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Log normal distribution

Akram Hernández-Vásquez, Carlos Rojas-Roque, Marilina Santero, Francisco Javier Prado-Galbarro, Diego Rosselli
OBJECTIVES: . To estimate out-of-pocket spending on health (GBS) and identify its associated factors in Peruvian older adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS.: Analytical cross-sectional study of the National Household Survey on Living Conditions and Poverty (ENAHO) 2017. Older adults were considered to be all individuals aged 60 and over and the GBS was considered the main study variable. Prevalence ratios (PR) and adjusted prevalence ratios (PRa) were estimated for each of the factors associated with GBS...
July 2018: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
A K Höffmann, P Lakshmanan, C Hollmann, T Ostermann
BACKGROUND: Since the very early documentation of medical treatments, bathing is an essential part of almost all traditional medical systems. In this context the oil-dispersion bath, developed in the 1930s by Werner Junge has been developed from anthroposophic medicine. We aimed at analyzing the apparatus, which churns water and essential oils into an oil-water dispersion, by means of an experimental study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using three different oils (rheumatic oil, citrus oil and rosemary oil) oil volumetric flow rate and oil droplet size distribution were examined at three different water volumetric flow rates of 5, 10, and 15 l/min at a constant temperature of 40 °C...
December 2018: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Dene Ringuette, Jacob Nauenberg, Philippe P Monnier, Peter L Carlen, Ofer Levi
Single-frame blood flow maps from laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) contain high spatiotemporal variation that obscures high spatial-frequency vascular features, making precise image registration for signal amplification challenging. In this work, novel bivariate standardized moment filters (BSMFs) were used to provide stable measures of vessel edge location, permitting more robust LSCI registration. Relatedly, BSMFs enabled the stable reconstruction of vessel edges from sparsely distributed blood flow map outliers, which were found to retain most of the temporal dynamics...
November 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Haik Manukian, Fabio L Traversa, Massimiliano Di Ventra
Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) and their extensions, often called "deep-belief networks", are powerful neural networks that have found applications in the fields of machine learning and artificial intelligence. The standard way to train these models resorts to an iterative unsupervised procedure based on Gibbs sampling, called "contrastive divergence", and additional supervised tuning via back-propagation. However, this procedure has been shown not to follow any gradient and can lead to suboptimal solutions...
November 3, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Jinhyung Lee, Jae-Young Choi
BACKGROUND: Many previous research studies have demonstrated that investing in health information technology (IT) in a hospital setting has potential benefits, including eliminating duplicate or unnecessary tests and adverse drug events, conserving healthcare provider time and effort by making information more readily available, and reducing cost by increasing efficiency or productivity metrics. However, the effect of health IT on uncompensated care has not been reported yet. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the effect of health IT investment on uncompensated care provided by hospitals...
November 2, 2018: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
Xinghua Yang, Chaonan Xu, Yunfeng Wang, Chunkeng Cao, Qiushan Tao, Siyan Zhan, Feng Sun
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to provide an epidemiological model to evaluate the risk of developing dyslipidaemia within 5 years in the Taiwanese population. METHODS: A cohort of 11,345 subjects aged 35-74 years and was non-dyslipidaemia in the initial year 1996 and followed in 1997-2006 to derive a risk score that could predict the occurrence of dyslipidaemia. Multivariate logistic regression was used to derive the risk functions using the check-up centre of the overall cohort...
November 17, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
K Losch, S Schuff, F Balle, T Beck, C Redenbach
Metal matrix composites are complex materials consisting of various phases which can display largely different mechanical properties. The deformation behaviour of these composites cannot be sufficiently modelled by averages or simple particle shapes due to the local stresses that occur on the particle edges. Therefore, a sophisticated model of the microstructure is needed. We introduce a method for stochastic modelling of a silicon carbide (SiC) particle reinforced aluminium matrix composite. The SiC particles are modelled by Laguerre polyhedra generated by densely packed spheres...
