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Disparity in children

Martha Y Kubik, Jayne A Fulkerson, John R Sirard, Ann Garwick, Judy Temple, Olga Gurvich, Jiwoo Lee, Bonnie Dudovitz
Rising levels of severe obesity among children, worsening disparities by race and ethnicity and reluctance of primary care clinicians' to provide obesity management to children are compelling reasons to consider alternatives to primary care management of childhood obesity. The Students Nurses and Parents Seeking Healthy Options Together (SNAPSHOT) trial will test the efficacy of an elementary school-based, school nurse-led, healthy weight management program to reduce excess weight gain among children, 8- to 12-years old with a body mass index (BMI) ≥75th percentile, by increasing healthy dietary practices and physical activity and decreasing sedentary behaviors...
October 17, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Linda Huibers, Ellen Keizer, Anders Helles Carlsen, Grete Moth, Marleen Smits, Oliver Senn, Morten Bondo Christensen
OBJECTIVES: We aim to study the preferred behaviour among individuals from different age groups in three countries when acute health problems occur outside office hours and thereby to explore variations in help-seeking behaviour. DESIGN: A questionnaire study exploring responses to six hypothetical cases describing situations with a potential need for seeking medical care and questions on background characteristics. SETTING: General population in Denmark, the Netherlands and Switzerland...
October 18, 2018: BMJ Open
Markus Krüger
Three-year-olds and 4-year-olds have severe difficulties solving standard mental rotation tasks. Only 5-year-olds solve such tasks above chance reliably. In contrast studies relying on simplified mental rotation tasks indicate that infants discriminate between an object and its mirror image. Furthermore in another simplified mental rotation task with 3-year-olds, a linear relation between angular disparity and reaction time typical for mental rotation was revealed. Therefore it was assumed that 3-year-olds' capabilities are underestimated...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Gabor Perlaki, Denes Molnar, Paul A M Smeets, Wolfgang Ahrens, Maike Wolters, Gabriele Eiben, Lauren Lissner, Peter Erhard, Floor van Meer, Manfred Herrmann, Jozsef Janszky, Gergely Orsi
OBJECTIVES: Neuroimaging data suggest that pediatric overweight and obesity are associated with morphological alterations in gray matter (GM) brain structures, but previous studies using mainly voxel-based morphometry (VBM) showed inconsistent results. Here, we aimed to examine the relationship between youth obesity and the volume of predefined reward system structures using magnetic resonance (MR) volumetry. We also aimed to complement volumetry with VBM-style analysis. METHODS: Fifty-one Caucasian young subjects (32 females; mean age: 13...
2018: PloS One
Binbin Wang, Li Xiao, Yang Liu, Jing Wang, Beihong Liu, Tengyan Li, Xu Ma, Yi Zhao
There is a disparity between the increasing application of digital retinal imaging to neonatal ocular screening and slowly growing number of pediatric ophthalmologists. Assistant tools that can automatically detect ocular disorders may be needed. In present study, we develop a deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) for automated classification and grading of retinal hemorrhage. We used 48,996 digital fundus images from 3770 newborns with retinal hemorrhage of different severity (grade 1, 2, and 3) and normal controls from a large cross-sectional investigation in China...
October 17, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Ladan Davallow Ghajar, Mark D DeBoer
AIM: To evaluate for environmental and birth characteristic predictors of short stature in a large nationally representative sample. METHODS: We evaluated 10,127 children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten 2011 cohort, using univariate and multivariable linear and logistic regression to evaluate factors associated with short stature (height <3rd percentile) at kindergarten through second grade. Predictors included birthweight, preterm status, sex, parental education, parental income and race/ethnicity...
