Read by QxMD icon Read

Disparity in children

Adam C Pallus, Mark M G Walton, Michael J Mustari
Infantile strabismus is a common disorder, characterized by a chronic misalignment of the eyes, impairment of binocular vision, and oculomotor abnormalities. Nonhuman primates with strabismus, induced in infancy, show a pattern of abnormalities similar to those of strabismic children. This allows strabismic nonhuman primates to serve as an ideal animal model to examine neural mechanisms associated with aberrant oculomotor behavior. Here, we test the hypothesis that impairment of disparity vergence and horizontal saccade disconjugacy in exotropia and esotropia are associated with disrupted tuning of near and far response neurons in the supraoculomotor area (SOA)...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Anna Green, Penelope Abbott, Patricia Mary Davidson, Patricia Delaney, John Delaney, Patrick Patradoon-Ho, Michelle DiGiacomo
Intersectionality has potential to create new ways to describe disparities and craft meaningful solutions. This study aimed to explore Aboriginal carers' experiences of interactions with health, social, and education providers in accessing services and support for their child. Carers of Aboriginal children with a disability were recruited from an Australian metropolitan Aboriginal community-controlled health service. In-depth, semistructured interviews were conducted with 19 female carers. Intersectionality was applied as an analytical framework due to the inherent power differentials for Aboriginal Australians and carers for people with a disability...
August 12, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
Miles Saitta, Hemakumar Devan, Pauline Boland, Meredith A Perry
BACKGROUND: Park-based physical activity (PA) interventions improve health in the general population, but it is unknown if the evidence can be translated to persons with disabilities. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a mixed-methods systematic synthesis of the evidence for park-based physical activity interventions for persons with disabilities and secondarily, to consider the health benefits across the lifespan (children and adolescents, young, middle, and older adults)...
July 31, 2018: Disability and Health Journal
Catherine McClure, Maureen Cunningham, Sheana Bull, Stephen Berman, Mandy A Allison
In this narrative review, we will present a brief overview of known disparities in children's language development based on socioeconomic status (SES) and efforts in the primary care setting to promote children's language development. Next, we will define mobile-health (m-health) and review the limited, published literature regarding the effectiveness of m-health interventions in promoting children's health, in general, and language development, in particular. Finally, we will discuss the potential role of smart phone applications to increase parental behaviors that promote their children's language development as well as challenges that should be addressed as the field of m-health continues to grow...
August 8, 2018: Academic Pediatrics
Omolara T Uwemedimo, Hanna May
Objective: Children in immigrant families (CIF) are at elevated risk of experiencing adverse social determinants of health (SDH), particularly material hardship, which contribute to disparate health outcomes. Previous studies have found that SDH screening programs integrated into pediatric practices have increased receipt of social service resources. Few studies have examined use of social services in these programs among ethnically-diverse patient populations and associations with caregiver immigrant status or limited English proficiency (LEP)...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
B Emily Esmaili, Kearsley A Stewart, Nestory A Masalu, Kristin M Schroeder
Purpose Palliative care remains an urgent, neglected need in the developing world. Global disparities in end-of-life care for children, such as those with advanced cancers, result from barriers that are complex and largely unstudied. This study describes these barriers at Bugando Medical Center, one of three consultant hospitals in Tanzania, to identify areas for palliative care development suitable to this context. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 caregivers of pediatric patients with cancer and 14 hospital staff involved in pediatric end-of-life care...
July 2018: Journal of Global Oncology
Nicholas Guys, Tam Ramsey, Aron Kandinov, Peter F Svider, Robert W Jyung, Robert Hong, Anthony Sheyn
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To characterize global differences in otitis media (OM)-related disease burden between socioeconomically advantaged and disadvantaged nations. METHODS: Using the Global Health Data Exchange, worldwide OM burden was evaluated using age-standardized disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) per 100,000 individuals in 183 countries from 1990 to 2015. Countries were organized by socioeconomic status using Human Development Index (HDI) values collected from the United Nations Development Program...
August 3, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Bisakha Sen, Justin Blackburn, Michael A Morrisey, Meredith Kilgore, Nir Menachemi, Cathy Caldwell, David Becker
OBJECTIVE: The Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act (MHPAEA) of 2008 mandates equivalent insurance coverage for mental-health (MH) and substance-use disorders (SUD) to other medical and surgical services covered by group insurance plans, Medicaid and Children's Health Insurance Programs (CHIP). We explored the impact of MHPAEA on enrollees in ALL Kids, the Alabama CHIP. METHODS: We use All Kids claims data for October 2008-December 2014. October 2008 through September 2009 marks the period prior to MHPAEA implementation...
August 2, 2018: Academic Pediatrics
Lu Wang, Sasha Ramroop
OBJECTIVES: Geographic accessibility to community pharmacies (CPs) plays an increasingly important role for the well-being of a community. This study examines the geographic distribution of CPs within the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) relative to the residential patterns of vulnerable populations, including older adults (65+ years), infants and children (0-9 years), and low-income households. METHODS: The study develops a geographic accessibility index at a dissemination area (DA) level by employing the enhanced two-step floating catchment area (E2SFCA) method to measure geographic accessibility to pharmacies...