November 16, 2018: Journal of Microscopy
James A Henderson, Pulin Gong
Diverse plasticity mechanisms are orchestrated to shape the spatiotemporal dynamics underlying brain functions. However, why these plasticity rules emerge and how their dynamics interact with neural activity to give rise to complex neural circuit dynamics remains largely unknown. Here we show that both Hebbian and homeostatic plasticity rules emerge from a functional perspective of neuronal dynamics whereby each neuron learns to encode its own activity in the population activity, so that the activity of the presynaptic neuron can be decoded from the activity of its postsynaptic neurons...
November 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Jing Hang, Fan Li, Xiao-Hui Qiao, Xin-Hua Ye, Ao Li, Lian-Fang Du
Objectives: The present study is aimed at evaluating the diagnostic value of combining shear wave elastography (SWE) parameters and the thyroid imaging reporting and data system (TIRADS) for differentiating between benign and malignant thyroid nodules. Methods: Patients who underwent conventional ultrasonography (US) and SWE before surgery were enrolled in the current study. Each nodule was given a TIRADS risk score. The effectiveness of the SWE parameters was assessed by odds ratios (ORs)...
2018: International Journal of Endocrinology
Quan Zhou, Yongtao Guan
We show that under the null, the 2 log(Bayes factor) is asymptotically distributed as a weighted sum of chi-squared random variables with a shifted mean. This claim holds for Bayesian multi-linear regression with a family of conjugate priors, namely, the normal-inverse-gamma prior, the g-prior, and the normal prior. Our results have three immediate impacts. First, we can compute analytically a p-value associated with a Bayes factor without the need of permutation. We provide a software package that can evaluate the p-value associated with Bayes factor efficiently and accurately...
2018: Journal of the American Statistical Association
Luís Fernando Deresz, Cinthia Maria Schöler, Paulo Ivo Homem Júnior de Bittencourt, Marlus Karsten, Maria Letícia Rodrigues Ikeda, Anelise Sonza, Pedro Dal Lago
BACKGROUND: Exercise training has been shown to be an effective strategy to balance oxidative stress status; however, this is underexplored in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of exercise training on oxidative stress in PLWHA receiving antiretroviral therapy. METHODS: Patients performed 24 sessions (3 times per week, 8 weeks) of either aerobic (AT), resistance (RT), or concurrent training (CT). Glutathione disulphide to glutathione ratio (GSSG/GSH) in circulating erythrocytes and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in plasma samples were assessed as oxidative stress markers...
October 27, 2018: HIV Clinical Trials
Konrad Thürmer, Christian Schneider, Vitalie Stavila, Raymond W Friddle, François Léonard, Roland A Fischer, Mark D Allendorf, A Alec Talin
HKUST-1 or Cu3 BTC2 (BTC = 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate) is a prototypical metal-organic framework (MOF) that holds a privileged position among MOFs for device applications, as it can be deposited as thin films on various substrates and surfaces. Recently, new potential applications in electronics have emerged for this material when HKUST-1 was demonstrated to become electrically conductive upon infiltration with 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ). However, the factors that control the morphology and reactivity of the thin films are unknown...
November 14, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Anca Ciobanu, Alan Wright, Argyro Syngelaki, David Wright, Ranjit Akolekar, Kypros H Nicolaides
OBJECTIVE: To develop reference ranges with gestational age for the pulsatility index in the umbilical artery (UA-PI) and fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA-PI and the cerebroplacental ratio (MCA-PI / UA-PI) and examine the maternal characteristics and medical history that affect these measurements. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 72,417 pregnancies undergoing routine ultrasound examination at 20+0 to 22+6 weeks' gestation (n=3,712), or at 31+0 to 33+6 weeks (n=29,035) or at 35+0 to 36+6 weeks (n=37,282) or at 41+0 to 41+6 weeks (n=2,388)...
October 24, 2018: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Areti Tsigkinopoulou, Aliah Hawari, Megan Uttley, Rainer Breitling
Ensemble modeling in molecular systems biology requires the reproducible translation of kinetic parameter data into informative probability distributions (priors), as well as approaches that sample parameters from these distributions without violating the thermodynamic consistency of the overall model. Although a number of pioneering frameworks for ensemble modeling have been published, the issue of generating informative priors has not yet been addressed. Here, we present a protocol that aims to fill this gap...