October 16, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Daisy Patino, Michelle R McQuistan, Fang Qian, Marcela Hernandez, Karin Weber-Gasparoni, Mark D Macek
BACKGROUND: Hispanics disproportionately experience preventable oral health conditions in the United States. This study aimed to determine the oral health knowledge (OHK) of Hispanic adults in Iowa to identify potential gaps in knowledge. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included a convenience sample of self-identifying Hispanic adults. Data pertaining to oral health literacy and demographic, cultural, and dental characteristics were collected. OHK was assessed with the Conceptual Measure of Oral Health Knowledge, and it was categorized as low or high...
October 12, 2018: Journal of the American Dental Association
Markus D Boos, Brian A Ginsberg, Jon Klint Peebles
As the transgender community has become increasingly visible in public life, a greater awareness of this group's unique health needs and obstacles to optimal medical care has developed. Unfortunately, transgender youth face multiple barriers within the health care system, including access to equitable and gender-affirming care. As dermatologists who care for children and adolescents, we must be aware of the challenges facing transgender youth and work to correct the disparities that exist for this vulnerable group...
October 15, 2018: Pediatric Dermatology
Patrick Ahearn, Kirsten L Johansen, Charles E McCulloch, Barbara A Grimes, Elaine Ku
RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: In the general population, girls have lower mortality risk compared with boys. However, few studies have focused on sex differences in survival and in access to kidney transplantation among children with end-stage kidney disease. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Children aged 2 to 19 years registered in the US Renal Data System who started renal replacement therapy (RRT) between 1995 and 2011...
October 11, 2018: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Alison M Vogel, Diana R Lennon, Bert van der Werf, Max Diack, Jocelyn M Neutze, Maraekura Horsfall, Diane Emery, William Wong
AIM: A retrospective Auckland-wide (total population approximately 1.4 million) study of hospital admissions from 2007 to 2015 was conducted to assess trends in admissions for acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN) in children aged 0-14 years. METHODS: International Statistical Classification of Diseases (ICD10) discharge codes were used to identify potential cases of APSGN, and electronic clinical records and laboratory data were compared with established case definitions for definite or probable APSGN...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Lucía Jiménez, Lucía Antolín-Suárez, Bárbara Lorence, Victoria Hidalgo
There is overwhelming consensus among policy makers, academics, and professionals about the need to support families in their childrearing tasks. Consequently, European countries have been encouraged to develop family support interventions aimed at guaranteeing children's rights, targeting particularly those children in situations of psychosocial risk. While a certain amount of evidence exists regarding how family support is generally delivered in certain European countries, with a particular focus on parenting initiatives, this paper aims to take existing evidence one step further by providing an updated review focusing on two core components of the Council of Europe's Recommendation on Positive Parenting: families at psychosocial risk as the target population, and family education and support initiatives as the delivery format...
October 11, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
Judith Stacey
In the past half-century, there have been some notable shifts in English language feminist and queer scholarship and activism about procreation, marriage and family. In particular, there has been a striking increase in emphasis on genetic and biological family creation in queer and lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender kinship practices, in contradistinction to earlier emphases on escape from the norms and demands of heteronormative patriarchy. During the gay liberation movement, older concepts of 'families we choose' were not defined by (nor meant necessarily to include) the creation of children as kin...
November 2018: Reproductive Biomedicine & Society Online
Holly A Hill, Laurie D Elam-Evans, David Yankey, James A Singleton, Yoonjae Kang
The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends routine vaccination by age 24 months against 14 potentially serious illnesses (1). CDC used data from the 2017 National Immunization Survey-Child (NIS-Child) to assess vaccination coverage at national, state, territorial, and selected local levels among children aged 19-35 months in the United States. Coverage remained high and stable overall, exceeding 90% for ≥3 doses of poliovirus vaccine, ≥1 dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR), ≥3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB), and ≥1 dose of varicella vaccine...
