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Stem Cell Niche

Peter Baillie-Johnson, Octavian Voiculescu, Penny Hayward, Benjamin Steventon
Neuromesodermal progenitors (NMps) are a population of bipotent progenitors that maintain competence to generate both spinal cord and paraxial mesoderm throughout the elongation of the posterior body axis. Recent studies have generated populations of NMp-like cells in culture, which have been shown to differentiate to both neural and mesodermal cell fates when transplanted into either mouse or chick embryos. Here, we aim to compare the potential of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived progenitor populations to generate NMp behaviour against both undifferentiated and differentiated populations...
December 5, 2018: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Mudasir Bashir Gugjoo, Amarpal, Mujeeb R Fazili, Riaz A Shah, Gutulla Taru Sharma
Characteristic features like self-renewal, multilineage differentiation potential, and immune-modulatory/anti-inflammatory properties, besides the ability to mobilize and home distant tissues make stem cells (SCs) a lifeline for an individual. Stem cells (SCs) if could be harvested and expanded without any abnormal change may be utilized as an all-in-one solution to numerous clinical ailments. However, slender understanding of their basic physiological properties, including expression potential, behavioral alternations during culture, and the effect of niche/microenvironment has currently restricted the clinical application of SCs...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Liu Qian, Hui Zhang, Yuting Gu, Dechun Li, Songbing He, Hui Wang, Yiji Cheng, Wanlin Yang, Hongshuang Yu, Xiaonan Zhao, Wei Cai, Lijun Meng, Min Jin, Yanan Wang, Yanyun Zhang
Aged liver is usually impaired in response to hepatic injury. Tissue-specific stem cells participate in the repair of tissue injury. However, how oval cells (OCs) respond to injury and how the process is regulated by tissue microenvironment in aged mice have not been fully understood. In this study, taking advantage of well-established murine OC activation model, we demonstrated that OCs were less activated upon injury in aged mice and the impairment was mainly attributed to dysfunction in their niche. Through analyzing global gene expression, we found that the genes differentially expressed in damaged young and aged mouse liver tissues were predominantly those required for the formation and remodeling of extracellular matrix...
December 4, 2018: Aging
Valeriia Gulaia, Vadim Kumeiko, Nikita Shved, Eduardas Cicinskas, Stanislav Rybtsov, Alexey Ruzov, Alexander Kagansky
Cellular quiescence is a reversible, non-cycling state controlled by epigenetic, transcriptional and niche-associated molecular factors. Quiescence is a condition where molecular signaling pathways maintain the poised cell-cycle state whilst enabling rapid cell cycle re-entry. To achieve therapeutic breakthroughs in oncology it is crucial to decipher these molecular mechanisms employed by the cancerous milieu to control, maintain and gear stem cells towards re-activation. Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) have been extensively studied in most malignancies, including glioma...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Paola Ortiz-Montero, Win-Yan Liu-Bordes, Arturo Londoño-Vallejo, Jean-Paul Vernot
Background: Most carcinomas are composed of heterogeneous populations of tumor cells with distinct and apparently stable phenotypic characteristics. Methods: Using an in vitro model of carcinogenesis we aimed at experimentally elucidating the significance of heterogeneity in the expression of CD24, a marker frequently overexpressed in various cancers and correlated with poor prognosis. Results: We show that CD24Neg and CD24Pos cells issued from the same tumorigenic cell line display striking differences in stem-related properties, expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition/mesenchymal-epithelial transition markers, and tumorigenic capacity...
2018: Cancer Management and Research
John P Leach, Edward E Morrisey
Tissue regeneration involves various types of cellular and molecular responses depending on the type of tissue and the injury or disease that is inflicted. While many tissues contain dedicated stem/progenitor cell lineages, many others contain cells that, during homeostasis, are considered physiologically functional and fully differentiated but, after injury or in disease states, exhibit stem/progenitor-like activity. Recent identification of subsets of defined cell types as facultative stem/progenitor cells has led to a re-examination of how certain tissues respond to injury to mount a regenerative response...
December 1, 2018: Genes & Development
Daniela Barros, Paula Parreira, Joana Furtado, Frederico Ferreira-da-Silva, Eduardo Conde-Sousa, Andrés J García, M Cristina L Martins, Isabel Freitas Amaral, Ana Paula Pêgo
Laminin immobilization into diverse biological and synthetic matrices has been explored to replicate the microenvironment of stem cell niches and gain insight into the role of extracellular matrix (ECM) on stem cell behavior. However, the site-specific immobilization of this heterotrimeric glycoprotein and, consequently, control over its orientation and bioactivity has been a challenge that has limited many of the explored strategies to date. In this work, we established an affinity-based approach that takes advantage of the native high affinity interaction between laminin and the human N-terminal agrin (hNtA) domain...