November 2018: Nature Protocols
Zijian Li
Exploring better models for evaluating the distribution of pesticide residues in soil and sediment is necessary to assess and avoid population health risk. Frequentist philosophy and probability are widely used in many studies to apply a log-normal distribution associated with the maximum likelihood estimation, which assumes fixed parameters and relies on a large sample size for long-run frequency. However, frequentist probability might not be suitable for analyzing pesticide residue distribution, whose parameters are affected by many complex factors and should be treated as unfixed...
December 2018: Environment International
Madeleine D Hunter, Yeseon Park Moon, Charles DeCarli, Jose Gutierrez, Clinton B Wright, Marco R Di Tullio, Ralph L Sacco, Hooman Kamel, Mitchell S V Elkind
HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that P wave terminal Force in the V1 lead (PTFV1) would be associated with leukoaraiosis and subclinical infarcts, especially cortical infarcts, in a population-based, multi-ethnic cohort. METHODS: PTFV1 was collected manually from baseline electrocardiograms of clinically stroke-free Northern Manhattan Study participants. Investigators read brain MRIs for superficial infarcts, deep infarcts, and white matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV)...
2018: PloS One
José Aridiano Lima de Deus, Júlio César Lima Neves, Márcio Cleber de Medeiros Corrêa, Serge-Étienne Parent, William Natale, Léon Etienne Parent
The "Cavendish" and "Prata" subgroups represent respectively 47% and 24% of the world banana production. Compared to world average progressing from 10.6 to 20.6 t ha-1 between 1961 and 2016, and despite sustained domestic demand and the introduction of new cultivars, banana yield in Brazil has stagnated around 14.5 t ha-1 mainly due to nutrient and water mismanagement. "Prata" is now the dominant subgroup in N-E Brazil and is fertigated at high costs. Nutrient balances computed as isometric log-ratios (ilr) provide a comprehensive understanding of nutrient relationships in the diagnostic leaf at high yield level by combining raw concentration data...
October 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ding-Hui Peng, Jing Liu, Han-Ning Hu
OBJECTIVE: To explore the expression of EVI1 gene in AML and the ALL patients' bone marrow cells, and its correlation with the leukemic typing, clinical characteristics and prognosis. METHODS: Three hundred and thirty-three cases of leukemia in our hospital from 2012 to 2016 were enrolled in this study. Among them there were 263 cases of AML, 70 cases of ALL, and 13 volunteers were selected as normal controls. The bone marrow samples of the patients and volunteers were aspirated...
October 2018: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
Saumyak Mukherjee, Sayantan Mondal, Subhajit Acharya, Biman Bagchi
Experiments have revealed that DNA solvation dynamics is characterized by multiple time scales ranging from a few picoseconds to a few hundred nanoseconds and in some cases even up to several microseconds. The last part of decay is not only slow but can also be described by a power law (PL). The microscopic origin of this PL is yet to be clearly established. Here we present a theoretical study employing multiple approaches from time dependent statistical mechanics and computer simulations. The present study shows that water dynamics may not account for the slow PL decay because the longest time scales describing water dynamics could be at most of the order of 100 ps...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Jelena Đuričić-Milanković, Ivan Anđelković, Ana Pantelić, Srđan Petrović, Andrea Gambaro, Dragana Đorđević
We have measured trace element contents in suburban aerosols from six size fractions in the range of PM0.27-16 from a background station in Belgrade (Serbia). The distribution and concentration of elements were determined within each of the investigated Dp fractions with emphasis on the fine and coarse modes. Fine/coarse mode ratios of element can provide information regarding their anthropogenic or natural origin. Analysis of seasonal variations of element contents in fine and coarse mode show that Cd, Co, K, and V have higher concentrations in the fine mode during heating season, while Fe contents are lower...
September 28, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
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