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Disparity in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30514654/trends-in-breastfeeding-disparities-in-us-infants-by-wic-eligibility-and-participation
#1
Qi Zhang, Rajan Lamichhane, Mia Wright, Patrick W McLaughlin, Brian Stacy
OBJECTIVE: To examine the trends in breastfeeding disparities across Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) eligibility and participation statuses in the last 2 decades. DESIGN: Secondary analyses from multiple cross-sectional surveys. SETTING: United States. PARTICIPANTS: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2014 included 10,696 children younger than 60 months...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30510082/novel-susceptibility-variants-at-the-erg-locus-for-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-in-hispanics
#2
Maoxiang Qian, Heng Xu, Virginia Perez-Andreu, Kathryn G Roberts, Hui Zhang, Wenjian Yang, Shouyue Zhang, Xujie Zhao, Colton Smith, Meenakshi Devidas, Julie M Gastier-Foster, Elizabeth Raetz, Eric Larsen, Esteban G Burchard, Naomi Winick, W Paul Bowman, Paul L Martin, Michael Borowitz, Brent Wood, Federico Antillon-Klussmann, Ching-Hon Pui, Charles G Mullighan, William E Evans, Stephen P Hunger, Mary V Relling, Mignon L Loh, Jun J Yang
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common malignancy in children. Characterized by high levels of Native American ancestry, Hispanics are disproportionally affected by this cancer with high incidence and inferior survival, but the genetic basis for this disparity remains poorly understood because of a paucity of genome-wide investigation of ALL in Hispanics. Performing a genome-wide association study in 940 Hispanic children with ALL and 681 ancestry-matched non-ALL controls, we identified a novel susceptibility locus in the ERG gene (rs2836365; P = 3...
December 3, 2018: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30509900/racial-ethnic-and-socioeconomic-disparities-in-patient-safety-events-for-hospitalized-children
#3
David C Stockwell, Christopher P Landrigan, Sara L Toomey, Matthew Y Westfall, Shanshan Liu, Gareth Parry, Ari S Coopersmith, Mark A Schuster
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have revealed racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in quality of care and patient safety. However, these disparities have not been examined in a pediatric inpatient environment by using a measure of clinically confirmed adverse events (AEs). In this study, we do so using the Global Assessment of Pediatric Patient Safety (GAPPS) Trigger Tool. METHODS: GAPPS was applied to medical records of randomly selected pediatric patients discharged from 16 hospitals in the Pediatric Research in Inpatient Settings Network across 4 US regions from January 2007 to December 2012...
December 3, 2018: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30507042/rural-urban-disparities-in-health-care-costs-and-health-service-utilization-following-pediatric-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#4
Janessa M Graves, Jessica L Mackelprang, Megan Moore, Demetrius A Abshire, Frederick P Rivara, Nathalia Jimenez, Molly Fuentes, Monica S Vavilala
OBJECTIVES: To compare health care costs and service utilization associated with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in rural and urban commercially insured children. DATA SOURCE: MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters Data, 2007-2011. STUDY DESIGN: We compared health care costs and outpatient encounters for physical/occupational therapy, speech therapy, and psychiatry/psychology encounters 180 days after mTBI among rural versus urban children (<18 years)...
December 3, 2018: Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30506135/separate-and-sick-residential-segregation-and-the-health-of-children-and-youth-in-metropolitan-statistical-areas
#5
Jack A Kotecki, Keith P Gennuso, Marjory L Givens, David A Kindig
The purpose of this study was to better understand residential segregation and child/youth health by examining the relationship between a measure of Black-White residential segregation, the index of dissimilarity, and a suite of child and youth health measures in 235 U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs). MSAs are urban areas with a population of 50,000 or more and adjacent communities that share a high degree of economic and social integration. MSAs are defined by the Office of Management and Budget. Health-related measures included child mortality (CDC WONDER), teen births (NCHS natality data), children in poverty (SAIPE program), and disconnected youth (Measure of America)...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30501658/micronutrient-rich-food-consumption-intra-household-food-allocation-and-child-stunting-in-rural-nigeria
#6
Olusegun Fadare, George Mavrotas, Dare Akerele, Motunrayo Oyeyemi
OBJECTIVE: Children from rural households are often deprived of adequate micronutrient intakes either from food or supplementation. The present study examines: (i) the determinants of households' micronutrient-rich food consumption; and (ii) the combined effect of vitamin A supplementation and micronutrient-rich food consumption on child stunting in households with different food allocation patterns. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. Households' micronutrient-rich food consumption frequency and vitamin A supplementation were used as a proxy measure for child micronutrient intakes...