November 27, 2018: Biomaterials
Yaroslav R Efremov, Anastasia S Proskurina, Ekaterina A Potter, Evgenia V Dolgova, Oksana V Efremova, Oleg S Taranov, Aleksandr A Ostanin, Elena R Chernykh, Nikolay A Kolchanov, Sergey S Bogachev
A functional analysis of 167 genes overexpressed in Krebs-2 tumor initiating cells was performed. In the first part of the study, the genes were analyzed for their belonging to one or more of the three groups, which represent the three major phenotypic manifestation of malignancy of cancer cells, namely (1) proliferative self-sufficiency, (2) invasive growth and metastasis, and (3) multiple drug resistance. 96 genes out of 167 were identified as possible contributors to at least one of these fundamental properties...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Yulia Michailov, Eitan Lunenfeld, Joseph Kapelushnik, Mahmoud Huleihel
Spermatogenesis is the process of the proliferation and differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) to generate sperm. Leukemia patients show impairment in some of the endocrine hormones that are involved in spermatogenesis. They also show a decrease in semen parameters before and after thawing of cryopreserved samples compared to a control. The mechanisms behind these effects have not yet been described. This review summarizes the effect of leukemia on semen parameters from adult patients and highlights feasible suggested mechanisms that may affect impairment of spermatogenesis in these patients...
December 3, 2018: Leukemia & Lymphoma
Verónica Sobrino, Valentina Annese, Elena Navarro-Guerrero, Aida Platero-Luengo, Ricardo Pardal
Oxygen constitutes a vital element for the survival of every single cell in multicellular aerobic organisms like mammals. A complex homeostatic oxygen-sensing system has evolved in these organisms, including detectors and effectors, to guarantee a proper supply of the element to every cell. The carotid body represents the most important peripheral arterial chemoreceptor organ in mammals and informs about hypoxemic situations to the effectors at the brainstem cardiorespiratory centers. To optimize organismal adaptation to maintained hypoxemic situations, the carotid body has evolved containing a niche of adult tissue-specific stem cells with the capacity to differentiate into both neuronal and vascular cell types in response to hypoxia...
November 29, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Changyong Tang, Min Wang, Peijian Wang, Lei Wang, Qingfeng Wu, Weixiang Guo
In the neurogenic niches, adult neural stem and/or progenitor cells (NSCs) generate functional neurons throughout life, which has been implicated in learning and memory and affective behaviors. During adult neurogenesis, newborn neurons release feedback signals into the niches to regulate NSC proliferation and differentiation. However, whether and how NSCs contribute to the niche governing newborn neuron development is still unknown. Using a combination of cell ablation, retrovirus-mediated single-cell labeling, and signaling pathway modulation, we show that adult hippocampal NSCs continuously supply pleiotrophin factor to the newborn neurons...
November 14, 2018: Neuron
Jiayi Wang, Wei Zou, Jingyun Ma, Jing Liu
Spinal cord injury (SCI)-a prominent health issue-represents a substantial portion of the global healthcare burden. Stem-cell-based therapies provide novel solutions for SCI treatment, yet obstacles remain in the form of low survival rate, uncontrolled differentiation, and functional recovery. The application of engineered biomaterials in stem cell therapy provides a physicochemical microenvironment that mimics the stem cell niche, facilitating self-renewal, stem cell differentiation, and tissue reorganization...
November 29, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
Nobuyuki Takakura
The roles that blood vessels play in the maintenance of organs and tissues in addition to the delivery of oxygen and nutrients are being gradually clarified. The maintenance of tissue-specific organ stem cells, such as hematopoietic and neuronal stem cells, is supported by endothelial cells (ECs), which represent an important component of the stem cell niche. The maintenance of organogenesis, for example, osteogenesis and liver generation/regeneration, is supported by molecules referred to as "angiocrine signals" secreted by EC...
November 28, 2018: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
Zhengle Zhang, Han Han, Yuping Rong, Kongfan Zhu, Zhongchao Zhu, Zhigang Tang, Chenglong Xiong, Jing Tao
BACKGROUND: Profound chemoresistance remains an intractable obstacle in pancreatic cancer treatment. Pancreatic cancer stem cells (CSCs) and the ubiquitous hypoxic niche have been proposed to account for drug resistance. However, the mechanism involved requires further exploration. This study investigated whether the hypoxic niche enhances gemcitabine-induced stemness and acquired resistance in pancreatic cancer cells by activating the AKT/Notch1 signaling cascade. The therapeutic effects of blockading this signaling cascade on gemcitabine-enriched CSCs were also investigated...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
Vera Zywitza, Aristotelis Misios, Lena Bunatyan, Thomas E Willnow, Nikolaus Rajewsky
Neural stem cells (NSCs) contribute to plasticity and repair of the adult brain. Niches harboring NSCs regulate stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. We used comprehensive and untargeted single-cell RNA profiling to generate a molecular cell atlas of the largest germinal region of the adult mouse brain, the subventricular zone (SVZ). We characterized >20 neural and non-neural cell types and gained insights into the dynamics of neurogenesis by predicting future cell states based on computational analysis of RNA kinetics...
