frank Oley, Wei Du
The bone marrow (BM) microenvironment (niche) plays important roles in supporting normal/abnormal haematopoiesis. We investigated the interaction between leukaemic mesenchymal niche and haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) using the model of Fanconi anaemia (FA), a genetic disorder characterized by BM failure and leukaemia. Healthy donor HSPCs co-cultured on mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) derived from FA patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) exhibited higher human engraftment and myeloid expansion in Non-obese diabetic severe combined immunodeficiency IL-2γ-/- /SGM3 recipients...
August 14, 2018: British Journal of Haematology
Magdalena Szaryńska, Agata Olejniczak, Jarosław Kobiela, Dariusz Łaski, Zbigniew Śledziński, Zbigniew Kmieć
The therapy of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients is often unsuccessful because of the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) resistant to conventional approaches. Dendritic cells (DC)-based protocols are believed to effectively supplement CRC therapy. Our study was aimed to assess how the number and properties of CSCs isolated from tumor tissue of CRC patients will affect the biological characteristics of in vitro modified DCs. Similar procedures were conducted with the using of CRC HCT116 and HT29 cell lines...
August 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yi-Heng Lin, Ya-Hsin Chen, Heng-Yu Chang, Heng-Kien Au, Chii-Ruey Tzeng, Yen-Hua Huang
Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent inflammatory disease that affects up to 10% of women of reproductive age and accounts for up to 50% of female infertility cases. It has been highly associated with poorer outcomes of assisted reproductive technology (ART), including decreased oocyte retrieval, lower implantation, and pregnancy rates. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of endometriosis-associated infertility is crucial for improving infertility treatment outcomes. Current theories regarding how endometriosis reduces fertility include anatomical distortion, ovulatory dysfunction, and niche inflammation-associated peritoneal or implantation defects...
August 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Sabine Ulrike Vay, Lea Jessica Flitsch, Monika Rabenstein, Rebecca Rogall, Stefan Blaschke, Judith Kleinhaus, Noémie Reinert, Annika Bach, Gereon Rudolf Fink, Michael Schroeter, Maria Adele Rueger
BACKGROUND: Microglia-the resident immune cells of the brain-are activated after brain lesions, e.g., cerebral ischemia, and polarize towards a classic "M1" pro-inflammatory or an alternative "M2" anti-inflammatory phenotype following characteristic temporo-spatial patterns, contributing either to secondary tissue damage or to regenerative responses. They closely interact with endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs) residing in distinct niches of the adult brain. The current study aimed at elucidating the dynamics of microglia polarization and their differential effects on NSC function...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Oluwaseun Adebayo Bamodu, Ching-Kuo Yang, Wei-Hong Cheng, David T W Tzeng, Kuang-Tai Kuo, Chun-Chih Huang, Li Deng, Michael Hsiao, Wei-Hwa Lee, Chi-Tai Yeh
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a leading cause of cancer-related morbidity and mortality in both sexes globally. This is not unconnected with the heterogeneity and plasticity of CRC stem cells (CRC-SCs) which stealthily exploit the niche-related and (epi)genetic factors to facilitate metastasis, chemoresistance, tumor recurrence, and disease progression. Despite the accumulating evidence of the role of dysregulated microRNAs in malignancies, the therapeutic efficacy of pharmacological-targeting of CRC-SC-associated microRNAs is relatively under-explored...
August 10, 2018: Cancers
Michel Aurrand-Lions, Stéphane J C Mancini
After birth, the development of hematopoietic cells occurs in the bone marrow. Hematopoietic differentiation is finely tuned by cell-intrinsic mechanisms and lineage-specific transcription factors. However, it is now clear that the bone marrow microenvironment plays an essential role in the maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and their differentiation into more mature lineages. Mesenchymal and endothelial cells contribute to a protective microenvironment called hematopoietic niches that secrete specific factors and establish a direct contact with developing hematopoietic cells...
August 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Riya Muckom, Sean McFarland, Chun Yang, Brian Perea, Megan Gentes, Abirami Murugappan, Eric Tran, Jonathan S Dordick, Douglas S Clark, David V Schaffer
Advancing our knowledge of how neural stem cell (NSC) behavior in the adult hippocampus is regulated has implications for elucidating basic mechanisms of learning and memory as well as for neurodegenerative disease therapy. To date, numerous biochemical cues from the endogenous hippocampal NSC niche have been identified as modulators of NSC quiescence, proliferation, and differentiation; however, the complex repertoire of signaling factors within stem cell niches raises the question of how cues act in combination with one another to influence NSC physiology...
August 13, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Guido Carpino, Vincenzo Cardinale, Trine Folseraas, Diletta Overi, Krzysztof Grzyb, Daniele Costantini, Pasquale Bartolomeo Berloco, Sabina Di Matteo, Tom Hemming Karlsen, Domenico Alvaro, Eugenio Gaudio
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic inflammatory cholangiopathy frequently complicated by cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Massive proliferation of biliary tree stem/progenitor cells (BTSCs), expansion of peribiliary glands (PBGs), and dysplasia were observed in PSC. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the involvement of PBGs and BTSCs in CCA which emerged in PSC patients. Specimens from normal liver (N=5), PSC (N=20), and PSC-associated CCA (N=20) were included. Samples were processed for histology, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence...
August 13, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Jose Meseguer-Ripolles, Baltasar Lucendo-Villarin, Yu Wang, David C Hay
Human pluripotent stem cells represent a renewable source of human tissue. Our research is focused on generating human liver tissue from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Current differentiation procedures generate human hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) displaying a mixture of fetal and adult traits. To improve cell phenotype, we have fully defined our differentiation procedure and the cell niche, resulting in the generation of cell populations which display improved gene expression and function...
July 27, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Emanuel Bahn, Michelle van Heerden, John Gueulette, Jacobus P Slabbert, William Shaw, Jürgen Debus, Markus Alber
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The high plasticity of the intestinal epithelium is maintained by a resilient reserve stem cell population, whose extent and biology are a matter of ongoing debate. The in vivo clonogenic assay (IVCA), presents a well established and efficient analysis of radiation insult to the intestinal crypts. However, we found that inadequate mathematical analysis over the last four decades led to systematic errors and contradictory results in estimates of radio-sensitivity and size of the reserve stem cell pool...
August 9, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Heather A Himburg, Christina M Termini, Lauren Schlussel, Jenny Kan, Michelle Li, Liman Zhao, Tiancheng Fang, Joshua P Sasine, Vivian Y Chang, John P Chute
Bone marrow (BM) perivascular stromal cells and vascular endothelial cells (ECs) are essential for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) maintenance, but the roles of distinct niche compartments during HSC regeneration are less understood. Here we show that Leptin receptor-expressing (LepR+) BM stromal cells and ECs dichotomously regulate HSC maintenance and regeneration via secretion of pleiotrophin (PTN). BM stromal cells are the key source of PTN during steady-state hematopoiesis because its deletion from stromal cells, but not hematopoietic cells, osteoblasts, or ECs, depletes the HSC pool...
July 30, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
Sun H Park, Matthew R Eber, Russell S Taichman, Yusuke Shiozawa
The ability of cancer cells to compete with hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to target the bone marrow microenvironment, or the HSC niche, during the dissemination process is critical for the development of bone metastasis. Here, we describe the methods for testing the relative potential of cancer cells to compete with HSCs for occupancy of the HSC niche by measuring the peripheral blood level of engrafted HSCs by flow cytometry in mice after bone marrow transplantation and tandem cancer cell inoculation. This method is useful for determining the molecular mechanisms for the roles of HSCs in the regulation of bone metastases...
August 12, 2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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