December 3, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30499256/predictors-of-complementary-feeding-practices-in-afghanistan-analysis-of-the-2015-demographic-and-health-survey
#7
Muzi Na, Víctor M Aguayo, Mary Arimond, Piyali Mustaphi, Christine P Stewart
Despite improvements over the past 20 years, high burdens of child mortality and undernutrition still coexist in Afghanistan. Global evidence indicates that complementary feeding (CF) practices predict child survival and nutritional status. Our study aims to describe CF practices in Afghanistan and to discern underlying predictors of CF by analysing data from Afghanistan's 2015 Demographic and Healthy Survey. Multilevel models were constructed comprising potential predictors at individual, household, and community levels and four CF indicators: timely introduction of solid, semi-solid, or soft foods (INTRO), minimum meal frequency (MMF), minimum dietary diversity (MDD), and minimum acceptable diet (MAD) among breastfed children...
November 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30499249/aiming-higher-for-maternal-and-child-nutrition-in-south-asia
#8
Harriet Torlesse, Víctor M Aguayo
The sustainable development of nations relies on children developing to their full potential and leading healthy, productive, and prosperous lives. Poor nutrition in early life threatens the growth and development of children, especially so in South Asia, which has the highest burdens of stunting, wasting, and anaemia in the world. Targeted actions to reduce stunting and other forms of child malnutrition in South Asia should be informed by an understanding of what drives poor nutrition in children, who is most affected, and effective programme approaches...
November 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30496103/global-regional-and-national-age-sex-specific-mortality-for-282-causes-of-death-in-195-countries-and-territories-1980-2017-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2017
#9
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Global development goals increasingly rely on country-specific estimates for benchmarking a nation's progress. To meet this need, the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2016 estimated global, regional, national, and, for selected locations, subnational cause-specific mortality beginning in the year 1980. Here we report an update to that study, making use of newly available data and improved methods. GBD 2017 provides a comprehensive assessment of cause-specific mortality for 282 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2017...
November 10, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30489493/evaluating-for-racial-differences-in-pain-management-of-long-bone-fractures-in-a-pediatric-rural-population
#10
Lucia Liao, Lilia Reyes
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine if a racial disparity exists in the administration of an analgesic, time to receiving analgesic, and type of analgesic administered to children with long-bone fractures. Prior studies have reported the existence of racial disparity but were mostly in adult and urban populations. METHODS: This is a retrospective chart review of 727 pediatric patients (aged 2-17 years) with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (or 10th revision) codes for long-one fractures in an emergency department that cares for a suburban and rural population between January 2013 and January 2016...
November 26, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30488261/income-related-gaps-in-early-child-cognitive-development-why-are-they-larger-in-the-united-states-than-in-the-united-kingdom-australia-and-canada
#11
Bruce Bradbury, Jane Waldfogel, Elizabeth Washbrook
Previous research has documented significantly larger income-related gaps in children's early cognitive development in the United States than in the United Kingdom, Canada, and Australia. In this study, we investigate the extent to which this is a result of a more unequal income distribution in the United States. We show that although incomes are more unequal in the United States than elsewhere, a given difference in real income is associated with larger gaps in child test scores there than in the three other countries...
November 28, 2018: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30485291/exploring-the-spatial-heterogeneity-in-different-doses-of-vaccination-coverage-in-india
#12
Junaid Khan, Apurba Shil, Ravi Prakash
BACKGROUND: Despite the universalization of immunization against the six vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs), the coverage of full immunization among the children under age five has remained a challenge globally. The 2015-16 National Family Health Survey (NFHS) indicated large disparity in the coverage of different vaccination doses (BCG, Polio, DPT and Measles) including full immunization across the districts of India. The spatial distribution of poor performing districts in terms of vaccination and the district level spatial, contextual determinants contributing to the low coverage have been poorly studied...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30482382/geographic-and-socioeconomic-predictors-of-perforated-appendicitis-a-national-canadian-cohort-study
#13
Gileh-Gol Akhtar-Danesh, Aristithes G Doumouras, Helene Flageole, Dennis Hong
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Appendiceal perforation significantly impacts the outcomes of pediatric appendicitis. While socioeconomic status affects perforation risk in the United States, these effects should dissipate in a universal healthcare system. The specific spatial patterns associated with perforation have also never been delineated. This study examined the effect of geography and SES on appendiceal perforation in Canada's universal healthcare system. METHODS: Using administrative databases, Canadian children with appendicitis from 2008 to 2015 were identified...
