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Microglia nanomaterials

Lina Gällentoft, Lina M E Pettersson, Nils Danielsen, Jens Schouenborg, Christelle N Prinz, Cecilia Eriksson Linsmeier
BACKGROUND: A promising approach to improve the performance of neural implants consists of adding nanomaterials, such as nanowires, to the surface of the implant. Nanostructured interfaces could improve the integration and communication stability, partly through the reduction of the cell-to-electrode distance. However, the safety issues of implanted nanowires in the brain need to be evaluated and understood before nanowires can be used on the surface of implants for long periods of time...
2016: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
Yukari Shigemoto-Mogami, Kazue Hoshikawa, Akihiko Hirose, Kaoru Sato
Although carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are used in many fields, including energy, healthcare, environmental technology, materials, and electronics, the adverse effects of CNTs in the brain are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of CNTs on cultured microglia, as microglia are the first responders to foreign materials. We compared the effects of sonicated suspensions of 5 kinds of CNTs and their flow-through filtered with a 0.22 µm membrane filter on microglial viability. We found that sonicated suspensions caused microglial cell damage, but their flow-through did not...
2016: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Crystal S Lewis, Luisa Torres, Jeremy T Miyauchi, Cyrus Rastegar, Jonathan M Patete, Jacqueline M Smith, Stanislaus S Wong, Stella E Tsirka
Understanding the nature of interactions between nanomaterials, such as commercially ubiquitous hematite (α-Fe2O3) Nanorhombohedra (N-Rhomb) and biological systems is of critical importance for gaining insight into the practical applicability of nanomaterials. Microglia represent the first line of defense in the central nervous system (CNS) during severe injury or disease such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease as illustrative examples. Hence, to analyze the potential cytotoxic effect of nanorhombohedra exposure in the presence of microglia, we have synthesized Rhodamine B (RhB) labeled-α-Fe2O3 N-Rhomb, with lengths of 47 ± 10 nm and widths of 35 ± 8 nm...
May 1, 2016: Toxicology Research
I-Lun Hsiao, Chia-Cheng Chang, Chung-Yi Wu, Yi-Kong Hsieh, Chun-Yu Chuang, Chu-Fang Wang, Yuh-Jeen Huang
Although, titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs) are nanomaterials commonly used in consumer products, little is known about their hazardous effects, especially on central nervous systems. To examine this issue, ALT astrocyte-like, BV-2 microglia and differentiated N2a neuroblastoma cells were exposed to 6 nm of 100% anatase TiO2NPs. A lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was pre-treated to activate glial cells before NP treatment for mimicking NP exposure under brain injury. We found that ALT and BV-2 cells took up more NPs than N2a cells and caused lower cell viability...
July 25, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
Simonetta Papa, Ilaria Caron, Filippo Rossi, Pietro Veglianese
INTRODUCTION: Microglia are highly dynamic immune cells that play a key role in the development, hemostasis and inflammatory response of the central nervous system. These cells could be a valid therapeutic target because of their involvement in the inflammatory scenario in many neuropathological diseases. AREA COVERED: Many attempts have aimed to act on microglial cells through different approaches, for instance as viral carriers to transfer genetic material, anti-inflammatory drugs to polarize and shift microglia from M1 toward an M2 phenotype, and stem cell therapy...
2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
Cyrill Bussy, Caroline Hadad, Maurizio Prato, Alberto Bianco, Kostas Kostarelos
Chemically functionalized carbon nanotubes (f-CNTs) have been used in proof-of-concept studies to alleviate debilitating neurological conditions. Previous in vivo observations in brain tissue have suggested that microglia - acting as resident macrophages of the brain - play a critical role in the internalization of f-CNTs and their partial in situ biodegradation following a stereotactic administration in the cortex. At the same time, several reports have indicated that immune cells such as neutrophils, eosinophils and even macrophages could participate in the processing of carbon nanomaterials via oxidation processes leading to degradation, with surface properties acting as modulators of CNT biodegradability...
