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Community health

Kouta Suzuki, Hidehito Niimura, Ryoko Yamazawa, Takahiro Nemoto, Masaaki Murakami, Masaru Mimura, Masafumi Mizuno
INTRODUCTION: In recent years, the early detection and treatment of the first episode of schizophrenia (FES) has attracted worldwide attention. In Japan, psychiatric care has changed to an open and accessible framework over the past decade. Therefore, the duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is thought to have been shortened. The purposes of this study were to investigate whether recent DUP periods are shorter than they were 10 years ago and whether the DUP at present differs among psychiatric facilities...
March 7, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Lucie Cluver, Franziska Meinck, Elona Toska, F Mark Orkin, Rebecca J Hodes, Lorraine Sherr
OBJECTIVE(S): HIV-positive adolescents have low ART-adherence, with consequent increased risks of mortality, morbidity and viral resistance. Despite high rates of violence against children in the Africa region, no known studies have tested impacts on HIV-positive adolescents. We examine associations of ART-adherence with adolescent violence victimisation by caregivers, teachers, peers, community members, and healthcare providers. DESIGN AND METHODS: HIV-positive adolescents were interviewed (n = 1060), and clinic biomarker data collected...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
David A Watters, Glenn D Guest, Viliami Tangi, Mark G Shrime, John G Meara
Progress in achieving "universal access to safe, affordable surgery, and anesthesia care when needed" is dependent on consensus not only about the key messages but also on what metrics should be used to set goals and measure progress. The Lancet Commission on Global Surgery not only achieved consensus on key messages but also recommended 6 key metrics to inform national surgical plans and monitor scale-up toward 2030. These metrics measure access to surgery, as well as its timeliness, safety, and affordability: (1) Two-hour access to the 3 Bellwether procedures (cesarean delivery, emergency laparotomy, and management of an open fracture); (2) Surgeon, Anesthetist, and Obstetrician workforce >20/100,000; (3) Surgical volume of 5000 procedures/100,000; (4) Reporting of perioperative mortality rate; and (5 and 6) Risk rates of catastrophic expenditure and impoverishment when requiring surgery...
April 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Ganbold Lundeg, Amanda Baric, David C Pescod, Keith Pescod
Anesthesia in Mongolia has undergone a period of major development over the past 17 years, thanks to the work of the Mongolian Society of Anesthesiologists (MSA) and the support of the World Federation of Societies of Anaesthesiologists and the Australian Society of Anaesthetists. The specialty has made major advances in training and in its standing among medical specialties in Mongolia. The MSA has produced members who are leaders in the development of anesthesia as well as emergency medicine and critical care...
April 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
C Roger Goucke, Pongparadee Chaudakshetrin
Approximately 80% of the world's population lives in countries with little or no access to pain management. These countries also have 74% of the world's deaths from cancer and human immunodeficiency virus. Appropriate use of oral opioids can control 80%-90% of cancer pain. However, only 6.7% of the world's medical opioids are available in these low-resource countries. With the Lancet Commission on Global Surgery calling for a significant expansion of surgical services, postoperative pain management will need to be an increasing focus of our attention...
April 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Joe Dooley, Gareth Ryan, Lianne Gerber Finn, Megan Bollinger, Cai-Lei Matsumoto, Wilma M Hopman, Len Kelly
INTRODUCTION: Opioid use in pregnancy is increasing globally. In northwest Ontario, rates of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) are alarmingly high. We sought to document the increasing rates of opioid exposure during pregnancy and associated cases of NAS over a 7-year period in northwest Ontario. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review at the Sioux Lookout Meno Ya Win Health Centre catchment area (population 29 000) maternity program in northwest Ontario of mother-infant dyads of live births from Jan...
2018: Canadian Journal of Rural Medicine
David J Hunter
Amidst the NHS's (National Health Service) success lies its major weakness, although one that Klein overlooks in his reflections on the NHS as it approaches 70. The focus on, and investment in, curing ill-health has been at the expense of attending to the public's overall health and well-being. This preoccupation poses a greater threat to the NHS's future than privatisation. Despite the weakness having been diagnosed decades ago, redressing the imbalance has proved stubbornly hard to achieve. Rhetoric has not been translated into reality...