November 27, 2018: Cell Reports
Fernanda Marconi Roversi, Nathalia Moreno Cury, Matheus Rodrigues Lopes, Karla Priscila Ferro, João Agostinho Machado-Neto, Marisa Claudia Alvarez, Gabriela Pereira Dos Santos, Renata Giardini Rosa, Ana Leda Longhini, Adriana da Silva Santos Duarte, Fernando Vieira Pericole, Patricia Favaro, José Andres Yunes, Sara Teresinha Olalla Saad
The role of tumour microenvironment in neoplasm initiation and malignant evolution has been increasingly recognized. However, the bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cell (BMMSC) contribution to disease progression remains poorly explored. We previously reported that the expression of serine protease inhibitor kunitz-type2 (SPINT2/HAI-2), an inhibitor of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) activation, is significantly lower in BMMSC from myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) patients compared to healthy donors (HD). Thus, to investigate whether this loss of expression was due to SPINT2/HAI-2 methylation, BMMSC from MDS and de novo acute myeloid leukaemia (de novo AML) patients were treated with 5-Azacitidine (Aza), a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
James E Trosko
From the transition of single-cell organisms to multicellularity of metazoans, evolutionary pressures selected new genes and phenotypes to cope with the oxygenation of the Earth's environment, especially via the symbiotic acquisition of the mitochondrial organelle. There were many new genes and phenotypes that appeared, namely, stem cells, low-oxygen-micro-environments to house these genes ("niches"), new epigenetic mechanisms to regulate , selectively, the gene repertoire to control proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, senescence and DNA protection mechanisms, including antioxidant genes and DNA repair...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Takaaki Yamada, Seiji Hasegawa, Yuichi Hasebe, Mika Kawagishi-Hotta, Masaru Arima, Yohei Iwata, Tsukane Kobayashi, Shigeki Numata, Naoki Yamamoto, Satoru Nakata, Kazumitsu Sugiura, Hirohiko Akamatsu
Melanocyte stem cells (McSCs) are localized in the bulge region of hair follicles and supply melanocytes, which determine hair color by synthesizing melanin. Ectopic differentiation of McSCs, which are usually undifferentiated in the bulge region, causes depletion of McSCs and results in hair graying. Therefore, to prevent hair graying, it is essential to maintain McSCs in the bulge region, but the mechanism of McSC maintenance remains unclear. To address this issue, we investigated the role of CXCL12, a chemokine which was previously suggested to induce migration of melanocyte lineage cells, as a niche component of McSCs...
November 27, 2018: Archives of Dermatological Research
Anne Wilson, He Fu, Mariano Schiffrin, Carine Winkler, Meriem Koufany, Jean-Yves Jouzeau, Nicolas Bonnet, Federica Gilardi, François Renevey, Sanjiv A Luther, David Moulin, Béatrice Desvergne
Adult hematopoiesis takes place in the perivascular zone of the bone cavity, where endothelial cells, mesenchymal stromal/stem cells and their derivatives such as osteoblasts are key components of bone marrow (BM) niches. Defining the contribution of BM adipocytes to the hematopoietic stem cell niche remains controversial. While an excess of medullar adiposity is generally considered deleterious for hematopoiesis, an active role for adipocytes in shaping the niche has also been proposed. We thus investigated the consequences of total adipocyte deletion, including in the BM niche, on adult hematopoiesis using mice carrying a constitutive deletion of the gene coding for the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Jing Jing Fu, Ying Zhou, Xiao Xiao Shi, Yue Jun Kang, Zhi Song Lu, Yuan Li, Chang Ming Li, Ling Yu
Emerging evidence has demonstrated that cancer stem cells (CSCs) play critical roles in tumor invasion, metastasis and recurrence. The specific targeting capability on CSCs is of high importance for the development of effective anti-tumor therapeutics. However, isolation, enrichment and cultivation of these special and rare groups of tumor cells for in vitro analyses is a nontrivial job and requires particular culture medium and environmental control. Herein, we established a low-cost and efficient method for CSC enrichment by culturing prostate cancer cells on a hydrophilic filter paper...
November 19, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
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