October 12, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Ruhi Mahajan, Eun Kyong Shin, Arash Shaban-Nejad, Max R Langham, Michelle Y Martin, Robert L Davis, Oguz Akbilgic
African American children are more than twice as likely as white American children to die after surgery, and have increased risk for longer hospital stays, post-surgical complications, and higher hospital costs. Prior research into disparities in pediatric surgery outcomes has not considered interactions between patient-level Clinical Risk Factors (CRFs) and population-level Social, Economic, and Environmental Factors (SEEFs) primarily due to the lack of integrated data sets. In this study, we analyze correlations between SEEFs and CRFs and correlations between CRFs and surgery outcomes...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Dmitry Tumin, Rebecca Miller, Mohammed Hakim, Shabana Z Shafy, David Drees, Sharon Wrona, Timothy P Smith, Joseph D Tobias, Tarun Bhalla
OBJECTIVES: To retrospectively characterize the rate of referrals to an outpatient chronic pain clinic among adolescents with chronic pain, and to identify factors associated with referral. METHODS: Adolescents 13-18 years of age seen in 2010-2015 at outpatient clinics associated with Nationwide Children's Hospital (NCH) and diagnosed with chronic pain were included if they lived near NCH and had not been previously referred to the NCH outpatient chronic pain clinic...
October 9, 2018: Clinical Journal of Pain
Noah S Webb, Benjamin Dowd-Arrow, Miles G Taylor, Amy M Burdette
OBJECTIVE: Although research suggests racial/ethnic disparities in influenza vaccination and mortality rates, few studies have examined racial/ethnic trends among US adolescents. We used national cross-sectional data to determine (1) trends in influenza vaccination rates among non-Hispanic white (hereinafter, white), non-Hispanic black (hereinafter, black), and Hispanic adolescents over time and (2) whether influenza vaccination rates among adolescents varied by race/ethnicity. METHODS: We analyzed provider-reported vaccination histories for 2010-2016 from the National Immunization Survey-Teen...
October 9, 2018: Public Health Reports
Annick Delvigne, Lauren Becu, Johan van Wiemeersch, Michel Bossens, Jean Vandromme
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: International data highlight the increasing participation of women in the workforce in the medical field and particularly among obstetricians and gynecologists (OB-GYN). Some studies reported a gender difference in work productivity and practice patterns. The aim of this study is to analyze whether disparities exist between male and female OB-GYN in their practices with potential consequences for the organization of the OB-GYN departments. METHODS: A survey of all active, Belgian OB-GYNs concerning their professional activity and well-being and a survey of the heads of OG departments evaluating the impact of feminisation on their department...
October 8, 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Lara Maria Leijser, Arjumand Siddiqi, Steven Paul Miller
Numerous studies have shown an association between children's socio-economic status (SES) and disparities in neurocognitive development, achievements, and function later in life. Research focus has recently shifted to imaging of the brain's response to the child's environment. This review summarizes the emerging studies on the influences of early-life SES on brain structure and development, and addresses the relation between brain development and enriched environments. The studies provide evidence of significant associations between SES and brain structure, growth and maturation, not only in healthy infants and children but also in infants with medical conditions...
October 2018: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
Stefanie M Thomas, Jemily Malvar, Hanh Henry Tran, Jared T Shows, David R Freyer
BACKGROUND: Low cancer clinical trial (CCT) enrollment may contribute to survival disparities affecting adolescents and young adults (AYAs) (ages 15-39 years). The objective of this study was to evaluate whether differences in CCT availability related to treatment site could explain the low CCT enrollment. METHODS: This prospective, observational cohort study was conducted at an academic children's hospital and its affiliated but geographically separated adult cancer hospital within a National Cancer Institute-designated Comprehensive Cancer Center...
October 6, 2018: Cancer
Erina Lie, Kevin J Psoter, Katherine B Püttgen
BACKGROUND: Early specialist evaluation during rapid proliferative growth of complicated infantile hemangiomas (IH) is crucial. Health disparities and barriers of access-to-care for children with IH have not been examined. OBJECTIVE: Investigate whether socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with age at subspecialist presentation for IH evaluation. METHOD: Retrospective cohort study of 804 children presenting to a large academic hospital...
October 1, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
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