January 7, 2016: Nanoscale
Angela E Goode, Daniel A Gonzalez Carter, Michael Motskin, Ilse S Pienaar, Shu Chen, Sheng Hu, Pakatip Ruenraroengsak, Mary P Ryan, Milo S P Shaffer, David T Dexter, Alexandra E Porter
Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) are increasingly being developed both as neuro-therapeutic drug delivery systems to the brain and as neural scaffolds to drive tissue regeneration across lesion sites. MWNTs with different degrees of acid oxidation may have different bioreactivities and propensities to aggregate in the extracellular environment, and both individualised and aggregated MWNTs may be expected to be found in the brain. Before practical application, it is vital to understand how both aggregates and individual MWNTs will interact with local phagocytic immune cells, the microglia, and ultimately to determine their biopersistence in the brain...
November 2015: Biomaterials
Cyrill Bussy, Khuloud T Al-Jamal, Jorge Boczkowski, Sophie Lanone, Maurizio Prato, Alberto Bianco, Kostas Kostarelos
Surface tunability and their ability to translocate plasma membranes make chemically functionalized carbon nanotubes (f-CNTs) promising intracellular delivery systems for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes in the central nervous system (CNS). The present study aimed to determine the biological impact of different types of multiwalled CNTs (MWNTs) on primary neuronal and glial cell populations isolated from fetal rat frontal cortex (FCO) and striatum (ST). Neurons from both brain regions were generally not affected by exposure to MWNTs as determined by a modified LDH assay...
August 25, 2015: ACS Nano
Stuart Iain Jenkins, Paul Roach, Divya Maitreyi Chari
Nanoparticle platforms are being intensively investigated for neurological applications. Current biological models used to identify clinically relevant materials have major limitations, e.g. technical/ethical issues with live animal experimentation, failure to replicate neural cell diversity, limited control over cellular stoichiometries and poor reproducibility. High-throughput neuro-mimetic screening systems are required to address these challenges. We describe an advanced multicellular neural model comprising the major non-neuronal/glial cells of the central nervous system (CNS), shown to account for ~99...
January 2015: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Juan C Villegas, Laura Álvarez-Montes, Lidia Rodríguez-Fernández, Jesús González, Rafael Valiente, Mónica L Fanarraga
The intranasal drug delivery route provides exciting expectations regarding the application of engineered nanomaterials as nano-medicines or drug-delivery vectors into the brain. Among nanomaterials, multiwalled CNTs (MWCNTs) are some of the best candidates for brain cancer therapy since they are well known to go across cellular barriers and display an intrinsic ability to block cancer cell proliferation triggering apoptosis. This study reveals that microglial cells, the brain macrophages and putative vehicles for MWCNTs into the brain, undergo a dose-dependent cell division arrest and apoptosis when treated with MWCNTs...
March 2014: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Zakir Khan, Christophe Combadière, François-Jérôme Authier, Valérie Itier, François Lux, Christopher Exley, Meriem Mahrouf-Yorgov, Xavier Decrouy, Philippe Moretto, Olivier Tillement, Romain K Gherardi, Josette Cadusseau
BACKGROUND: Long-term biodistribution of nanomaterials used in medicine is largely unknown. This is the case for alum, the most widely used vaccine adjuvant, which is a nanocrystalline compound spontaneously forming micron/submicron-sized agglomerates. Although generally well tolerated, alum is occasionally detected within monocyte-lineage cells long after immunization in presumably susceptible individuals with systemic/neurologic manifestations or autoimmune (inflammatory) syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA)...
2013: BMC Medicine
Alice Bertero, Adriano Boni, Mauro Gemmi, Mariacristina Gagliardi, Angelo Bifone, Giuseppe Bardi
Dendrimers are branched polymers with spherical morphology. Their tuneable chemistry and surface modification make them valuable nanomaterials for biomedical applications. In view of possible dendrimer uses as brain-aimed nanocarriers, the authors studied amine- and lipid-functionalised (G4) polyamidoamine (PAMAM) biocompatibility with cell population forming the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Both amine-PAMAM and lipid-PAMAM dendrimers were able to enter endothelial and primary neural cells. However, only amine-PAMAM damaged cell membranes in a dose-dependent manner...
March 2014: Nanotoxicology
Lorenzo Albertazzi, Lisa Gherardini, Marco Brondi, Sebastian Sulis Sato, Angelo Bifone, Tommaso Pizzorusso, Gian Michele Ratto, Giuseppe Bardi
Dendrimers have been described as one of the most tunable and therefore potentially applicable nanoparticles both for diagnostics and therapy. Recently, in order to realize drug delivery agents, most of the effort has been dedicated to the development of dendrimers that could internalize into the cells and target specific intracellular compartments in vitro and in vivo. Here, we describe cell internalization properties and diffusion of G4 and G4-C12 modified PAMAM dendrimers in primary neuronal cultures and in the CNS of live animals...
