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Pediatric pulmonary tuberculosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30111079/tuberculosis-in-poland-in-2016
#1
Maria Korzeniewska-Koseła
AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the main features of TB epidemiology in 2016 in Poland and to compare with the situation in the EU/EEA countries. METHODS: Analysis of case- based data on TB patients from National TB Register, data on anti-TB drug susceptibility testing results in cases notified in 2016, data from National Institute of Public Health- National Institute of Hygiene on cases of tuberculosis as AIDS-defining disease, data from Central Statistical Office on deaths from tuberculosis based on death certificates, data from ECDC report „ European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control/WHO Regional Office for Europe...
2018: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102474/the-value-of-nasopharyngeal-aspirate-gastric-aspirate-and-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-in-the-diagnosis-of-childhood-tuberculosis
#2
Erkan Çakır, Ali Özdemir, Hayrettin Daşkaya, Tarık Umutoğlu, Mine Yüksel
Çakır E, Özdemir A, Daşkaya H, Umutoğlu T, Yüksel M. The value of nasopharyngeal aspirate, gastric aspirate and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in the diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis. Turk J Pediatr 2018; 60: 10-13. Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality especially in developing countries. A definitive microbiologic confirmation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is important in the diagnosis of childhood TB. We aimed to compare the diagnostic value of nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA), gastric aspirate (GA) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens in children with highly suspected pulmonary tuberculosis (TB)...
2018: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30053638/utility-of-tuberculin-skin-test-and-igra-for-tuberculosis-screening-in-internationally-adopted-children-retrospective-analysis-from-a-single-center-in-florence-italy
#3
Maria Vincenza Mastrolia, Sara Sollai, Camilla Totaro, Pasqua Putignano, Maurizio de Martino, Luisa Galli, Elena Chiappini
BACKGROUND: Most of internationally adopted children (IAC) come from countries in which tuberculosis (TB) is endemic. Interpretation of discordant Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) and Quantiferon-Gold In Tube (QFT) results is under debate. METHODS: Children consecutively referred to our IAC Center between 2009-2017 were prospectively evaluated and screened with protocol recommended by the America Academy of Pediatrics, including TST and QFT. TB infection prevalence was evaluated and possible risk factors associated with discordant TST/QFT results were investigated...
July 25, 2018: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30021016/prevalence-of-diabetes-mellitus-amongst-hospitalized-tuberculosis-patients-at-an-indian-tertiary-care-center-a-descriptive-analysis
#4
Tripti Pande, Sophie Huddart, Wilbin Xavier, Srivathsa Kulavalli, Tanya Chen, Madhukar Pai, Kavitha Saravu
BACKGROUND: India has a high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) as well as diabetes mellitus (DM). DM is a chronic disease caused by deficiency of insulin production by the pancreas. The risk of TB amongst DM patients is three times higher than those without. The estimated national prevalence of DM is 7.3%. Despite the growing burden of DM, there are limited studies describing the prevalence of TB-DM in India. OBJECTIVE: Our study estimated the prevalence of DM amongst adult hospitalized TB patients at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal and determined factors associated with the likelihood of DM-TB co-prevalence...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30014829/characterizing-pediatric-tuberculosis-with-and-without-human-immunodeficiency-virus-coinfection-in-harare-zimbabwe
#5
Michelle Earley, Joconiah Chirenda, Alexandra Highet, Hilda A Mujuru, Zhenhua Yang
Pediatric tuberculosis (TB) represents a major barrier to reducing global TB mortality, especially in countries confronting dual TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemics. Our study aimed to characterize pediatric TB epidemiology in the high-burden setting of Harare, Zimbabwe, both to fill the current knowledge gap around the epidemiology of pediatric TB and to indicate areas for future research and interventions. We analyzed de-identified data of 1,051 pediatric TB cases (0-14 years) found among a total of 11,607 TB cases reported in Harare, Zimbabwe, during 2011-2012...
July 16, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29991392/improving-childhood-tuberculosis-detection-and-treatment-through-facility-based-screening-in-rural-pakistan
#6
A A Malik, F Amanullah, A J Codlin, S Siddiqui, M Jaswal, J F Ahmed, S Saleem, A Khurshid, H Hussain
SETTING: Many children with tuberculosis (TB) remain undiagnosed due to the absence of services, lack of child-friendly diagnostics and underappreciation of TB as a common cause of childhood illness. OBJECTIVE: To show the impact of systematic verbal screening and contact tracing with appropriate management services on TB case finding in pediatric populations. DESIGN: Between October 2014 and March 2016, children were verbally screened at the pediatric out-patient departments of four public hospitals in Jamshoro District, Pakistan...
August 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29941824/estimated-burden-of-serious-fungal-diseases-in-serbia
#7
Valentina Arsić Arsenijević, David W Denning
For the first time, we aimed to estimate the burden of serious fungal infections or diseases (SFD) and highlight national epidemiological features in Serbia. Data on population and underlining conditions were extracted from the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia, World Bank, the Institute of Public Health of Serbia, the World Health Organization, National reference laboratory for medical mycology, the national registries of Serbian professional societies, and relevant publications. The population structure/inhabitants in 2016 (not including the autonomous region Kosovo & Metohija) was 7,058,322; with 6,041,743 adults (85...
