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Precise nutrition

Deepika Laddu, Michelle Hauser
The primary focus of public health recommendations related to the prevention of food-related chronic disease has been on the adoption of healthy dietary patterns; however, implementation has been challenging. There has been increasing recognition that an individual's diet and environment may impact disease susceptibility by affecting the expression of genes involved in critical metabolic pathways. Precision nutrition (PN) has emerged to translate discoveries about diversity in nutrient metabolism between subgroups and the inter-individual variability in the responses to dietary interventions...
December 13, 2018: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Nuri Aydin, Bedri Karaismailoglu, Mert Gurcan, Mahmut Kursat Ozsahin
Rotator cuff repairs seek to achieve adequate tendon fixation and to secure the fixation during the process of biological healing. Currently, arthroscopic rotator cuff repair has become the gold standard. One of the earliest defined techniques is single-row repair but the inadequacy of single-row repair to precisely restore the anatomical footprint as well as the significant rates of retear especially in large tears have led surgeons to seek other techniques. Double-row repair techniques, which have been developed in response to these concerns, have various modifications like the number and placement of anchors and suture configurations...
2018: SICOT-J
Aaron J Fields, Alexander Ballatori, Ellen C Liebenberg, Jeffrey C Lotz
Purpose of review: The endplates form the interface between the rigid vertebral bodies and compliant intervertebral discs. Proper endplate function involves a balance between conflicting biomechanical and nutritional demands. This review summarizes recent data that highlight the importance of proper endplate function and the relationships between endplate dysfunction, adjacent disc degeneration, and axial low back pain. Recent findings: Changes to endplate morphology and composition that impair its permeability associate with disc degeneration...
December 2018: Current Molecular Biology Reports
Angeline Chatelan, Murielle Bochud, Katherine L Frohlich
High-income countries are experiencing an obesity epidemic that follows a socioeconomic gradient, affecting groups of lower socioeconomic status disproportionately. Recent clinical findings have suggested new perspectives for the prevention and treatment of obesity, using personalized dietary approaches. Precision nutrition (PN), also called personalized nutrition, has been developed to deliver more preventive and practical dietary advice than 'one-size-fits-all' guidelines. With interventions becoming increasingly plausible at a large scale thanks to artificial intelligence and smartphone applications, some have begun to view PN as a novel way to deliver the right dietary intervention to the right population...
December 12, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Akanksha Sehgal, Kumari Sita, Kadambot H M Siddique, Rakesh Kumar, Sailaja Bhogireddy, Rajeev K Varshney, Bindumadhava HanumanthaRao, Ramakrishnan M Nair, P V Vara Prasad, Harsh Nayyar
Drought (water deficits) and heat (high temperatures) stress are the prime abiotic constraints, under the current and climate change scenario in future. Any further increase in the occurrence, and extremity of these stresses, either individually or in combination, would severely reduce the crop productivity and food security, globally. Although, they obstruct productivity at all crop growth stages, the extent of damage at reproductive phase of crop growth, mainly the seed filling phase, is critical and causes considerable yield losses...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jeremy J Jay, Alexa Sanders, Robert W Reid, Cory R Brouwer
OBJECTIVES: Biomedical research is gaining ground on human disease through many types of "omics", which is leading to increasingly effective treatments and broad applications for precision medicine. The majority of disease treatments still revolve around drugs and biologics. Although food is consumed in much higher quantities, we understand very little about how the human body metabolizes and uses the full range of nutrients, or how these processes affect human health and disease risk...
December 12, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Simin Liu, Qing Liu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Jaume Pérez-Sánchez, Paula Simó-Mirabet, Fernando Naya-Català, Juan Antonio Martos-Sitcha, Erick Perera, Azucena Bermejo-Nogales, Laura Benedito-Palos, Josep Alvar Calduch-Giner
The Gh/Prl/Sl family has evolved differentially through evolution, resulting in varying relationships between the somatotropic axis and growth rates within and across fish species. This is due to a wide range of endogenous and exogenous factors that make this association variable throughout season and life cycle, and the present minireview aims to better define the nutritional and environmental regulation of the endocrine growth cascade over precisely defined groups of fishes, focusing on Mediterranean farmed fishes...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Inkyong Hur, Yong Kyu Lee, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Yoshitsugu Obi
BACKGROUND: Residual kidney function (RKF) is often expected to inevitably and rapidly decline among hemodialysis patients and, hence, has been inadvertently ignored in clinical practice. The importance of RKF has been revisited in some recent studies. Given that patients with end-stage renal disease now tend to initiate maintenance hemodialysis therapy with higher RKF levels, there seem to be important opportunities for incremental hemo-dialysis by individualizing the dose and frequency according to their RKF levels...
