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Stem Cell Niche

Abhay Srivastava, Nidheesh Dadheech, Mitul Vakani, Sarita Gupta
Pancreatic progenitors have been explored for their profound characteristics and unique commitment to generate new functional islets in regenerative medicine. Pancreatic resident endocrine progenitors (PREPs) with mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) phenotype were purified from BALB/c mice pancreas and characterized. PREPs were differentiated into mature islet clusters in vitro by activin-A and swertisin and functionally characterized. A temporal gene and protein profiling was performed during differentiation. Furthermore, PREPs were labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP) and transplanted intravenously into streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic mice while monitoring their homing and differentiation leading to amelioration in the diabetic condition...
October 20, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Sippy Kaur, Ahmed G Abu-Shahba, Riku O Paananen, Heidi Hongisto, Hanna Hiidenmaa, Heli Skottman, Riitta Seppänen-Kaijansinkko, Bettina Mannerström
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are reported to be involved in stem cell maintenance, self-renewal, and differentiation. Due to their bioactive cargoes influencing cell fate and function, interest in EVs in regenerative medicine has rapidly increased. EV-derived small non-coding RNA mimic the functions of the parent stem cells, regulating the maintenance and differentiation of stem cells, controlling the intercellular regulation of gene expression, and eventually affecting the cell fate. In this study, we used RNA sequencing to provide a comprehensive overview of the expression profiles of small non-coding transcripts carried by the EVs derived from human adipose tissue stromal/stem cells (AT-MSCs) and human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), both human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC)...
October 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kendra Sweet, Lori Hazlehurst, Eva Sahakian, John Powers, Lisa Nodzon, Fadi Kayali, Kelly Hyland, Ashley Nelson, Javier Pinilla-Ibarz
PURPOSE: Preclinical evidence indicates that the bone marrow microenvironment provides a protective niche for leukemic stem cells, allowing them to evade the effects of BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), but that targeting of the JAK-STAT pathway with the JAK2 inhibitor ruxolitinib increases TKI-induced apoptosis. A phase I clinical trial (NCT01702064) investigated the tolerability and safety of treating chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients with ruxolitinib in combination with the BCR-ABL TKI nilotinib and explored initial efficacy evidence...
October 9, 2018: Leukemia Research
Xavier Muracciole, Wassim El-Amine, Emmeline Tabouret, Mohamed Boucekine, Anne Barlier, Gregorio Petrirena, Tovo Harivony, Laetitia Solignac, Olivier L Chinot, Nicolas Macagno, Dominique Figarella-Branger, Laetitia Padovani
Aims: Assess the impact of radiation doses to neural stem cell (NSC) niches in patients with IDH-wild-type glioblastoma. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients were included in the study. NSC niches [SubVentricular Zone (SVZ) and Sub Granular Zone (SGZ)] were contoured by fusing CT scans and pre-therapy MRI, Tumor location defined ipsilateral and contralateral SVZ and SGZ. Prognostic significance of clinical, biological and dosimetric parameters were examined. We generated a Recursive Partitioning Analysis (RPA) model with independent prognostic classes...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Marina A Aleksinskaya, Matthieu Monge, Michiel Siebelt, Edith M Slot, Karin M Koekkoek, Ruben G de Bruin, Ziad A Massy, Harrie Weinans, Ton J Rabelink, Willem E Fibbe, Anton Jan van Zonneveld, Melissa van Pel
In chronic kidney disease (CKD), endothelial injury, is associated with disease progression and an increased risk for cardiovascular complications. Circulating cells with vascular reparative functions are hematopoietic and also reduced in CKD. To explore the mechanistic basis behind these observations, we have investigated hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) homeostasis in a mouse model for non-progressive CKD-mineral and bone disorder with experimentally induced chronic renal failure (CRF). In mice subjected to 12 weeks of CRF, bone marrow HSC frequencies were decreased and transplantation of bone marrow cells from CRF donors showed a decrease in long-term HSC repopulation compared to controls...
October 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alicia Pérez Saturnino, Katharina Lust, Joachim Wittbrodt
Patterning of a continuously growing naive field in the context of a life-long growing organ such as the teleost eye is of highest functional relevance. Intrinsic and extrinsic signals were proposed to regulate lineage specification in progenitors that exit the stem cell niche in the ciliary marginal zone (CMZ). The proper cell type composition arising from those progenitors is prerequisite for retinal function. Our findings in the teleost medaka ( Oryzias latipes ) uncover that the Notch-Atoh7 axis continuously patterns the CMZ...