June 25, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885751/epidemiology-of-pediatric-tuberculosis-in-kenya-and-risk-factors-for-mortality-during-treatment-a-national-retrospective-cohort-study
#8
Dickens Otieno Onyango, Courtney M Yuen, Enos Masini, Martien Willem Borgdorff
OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiology of childhood tuberculosis (TB) in Kenya, assess the magnitude of TB/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection and identify risk factors for mortality during TB treatment. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the Kenyan national TB program data for patients enrolled from 2013 through 2015. A total of 23 753 children aged less than 15 years were included in the analysis. Survival analysis was performed with censorship at 9 months and mortality was the main outcome...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29846733/clinical-spectrum-of-pediatric-tuberculosis-a-microbiological-correlation-from-a-tertiary-care-center
#9
Neha Gupta, Bineeta Kashyap, Pooja Dewan, Puneeta Hyanki, N P Singh
Aim and objectives: The paucibacillary nature of pediatric tuberculosis (TB) makes diagnosis difficult. The aim of the study was to correlate the clinical spectrum of pediatric TB with microbiological diagnosis. Materials and methods: Specimens from clinically suspected pediatric TB cases were subjected to Ziehl-Neelsen staining, culture on Lowenstein-Jensen medium and cartridge-based nucleic acid amplification test (CB-NAAT) for TB. Results: Pulmonary TB was the predominant form affecting 36 of 62 (58%) patients...
May 28, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791553/epidemiological-aspects-clinical-manifestations-and-prevention-of-pediatric-tuberculosis-from-the-perspective-of-the-end-tb-strategy
#10
Anna Cristina Calçada Carvalho, Claudete Aparecida Araújo Cardoso, Terezinha Miceli Martire, Giovanni Battista Migliori, Clemax Couto Sant'Anna
Tuberculosis continues to be a public health priority in many countries. In 2015, tuberculosis killed 1.4 million people, including 210,000 children. Despite the recent progress made in the control of tuberculosis in Brazil, it is still one of the countries with the highest tuberculosis burdens. In 2015, there were 69,000 reported cases of tuberculosis in Brazil and tuberculosis was the cause of 4,500 deaths in the country. In 2014, the World Health Organization approved the End TB Strategy, which set a target date of 2035 for meeting its goals of reducing the tuberculosis incidence by 90% and reducing the number of tuberculosis deaths by 95%...
April 2018: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665948/preclinical-tools-for-the-evaluation-of-tuberculosis-treatment-regimens-for-children
#11
E W Tucker, K E Dooley
Tuberculosis (TB) treatment regimens have been extrapolated from adults to children. However, pediatric disease merits different treatment strategies to avoid under- or over-treatment. While animal models have been pivotal in identifying effective regimens for adult disease, pediatric TB is heterogeneous and cannot be represented by a single preclinical model. Infants and young children most commonly have disseminated disease or tuberculous meningitis (TBM), school-aged children have paucibacillary disease, and adolescents have adult-like cavitary lung disease...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642833/-management-and-treatment-difficulties-of-multi-drug-resistant-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-a-pediatric-case
#12
Selda Hançerli Törün, Emine Manolya Acar, Ayper Somer, Gonca Erköse, Dilek Şatana, Zuhal Bayramoğlu, Emine Çalışkan, Zeki Kılıçaslan
Tuberculosis continues to be a major health problem worldwide. Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) infection that occurs in childhood is caused by adult MDR-TB agents which are in circulation and resistant to primary drugs. In this case report a 17-month-old child with MDR-TB who was cured after a 24-month therapy regimen was presented. Physical examination of a 17-month-old girl admitted to the hospital with the cause of recurrent pneumonia revealed a rubbery lymphadenopathy less than 2 cm in the right upper cervical region...
January 2018: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605210/a-review-of-the-etiology-and-clinical-presentation-of-non-cystic-fibrosis-bronchiectasis-a-tertiary-care-experience
#13
Ozlem Satırer, Ayse Mete Yesil, Nagehan Emiralioglu, Gökcen Dilsa Tugcu, Ebru Yalcın, Deniz Dogru, Nural Kiper, Ugur Ozcelik
INTRODUCTION: Non-cystic fibrosis(CF) bronchiectasis has been recognized in children for the past 200 years. Early childhood pneumonia and underlying conditions such as immunodeficiency, primary ciliary dyskinesia(PCD), and congenital lung pathology should be considered in the etiology. The aim of our study was to describe the clinical characteristics, laboratory, and radiological findings of a large population of patients with non-CF bronchiectasis at a tertiary center. METHODS: We analyzed the clinical findings of 187 patients diagnosed with non-CF bronchiectasis over a period of 10 years (January 2005-December 2015) at the Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine Department of Pediatric Pulmonology...