December 11, 2018: Cardiorenal Medicine
Silvano Milani, Lodovico Benso
BACKGROUND: Maturation is the irreversible biological process leading to adult form or function. The degree of maturation can be derived from the examination of maturity indicators, i.e. of particular aspects of the overall maturation, such as pubertal status, skeletal and dental morphology. Rhythm of maturation of each indicator differs between populations and individuals, because of genetic, nutritional and environmental factors. Skeletal maturation is usually expressed as skeletal age, which is the median age at which a given degree of maturation is attained...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Regina C Casper
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is uncommon as a syndrome, despite widespread dieting or voluntary food restriction, especially among female adolescents. This suggests that restriction of caloric intake might not be the only component driving weight loss in AN. Historical observations and experimental evidence from energy expenditure studies and recordings from movement sensors reviewed in this paper reveal that AN is associated with motor activity levels and with an energy output not significantly different from that in normal-weight healthy age-matched controls...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Irina Mihaela Abdulan, Mihai Onofriescu, Ramona Stefaniu, Alexandra Mastaleru, Veronica Mocanu, Ioana-Dana Alexa, Adrian Covic
OBJECTIVE: The study aims to objectively and precisely describe, in elderly dialysis patients from a single center, the prevalence of malnutrition and severe cognitive/functional impairment and to establish the prognostic role of malnutrition assessment for patient's severe cognitive/functional status. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: A single dialysis center from north-eastern Romania. SUBJECTS: Eighty-one elderly ambulatory hemodialysis patients...
December 4, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
Andreas Menke
Mental disorders account for around one-third of disability worldwide and cause enormous personal and societal burden. Current pharmacotherapies and nonpharmacotherapies do help many patients, but there are still high rates of partial or no response, delayed effect, and unfavorable adverse effects. The current diagnostic taxonomy of mental disorders by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and the International Classification of Diseases relies on presenting signs and symptoms, but does not reflect evidence from neurobiological and behavioral systems...
2018: Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine
Erin Hoare, Meghan Hockey, Anu Ruusunen, Felice N Jacka
The relationship between better diet quality and decreased depression across the life span is consistent and compelling. Fruit and vegetable consumption has been of particular interest. The nutritional benefits from the consumption of fruits and vegetables may mitigate non-communicable diseases and promote brain and mental health. This study aimed to determine whether fruit and vegetable consumption during adolescence was associated with a reduced risk of developing depression in adulthood in a large, representative sample of US individuals...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Mathieu Dubois, Anna-Maria Empl, Greg Jaudzems, Quentin Basle, Erik Konings
Background: Monochloropropanediol (MCPD) and its fatty acid esters as well as glycidyl fatty acid esters are substances generated during oil refining or food processing. The free form released during digestion, 3-MCPD and glycidol, have shown adverse effects in animal studies. Objective: So far, the available analytical methods have not been validated in a collaborative study for infant and adult nutritional formulas. This manuscript describes a single-laboratory validation method in view of a future multilaboratory validation trial...
November 26, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
Luke J Laffin, Stephanie A Besser, Francis J Alenghat
INTRODUCTION: Evaluating the applicability of a clinical trial to a specific patient is difficult. A novel framework, the Trial Score, was created to quantify the generalizability of a trial's result based on participants' baseline characteristics and not on the trial's inclusion and exclusion criteria. METHODS: For each Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) participant, the Euclidean distance in six-dimensional space from the theoretical "average" participant was calculated to produce an individual Trial Score that incorporates multiple distinct continuous-variable baseline characteristics...
November 26, 2018: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
Sanjeena Dang, Nathalie Vialaneix
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 23, 2018: Lifestyle genomics
Lauren C Radlinski, Jason Brunton, Shaun Steele, Sharon Taft-Benz, Thomas H Kawula
Francisella tularensis is a Gram-negative, facultative, intracellular bacterial pathogen and one of the most virulent organisms known. A hallmark of F. tularensis pathogenesis is the bacterium's ability to replicate to high densities within the cytoplasm of infected cells in over 250 known host species, including humans. This demonstrates that F. tularensis is adept at modulating its metabolism to fluctuating concentrations of host-derived nutrients. The precise metabolic pathways and nutrients utilized by F...
November 20, 2018: MBio
M McGee, B Earley
Colostrum-derived passive immunity is central to the health, performance and welfare of neonatal beef-suckler calves, and economics of beef-farming enterprises. Compared to dairy calves, mainly Holstein-Friesian, there is much less research carried out on passive immunity and associated factors in beef calves. Thus, this review aimed to summarise and interpret published information and highlight areas requiring further research. The transfer of immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) from blood to mammary secretions is greater for beef × dairy cows compared to most beef breed types...
November 21, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Shiwei Bai, Hong Yu, Bing Wang, Jiayang Li
Breeding is the art and science of selecting and changing crop traits for the benefit of human beings. For several decades, tremendous efforts have been made by Chinese scientists in rice breeding in improving grain yield, nutrition quality, and environmental performance, achieving substantial progress for global food security. Several generations of crop breeding technologies have been developed, for example, selection of better performance in the field among variants (conventional breeding), application of molecular markers for precise selection (molecular marker assisted breeding), and development of molecular design (molecular breeding by rational design)...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
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