November 7, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30480571/adolescent-and-young-adult-cancer-biology
#14
James V Tricoli, Archie Bleyer
Adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients with cancer have not attained the same improvements in overall survival as either younger children or older adults. One possible reason for this disparity may be that the AYA cancers exhibit unique biologic characteristics, resulting in differences in clinical and treatment resistance behaviors. Our current understanding of the unique biological/genomic characteristics of AYA cancers is limited. However, there has been some progress that has provided clues about the biology of AYA cancers...
November 2018: Cancer Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30471265/misalignment-of-sexual-and-reproductive-health-priorities-among-older-latino-adolescents-and-their-mothers
#15
Vincent Guilamo-Ramos, Alex S Bowman, Adam Benzekri, Yumary Ruiz, Oscar Beltran
OBJECTIVE: The study describes maternal and adolescent perspectives on sexual decision-making and the role of mothers in shaping use of contraception for the prevention of unplanned pregnancies and STIs among older Latino adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: Researchers used a semi-structured interview guide to conduct focus group discussions with 21 mother-adolescent Latino dyads (n=42). Latino adolescents ages 17-19 were eligible for the study. We recruited families from the South Bronx, New York City using area sampling methodology...
November 21, 2018: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30469490/prevalence-of-childhood-overweight-and-obesity-in-liverpool-between-2006-and-2012-evidence-of-widening-socioeconomic-inequalities
#16
Robert J Noonan
The primary aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity in Liverpool between 2006 and 2012. A secondary aim was to examine the extent to which socioeconomic inequalities relating to childhood overweight and obesity in Liverpool changed during this six-year period. A sample of 50,125 children was created using data from the National Child Measurement Program (NCMP) in Liverpool. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was calculated for Reception and Year 6 aged children in Liverpool for each time period by gender and compared against published averages for England...
November 22, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30466873/concerted-cultivation-developed-in-a-standardized-education-system
#17
Ryoji Matsuoka
Annette Lareau coined the term "concerted cultivation" to describe the cultural logic of a distinctive middle-class parenting pattern. I explore whether concerted cultivation as practiced in Japan exhibits unique patterns in response to distinctive characteristics of the nation's education system (i.e., standardized compulsory education with high-stakes educational selection in secondary education). Using nationally representative longitudinal data on third-to sixth-grade children (N = 30187) through growth curve models, I show that college educated parents shift their focus of parenting practices (measured by four aspects) from providing diverse experiences to narrower academic preparation as the time for lower secondary education approaches...
January 2019: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30461724/young-people-with-biliary-atresia-requiring-liver-transplantation-a-distinct-population-requiring-specialist-care
#18
Marianne Samyn, Mark Davenport, Vandana Jain, Nedim Hadzic, Deepak Joshi, Michael Heneghan, Anil Dhawan, Nigel Heaton
BACKGROUND: Young people born with biliary atresia are an emerging population for adult hepatologists with 40-45% of children entering adolescence with their native liver intact. For those requiring liver transplantation during adolescence, disparity on the waiting list and post liver transplantation outcome for young adults compared to younger and older age groups has stimulated discussion regarding the optimal timing of listing. In this study we review our experience of young people with biliary atresia requiring liver transplantation during adolescence and young adulthood...
November 19, 2018: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30460484/socioeconomic-disadvantage-brain-morphometry-and-attentional-bias-to-threat-in-middle-childhood
#19
Alexander J Dufford, Hannah Bianco, Pilyoung Kim
Socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with higher rates of psychopathology as well as hippocampus, amygdala and prefrontal cortex structure. However, little is known about how variations in brain morphometry are associated with socio-emotional risks for mood disorders in children growing up in families experiencing low income. In the current study, using structural magnetic resonance imaging, we examined the relationship between socioeconomic disadvantage and gray matter volume in the hippocampus, amygdala, and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in a sample of children (n = 34) in middle childhood...
November 20, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30460219/nutrition-support-and-tight-glucose-control-in-critically-ill-children-food-for-thought
#20
Vijay Srinivasan
Numerous studies have examined the strategy of tight glucose control (TGC) with intensive insulin therapy (IIT) to improve clinical outcomes in critically ill adults and children. Although early studies of TGC with IIT demonstrated improved outcomes at the cost of elevated hypoglycemia rates, subsequent studies in both adults and children have not demonstrated any benefit from such a strategy. Differences in patient populations, variable glycemic targets, and glucose control protocols, inconsistency in attaining these targets, heterogeneous intermittent sampling, and measurement techniques, and variable expertise in protocol implementation are possible reasons for the contrasting results from these studies...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
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