January 7, 2013: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Hui Dai, Raghavendra S Navath, Bindu Balakrishnan, Bharath Raja Guru, Manoj K Mishra, Roberto Romero, Rangaramanujam M Kannan, Sujatha Kannan
AIM: Understanding the interactions between nanomaterials and disease processes is crucial for designing effective therapeutic approaches. This article explores the unusual neuroinflammation targeting of dendrimers (with no targeting ligands) in the brain, with significant consequences for nanoscale materials in medicine. METHOD: The in vivo biodistribution of fluorescent-labeled neutral generation-4- polyamidoamine dendrimers (∼4 nm) in a rabbit model of cerebral palsy was explored following subarachnoid administration...
November 2010: Nanomedicine
Eliza Hutter, Sebastien Boridy, Simon Labrecque, Melanie Lalancette-Hébert, Jasna Kriz, Françoise M Winnik, Dusica Maysinger
Given the emergence of nanotherapeutics and nanodiagnostics as key tools in today's medicine, it has become of critical importance to define precisely the interactions of nanomaterials with biological systems and to characterize the resulting cellular response. We report here the interactions of microglia and neurons with gold nanoparticles (GNPs) of three morphologies, spheres, rods, and urchins, coated with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) or cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Microglia are the resident immune cells of the brain, primarily involved in surveillance, macrophagy, and production of cytokines and trophic factors...
May 25, 2010: ACS Nano
Tanapon Phenrat, Thomas C Long, Gregory V Lowry, Bellina Veronesi
Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) is a "redox"-active nanomaterial used in the remediation of contaminated groundwater. To assess the effect of "aging" and surface modification on its potential neurotoxicity, cultured rodent microglia (BV2) and neurons (N27) were exposed to fresh nZVI, "aged" (>11 months) nZVI, magnetite, and polyaspartate surface-modified (SM) nZVI. Increases in various measures of oxidative stress indicated that BV2 microglia responded to these materials in the following rank order: nZVI > "aged" nZVI > magnetite = SM nZVI...
January 1, 2009: Environmental Science & Technology
O V Melnikov, O Yu Gorbenko, M N Markelova, A R Kaul, V A Atsarkin, V V Demidov, C Soto, E J Roy, B M Odintsov
The purpose of this study was to introduce newly synthesized nanomaterials as an alternative to superparamagnetic ironoxide based particles (SPIO) and thus to launch a new platform for highly controllable hyperthermia cancer therapy and imaging. The new material that forms the basis for this article is lanthanum manganite particles with silver ions inserted into the perovskite lattice: La(1-x)Ag(x)MnO(3+delta). Adjusting the silver doping level, it is possible to control the Curie temperature (T(c)) in the hyperthermia range of interest (41-44 degrees C)...
December 15, 2009: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Thomas C Long, Julianne Tajuba, Preethi Sama, Navid Saleh, Carol Swartz, Joel Parker, Susan Hester, Gregory V Lowry, Bellina Veronesi
BACKGROUND: Titanium dioxide is a widely used nanomaterial whose photo-reactivity suggests that it could damage biological targets (e.g., brain) through oxidative stress (OS). OBJECTIVES: Brain cultures of immortalized mouse microglia (BV2), rat dopaminergic (DA) neurons (N27), and primary cultures of embryonic rat striatum, were exposed to Degussa P25, a commercially available TiO(2) nanomaterial. Physical properties of P25 were measured under conditions that paralleled biological measures...
November 2007: Environmental Health Perspectives
Thomas C Long, Navid Saleh, Robert D Tilton, Gregory V Lowry, Bellina Veronesi
Concerns with the environmental and health risk of widely distributed, commonly used nanoparticles are increasing. Nanosize titanium dioxide (TiO2) is used in air and water remediation and in numerous products designed for direct human use and consumption. Its effectiveness in deactivating pollutants and killing microorganisms relates to photoactivation and the resulting free radical activity. This property, coupled with its multiple potential exposure routes, indicates that nanosize TiO2 could pose a risk to biological targets that are sensitive to oxidative stress damage (e...
July 15, 2006: Environmental Science & Technology
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