October 18, 2018: Development
Phuong M Le, Michael Andreeff, Venkata Lokesh Battula
The bone marrow microenvironment, also known as the bone marrow niche, is a complex network of cell types and acellular factors that supports normal hematopoiesis.. For many years, leukemia was believed to be caused by a series of genetic hits to hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, which transform them to preleukemic and eventually to leukemic cells. Recent discoveries suggest that genetic alterations in bone marrow niche cells, particularly in osteogenic cells, may also cause myeloid leukemia in mouse models...
October 18, 2018: Haematologica
Charanya Ramachandran, Virender S Sangwan, Ilida Ortega, Upendra Bhatnagar, Sadik Mohmad Abdulhamid Mulla, Rob McKean, Sheila MacNeil
AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the local and systemic response to poly-lactic co-glycolic acid (PLGA) 50:50 membranes, developed as synthetic biodegradable alternatives to the use of human donor amniotic membrane in the treatment of limbal stem cell deficiency. METHODS: PLGA membranes of 2  cm diameter and 50  µm thickness were placed on one eye of rabbits and secured in place using fibrin glue and a bandage contact lens, suturing the eye close with a single stitch...
October 18, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Mengru Zhuang, Bo Li, Yangxue Huang, Qijing Lei, Ruichuan Yan, Na Li, Kuldip Sidhu, Xiang Cheng, Xinrong Yan, Yiliang Miao, Shanting Zhao, Jinlian Hua
Reelin plays important roles in brain development. Reeler mutant mice that lack the protein reelin (RELN) suffer from cell type- and region-dependent changes in their neocortical layers, and adult reeler mutant mice have dilated seminiferous tubules. Meanwhile, the mechanism by which Reelin regulates the spermatogenic cell development in mice and their reproductive abilities remains unclear. In the present study, we used reeler mutant mice to investigate the effects of Reelin on reproduction in mice. The results indicated variations in sex hormone expression among the reeler mice, indicating that they produce few offspring and their spermatogenic cells are irregularly developed...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
S A Demura, E A Kogan, V L Goryachkina
The review of the literature deals with the participation of Clara cells now called club cells (CCs) of the epithelium in the respiratory and terminal bronchioles in the pathogenesis and morphogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases, precancer, and cancer of the lung, which develop in the respiratory segments. The review summarizes data on the histophysiology of CCs and their participation in the pathogenesis and morphogenesis of chronic interstitial lung diseases, pneumoconiosis, chronic obstructive diseases, adenomatosis, and adenocarcinoma of the lung...
2018: Arkhiv Patologii
Simon Joost, Tina Jacob, Xiaoyan Sun, Karl Annusver, Gioele La Manno, Inderpreet Sur, Maria Kasper
Epithelial tissues, such as the skin, rely on cellular plasticity of stem cells (SCs) from different niches to restore tissue function after injury. How these molecularly and functionally diverse SC populations respond to injury remains elusive. Here, we genetically labeled Lgr5- or Lgr6-expressing cells from the hair follicle bulge and interfollicular epidermis (IFE), respectively, and monitored their individual transcriptional adaptations during wound healing using single-cell transcriptomics. Both Lgr5 and Lgr6 progeny rapidly induced a genetic wound signature that, for Lgr5 progeny, included the remodeling of receptors to permit interactions with the wound environment, a property that Lgr6 progeny possessed even before wounding...
October 16, 2018: Cell Reports
Renee D Read
Stem cells reside in specialized microenvironments, called niches, that regulate their development and development of their progeny. However, the development and maintenance of niches are poorly understood. In the Drosophila brain, cortex glial cells provide a niche that promotes self-renewal and proliferation of neural stem cell-like cells (neuroblasts). In the central brain, neuroblasts and their progeny control post-embryonic morphogenesis of cortex glia through PDGF-like ligands, and that PDGFR receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling in cortex glia is required for expression of DE-cadherin, which sustains neuroblasts...
October 16, 2018: Development
Agnieszka Arthur, Thao M Nguyen, Sharon Paton, Andrew C W Zannettino, Stan Gronthos
The bone marrow stromal microenvironment contributes to the maintenance and function of haematopoietic stem/ progenitor cells (HSPC). The Eph receptor tyrosine kinase family members have been implicated in bone homeostasis and stromal support of HSPC. The present study examined the influence of EfnB1-expressing osteogenic lineage on HSPC function. Mice with conditional deletion of EfnB1 in the osteogenic lineage (EfnB1OB -/- ), driven by the Osterix promoter, exhibited a reduced prevalence of osteogenic progenitors and osteoblasts, correlating to lower numbers of HSPC when compared to Osx:Cre mice...