April 2018: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596221/increasing-prevalence-of-pediatric-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-mumbai-india-and-its-outcome
#14
Miti A Shah, Ira Shah
SETTING: B.J.Wadia Hospital,Mumbai OBJECTIVE:: The prevalence and type of DR-TB was evaluated pre and post-2013 and outcome was studied. DESIGN: Descriptive retrospective study. Children were defined as having DR-TB on the basis of GeneXpert or LPA and/or drug susceptibility testing(DST) of MTB grown on culture or from contact's DST. RESULTS & CONCLUSION: The prevalence of DR-TB was 110 out of 1145 cases (9.6%) which showed an increase, compared to 5...
March 24, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487477/frontal-lobe-tuberculoma-a-clinical-and-imaging-challenge
#15
Tinsae Alemayehu, Wondwossen Ergete, Workeabeba Abebe
Background: Pediatric nervous system tuberculomas are usually infra-tentorial and multiple. A frontal lobe location is rare. Case Details: We report a 10 year-old boy who presented with a chronic headache and episodes of loss of consciousness. He had no signs of primary pulmonary tuberculosis and a diagnosis of frontal tuberculoma was made upon a post-operative biopsy. He improved following treatment with anti-tubercular drugs. Conclusion: Tuberculosis should be considered in children with a chronic headache or focal neurologic deficit and a supra-tentorial intracranial mass in endemic countries like Ethiopia...
November 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485739/sustainable-survival-for-adolescents-living-with-hiv-do-sdg-aligned-provisions-reduce-potential-mortality-risk
#16
Lucie Cluver, Marija Pantelic, Mark Orkin, Elona Toska, Sally Medley, Lorraine Sherr
INTRODUCTION: The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) present a groundbreaking global development agenda to protect the most vulnerable. Adolescents living with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa continue to experience extreme health vulnerabilities, but we know little about the impacts of SDG-aligned provisions on their health. This study tests associations of provisions aligned with five SDGs with potential mortality risks. METHODS: Clinical and interview data were gathered from N = 1060 adolescents living with HIV in rural and urban South Africa in 2014 to 2015...
February 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447374/spectrum-of-pediatric-tuberculosis-in-a-tertiary-care-setting-in-south-india
#17
Betsy Rebecca, Anila Chacko, Valsan Verghese, Winsley Rose
Background: Pediatric tuberculosis (TB) is often underdiagnosed with poor estimate of its true burden. Availability of Xpert MTB/RIF assay enhances diagnostic capacity of pediatric TB. Methods: A 3-year retrospective review of hospital records was done for all children diagnosed with confirmed and unconfirmed TB. Comparison was made between intrathoracic, single-site extrathoracic and disseminated TB. Results: In total, 274 children had TB with 130 (47...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374831/use-of-procalcitonin-in-the-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-in-infants-and-preschool-children
#18
Eneritz Velasco-Arnaiz, Esther Pérez, Desirée Henares, Anna Fernández-López, Anna Valls, Pedro Brotons, Clàudia Fortuny, Antoni Noguera-Julian
Normal procalcitonin (PCT) levels have been reported in adult pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) but have not been previously investigated in children. We aimed to assess PCT levels at diagnosis of TB in young children in a low-burden setting. In a cross-sectional observational study in a referral pediatric center in Barcelona (Spain), we assessed the value of PCT and other inflammatory markers (leucocyte counts, C-reactive protein, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate) in the diagnosis of TB in pre-school children (< 6 years at diagnosis, n = 45), as compared with two control groups (pneumococcal pneumonia, n = 25; and healthy controls, n = 49)...
September 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357899/pediatric-multi-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-and-hiv-co-infection-in-a-resource-limited-setting-a-case-report
#19
Christelle Géneviève Jouego, Valirie Ndip Agbor, Juergen Noeske, Ndo Akono Manuel, Leo Njock Ayuk
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in developing countries. The diagnosis and treatment of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in children remain a major limitation in this setting, largely due to difficulties in isolating Mycobacterium tuberculosis from pediatric specimens, management with toxic second line drugs, and practically the inexistence of contact tracing. In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended a standardized 9-month regimen for adults and children in zones which are highly endemic for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...
January 22, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249072/surgical-approaches-to-upper-thoracic-pott-s-disease-with-spinal-instability-during-childhood-two-cases
#20
Gokhan Cavus, Yurdal Gezercan, Ali Ihsan Ökten, Orkun Tolunay, Tamer Çelik, Ali Arslan, Ümit Çelik
PURPOSE: Tuberculosis is a common disease worldwide that is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis is primarily a pulmonary disease, but extrapulmonary manifestations are not uncommon, especially in children and adolescents. METHODS: We present two pediatric patients who underwent surgery in our clinic for Pott's disease in the upper thoracic region. The patients were investigated to describe their age, complaints, neurological examination results, disease location, surgical procedure, and complications...
June 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
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