August 2, 2018: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Abbey R Masonbrink, Troy Richardson, Russell J McCulloh, Matt Hall, Jessica L Bettenhausen, Jacqueline M Walker, Matthew B Johnson, Mary Ann Queen, Jessica L Markham, Monika K Goyal
PURPOSE: Adolescents are disproportionately affected by sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and evidence supports expanding sexual health services to the hospital setting. Because STI testing practices in the hospital setting are poorly understood, we sought to describe current STI testing practices among adolescents seen in children's hospitals. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of adolescents (14-18 years old) from 45 children's hospitals in 2015-2016, excluding visits with a billing code for sexual abuse/assault...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Thomas R Welch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 30, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
José Manuel Terán, Carlos Varea, Sol Juárez, Cristina Bernis, Barry Bogin
OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the impact of the economic crisis on the disparities in the prevalence and risk of low birth weight (LBW) according to the maternal socioeconomic profile. METHODS: the data analysed corresponds to 1,779,506 single births to Spanish mothers in the years 2007, 2009, 2011, 2013 and 2015. The temporal changes in available maternal-foetal variables are described. Secondly, the possible increase in disparities in prevalence and risk of LBW due to the occupation and education of the mother is evaluated, taking 2007 as the reference year...
June 4, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Mitchell M Scheiman
In this article, I summarize the 2017 Glenn A. Fry Award Lecture and my journey from student, to clinician, to optometric educator, and finally researcher/vision scientist. Although content for many years of teaching and practicing vision therapy, the era of evidence-based health care created a level of discomfort, as it became evident that my area of interest, vision therapy, had minimal quality evidence to support its use. Joining forces with a group of exceptional colleagues, we established the Convergence Insufficiency Treatment Trial Investigator group, and we were able to achieve funding from the National Eye Institute for multiple randomized clinical trials...
July 30, 2018: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
María Fernanda Rivadeneira, Sérgio Luiz Bassanesi, Sandra Costa Fuchs
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND: Inequalities in measles immunization coverage facilitate the onset of outbreaks. This study aimed to quantify socioeconomic inequalities associated with measles immunization coverage at the population level. METHODS: An ecological study was performed using two datasets: the results of a measles immunization survey performed in Ecuador, in 2011, and socioeconomic data from the 2010 census, aggregated by canton. The survey included 3,140,799 people aged 6 months to 14 years living in 220 cantons of Ecuador...
July 27, 2018: Vaccine
Jayanta Kumar Bora, Nandita Saikia
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: India contributes the highest global share of deaths among the under-fives. Continuous monitoring of the reduction in the under-five mortality rate (U5MR) at local level is thus essential to set priorities for policy-makers and health professionals. In this study, we aimed to provide an update on district-level disparities in the neonatal mortality rate (NMR) and the U5MR with special reference to Sustainable Development Goal 3 (SDG3) on preventable deaths among new-borns and children under five...
2018: PloS One
Kathleen Vancleef, Jenny C A Read, William Herbert, Nicola Goodship, Maeve Woodhouse, Ignacio Serrano-Pedraza
PURPOSE: Measuring accurate thresholds in children can be challenging. A typical psychophysical experiment is usually too long to keep children engaged. However, a reduction in the number of trials decreases the precision of the threshold estimate. We evaluated the efficiency of forced-choice paradigms with 2 or 4 alternatives (2-AFC, 4-AFC) in a disparity detection experiment. 4-AFC paradigms are statistically more efficient, but also more cognitively demanding, which might offset their theoretical advantage in young children...
2018: PloS One
Saba M Sheikh, Tom Loney
Background: Universal education is a key strategy to enhance the well-being of individuals and improve the economic and social development of societies. A large proportion of school-aged girls in developing countries are not attending schools. Approximately one-third of South Asian girls do not attend school and in some regions only one in four girls attend primary school. Eliminating gender disparities in school attendance may lead to improvements in female education and reproductive health. Objectives: To conduct a systematic review of the available data from international organizations and regional registries to explore the association between female education and fertility choices in South Asia...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Boakye-Yiadom Adomako, Frank Baiden, Samuel Sackey, Donne Kofi Ameme, Fred Wurapa, Kofi Mensah Nyarko, Ernest Kenu, Edwin Afari
Background: A One-Health approach is advocated to ensure effective rabies surveillance in sub-Saharan Africa. Information is needed to assess the current state of dog bites and rabies in Ghana. We analyzed data on reported events in the Eastern Region of Ghana from 2013 to 2015 to generate information that can be used for rabies elimination in Ghana through the One-Health approach. Method: We extracted data on dog bites and rabies from the database of the regional health service and performed descriptive analysis using Epi Info version 7™...
2018: Journal of Tropical Medicine
Stanley J Szefler, Michelle M Cloutier, Miguel Villarreal, Jessica P Hollenbach, Melanie Gleason, Christy Haas-Howard, Carol Vinick, Agustin Calatroni, Lisa Cicutto, Marty White, Shann Williams, Meghan McGinn, Christine Langton, Donna Shocks, Herman Mitchell, David A Stempel
BACKGROUND: Children with asthma are at increased risk for experiencing health and educational disparities because of increased school absence. School nurses are well-positioned to support asthma management and improve school attendance. OBJECTIVE: To implement and assess the effect of the Building Bridges for Asthma Care Program on improving school attendance and measures of asthma control. METHODS: Children with asthma, ages 5 through 14 years, in the Denver Public School System (n=240) and the Hartford Public School System (n=223) were enrolled in the Building Bridges Program during the 2013-2014 and the 2014-2015 school years and followed until the end of the second school year...
July 25, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Andreas Naros, Annekathrin Brocks, Susanne Kluba, Siegmar Reinert, Michael Krimmel
PURPOSE: Cleft lip and/or palate (CLP) is the most common congenital craniofacial anomaly. Multiple operations, long-lasting supplementary treatments, as well as impaired functional and esthetic outcome might have a negative impact on patients' social-emotional functioning and self-esteem, resulting in a lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluated CLP patients' HRQoL from preschool age (4 years) until adolescence (18 years) using the age-specific German KINDLR questionnaire...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"