October 13, 2018: Experimental Hematology
Rawan Al-Kharboosh, Montserrat Lara-Velazquez, Luis Prieto, Rachel Sarabia-Estrada, Alfredo Quiñones-Hinojosa
Ninety percent of deaths from solid tumors have been ascribed to the invasion and metastatic dissemination of cancer cells. One of the most fundamental prerequisites of brain tumor stem cell invasion is their ability to penetrate and traverse through the basement membrane and stromal compartments displacing from their original point of origin and repopulating at a distant site and adjacent tissue. In order to propose a successful clinical strategy, the investigation of the molecular determinants of invasion must factor in measurements and predictors of the complexity of brain tumor invasion potential accounting for the physiological scenarios encountered in the tumor niche...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Gordon H Sasaki
Plastic surgeons are frequently asked to manage male- and female-pattern hair loss in their practice. This article discusses the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and current management of androgenetic alopecia and emphasizes more recent knowledge of stem cell niches in hair follicles that drive hair cycling, alopecia, and its treatment. The many treatment programs available for hair loss include newer strategies that involve the usage of growth factors, platelet-rich plasma, and fat to stimulate follicle growth...
October 15, 2018: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
Katsuma Miyachi, Takaaki Yamada, Mika Kawagishi-Hotta, Yuichi Hasebe, Yasushi Date, Seiji Hasegawa, Masaru Arima, Yohei Iwata, Tsukane Kobayashi, Shigeki Numata, Naoki Yamamoto, Satoru Nakata, Kazumitsu Sugiura, Hirohiko Akamatsu
Hair follicle stem cells (HFSC) are localized in the bulge region of the hair follicle and play a role in producing hair. Recently, it has been shown that the number of HFSC decreases with age, which is thought to be a cause of senile alopecia. Therefore, maintaining HFSC may be key for the prevention of age-related hair loss, but the regulatory mechanisms of HFSC and the effects of aging on them are largely unknown. In general, stem cells are known to require regulatory factors in the pericellular microenvironment, termed the stem cell niche, to maintain their cell function...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Dermatology
Tingting Yuan, Thomas Volckaert, Diptiman Chanda, Victor J Thannickal, Stijn P De Langhe
The lung is morphologically structured into a complex tree-like network with branched airways ending distally in a large number of alveoli for efficient oxygen exchange. At the cellular level, the adult lung consists of at least 40-60 different cell types which can be broadly classified into epithelial, endothelial, mesenchymal, and immune cells. Fibroblast growth factor 10 (Fgf10) located in the lung mesenchyme is essential to regulate epithelial proliferation and lineage commitment during embryonic development and post-natal life, and to drive epithelial regeneration after injury...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Kira Behrens, Warren S Alexander
Platelets are anuclear blood cells required for haemostasis and are implicated in other processes including inflammation and metastasis. Platelets are produced by megakaryocytes, specialized cells that are themselves generated by a process of controlled differentiation and maturation of bone-marrow stem and progenitor cells. This process of megakaryopoiesis involves the coordinated interplay of transcription factor-controlled cellular programming with extra-cellular cues produced locally in supporting niches or as circulating factors...
October 15, 2018: Growth Factors
Maëva Cherif-Feildel, Kristell Kellner, Didier Goux, Nicolas Elie, Béatrice Adeline, Christophe Lelong, Clothilde Heude Berthelin
While our knowledge of bivalve gametogenesis recently progressed, data on early stages of gametogenesis remain to be developed, especially when dealing with germinal stem cells (GSC) and their niche in these organisms. Here, we wish to develop a strategy to identify putative GSC in Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas based on morphological criteria combined with vasa marker expression. A histological quantitative approach, based on stereology, allowed us to identify two types of early germ cells in the germinal epithelium, one presenting round nuclei and the other irregular ones...
October 15, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Nazli Jafarzadeh, Zohreh Safari, Majid Pornour, Naser Amirizadeh, Mehdi Forouzandeh Moghadam, Majid Sadeghizadeh
Leukemic cells can impact the bone marrow niche to create a tumor-favorable microenvironment using their secreted factors. Little knowledge is available about immunosuppressive and tumor-promoting properties of chronic myeloid leukemia derived exosomes in bone marrow stromal components. We report here that K562-derived exosomes can affect the gene expression, cytokine secretion, nitric oxide (NO) production, and redox potential of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and macrophages. Human BM-MSCs and mouse macrophages were treated with K562-derived exosomes...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
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