March 16, 2018: Health Economics, Policy, and Law
David H Molyneux, Laura Dean, Oluwatosin Adekeye, J Russell Stothard, Sally Theobald
The drive to control neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) has had many successes but to reach defined targets new approaches are required. Over the last decade, NTD control programmes have benefitted from increased resources, and from effective partnerships and long-term pharmaceutical donations. Although the NTD agenda is broader than those diseases of parasitic aetiology there has been a massive up-scaling of the delivery of medicines to some billion people annually. Recipients are often the poorest, with the aspiration that NTD programmes are key to universal health coverage as reflected within the 2030 United Nations sustainable development goals (SDGs)...
March 16, 2018: Parasitology
M Netravathi, Nitish Kamble, P Satishchandra, M Gourie-Devi, Pramod Kumar Pal
The Department of Neurology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Bengaluru, Karnataka has a long tradition of excellence in education, teaching, research, and patient care. Its exceptional alumni, as well as current and past faculty members, have made considerable contributions to the development of neurological services throughout the world. The six decades of its existence have seen a momentous growth in clinical, investigative, and community Neurology. As a result of the immense scientific individual as well as collaborative contributions of the faculty members in various departments, the Institute has had the honour of attaining the status of an autonomous 'Institute of National Importance' under the Ministry of Health, Government of India, through a novel concept of collaboration and partnership of central and state governments...
March 2018: Neurology India
Sherry Hamby, Zach Blount, Alli Smith, Lisa Jones, Kimberly Mitchell, Elizabeth Taylor
Many forms of victimization, including bullying and property crime, are increasingly moving online, but most studies of poly-victimization still primarily focus on in-person crime and violence. Few studies have examined the importance of incorporating technology-based victimizations for assessing the true burden of violence. The purpose of this study is to explore whether digital poly-victimization contributes to post-traumatic stress and anxiety/dysphoria symptoms after controlling for in-person poly-victimization...
May 2018: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Morgan Pommells, Corinne Schuster-Wallace, Susan Watt, Zachariah Mulawa
The purpose of this study was to better understand the gender violence risks that exist in communities where poor water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) access is a known problem. Focus groups and key informant interviews were used to capture the lived experiences of community and health care practitioners from Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, and Kenya. This article provides lived narratives of the various cultural and environmental conditions leading to assaults directly attributable to inadequate WaSH. The results shed light on the complex intersections between water access and violence and have significant implications for achieving gender equity and universal access to WaSH...
March 1, 2018: Violence Against Women
J South, A M Connolly, J A Stansfield, P Johnstone, G Henderson, K A Fenton
There is a strong evidence-based rationale for community capacity building and community empowerment as part of a strategic response to reduce health inequalities. Within the current UK policy context, there are calls for increased public engagement in prevention and local decision-making in order to give people greater control over the conditions that determine health. With reference to the challenges and opportunities within the English public health system, this essay seeks to open debate about what is required to mainstream community-centred approaches and ensure that the public is central to public health...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Alberto Pilotto, Raffaella Boi, Jean Petermans
Recently, the interest of industry, government agencies and healthcare professionals in technology for aging people has increased. The challenge is whether technology may play a role in enhancing independence and quality of life and in reducing individual and societal costs of caring. Information and communication technologies, i.e. tools aimed at communicating and informing, assistive technologies designed to maintain older peoples' independence and increasing safety, and human-computer interaction technologies for supporting older people with motility and cognitive impairments as humanoid robots, exoskeletons, rehabilitation robots, service robots and companion-type are interdisciplinary topics both in research and in clinical practice...
March 13, 2018: Age and Ageing
Amanda C McClain, Guadalupe X Ayala, Daniela Sotres-Alvarez, Anna Maria Siega-Riz, Robert C Kaplan, Marc D Gellman, Linda C Gallo, Linda Van Horn, Martha L Daviglus, Marisa J Perera, Josiemer Mattei
Background: Away-from-home foods (AFHFs) influence diet quality, a modifiable obesity risk factor, with limited generalizable evidence in Hispanic/Latino adults. Objective: We investigated associations between AFHF intake with diet quality and overweight or obesity among US Hispanic/Latino adults. Methods: Cross-sectional baseline (2008-2011) analyses included adults (n = 16,045) aged 18-74 y in the national Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Tonya L Ward, Maria Gloria Dominguez-Bello, Tim Heisel, Gabriel Al-Ghalith, Dan Knights, Cheryl A Gale
With the advent of next-generation sequencing and microbial community characterization, we are beginning to understand the key factors that shape early-life microbial colonization and associated health outcomes. Studies characterizing infant microbial colonization have focused mostly on bacteria in the microbiome and have largely neglected fungi (the mycobiome), despite their relevance to mucosal infections in healthy infants. In this pilot study, we characterized the skin, oral, and anal mycobiomes of infants over the first month of life ( n = 17) and the anal and vaginal mycobiomes of mothers ( n = 16) by internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) amplicon sequencing...
May 2018: MSystems
Lenette M Jones, Kathy D Wright, McKenzie K Wallace, Tiffany Veinot
Nearly half of African-American women have hypertension, which increases their risk for cardiovascular disease and stroke. A plethora of consumer health information products and services exist to inform people with hypertension and to promote self-management among them. Promotion of information sharing by African-American women represents a promising, culturally-applicable strategy for consumer health information services focused on hypertension self-management. Yet, how African-American women share hypertension information with others is unclear...
January 2018: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology
Elizabeth A McConnell, Patrick Janulis, Gregory Phillips, Roky Truong, Michelle Birkett
Minority stress theory has widespread research support in explaining health disparities experienced by sexual and gender minorities. However, less is known about how minority stress impacts multiply marginalized groups, such as lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people of color (LGBT POC). Also, although research has documented resilience in the face of minority stress at the individual level, research is needed that examines macro-level processes such as community resilience (Meyer, 2015). In the current study, we integrate minority stress theory and intersectionality theory to examine multiple minority stress (i...
March 2018: Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
Dan Zhu, Yong Ma, Sujuan Ding, Hongmei Jiang, Jun Fang
This study investigated the antioxidant capacity and intestinal bacteria community in a mouse model of DSS-induced colitis. Twenty mice were randomly assigned to two treatments: mice with colitis induced by 5% DSS (DSS group) and mice with colitis induced by 5% DSS that also received melatonin treatment (MEL group). The DSS group showed significantly less antioxidant capability than the MEL group, but the two groups did not differ significantly in terms of diversity index (Shannon and Simpson), bacterial culture abundance (Chao1 and ACE), and coverage (Good's coverage estimator)...
2018: BioMed Research International
Janya McCalman, Roxanne Bainbridge, Catherine Brown, Komla Tsey, Adele Clarke
Introduction: Spreading proven or promising Aboriginal health programs and implementing them in new settings can make cost-effective contributions to a range of Aboriginal Australian development, health and wellbeing, and educational outcomes. Studies have theorized the implementation of Aboriginal health programs but have not focused explicitly on the conditions that influenced their spread. This study examined the broader political, institutional, social and economic conditions that influenced negotiations to transfer, implement, adapt, and sustain one Aboriginal empowerment program-the Family Wellbeing (FWB) program-to at least 60 geographical sites across Australia over 24 years...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Shumeng Kou, Gilles Vincent, Emmanuel Gonzalez, Frederic E Pitre, Michel Labrecque, Nicholas J B Brereton
Industrial and agricultural activities have caused extensive metal contamination of land throughout China and across the globe. The pervasive nature of metal pollution can be harmful to human health and can potentially cause substantial negative impact to the biosphere. To investigate the impact of anthropogenic metal pollution found in high concentrations in industrial, agricultural, and urban environments, 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing was used to track change in the amplified microbial community after metal contamination in a large-scale field experiment in Shanghai...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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