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Neonatal sepsis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437908/a-quality-improvement-initiative-to-reduce-nicu-transfers-for-neonates-at-risk-for-hypoglycemia
#1
Sherry LeBlanc, Jamie Haushalter, Carl Seashore, Karen S Wood, Michael J Steiner, Ashley G Sutton
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Neonatal hypoglycemia is a common problem, often requiring management in the NICU. Nonpharmacologic interventions, including early breastfeeding and skin-to-skin care (SSC), may prevent hypoglycemia and the need to escalate care. Our objective was to maintain mother-infant dyads in the mother-infant unit by decreasing hypoglycemia resulting in NICU transfer. METHODS: Inborn infants ≥35 weeks' gestation with at least 1 risk factor for hypoglycemia were included...
February 8, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434061/immediate-neonatal-outcomes-of-preterm-infants-born-to-mothers-with-preterm-pre-labour-rupture-of-membranes
#2
Niveditha Dannapaneni, Tejopratap Oleti, Tarakeswari Surapaneni, Deepak Sharma, Srinivas Murki
Background & objectives: With the use of early and appropriate use of antibiotics, outcomes have improved in the mother-infant dyads exposed to preterm pre-labour rupture of membranes (PPROM). This study was undertaken to evaluate immediate neonatal outcomes in infants born before 33 completed weeks of gestation to mothers with PPROM versus without PPROM. Methods: During the study period from January 2013 to December 2013, a total of 182 mother-infant dyads were prospectively included in the study...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433696/antibio-gouvernance-en-n%C3%A3-onatalogie
#3
E Launay, C Gras-Le Guen, J Caillon, C Flamant, D Navas, P Ovetchkine
Rational use of antibiotic has become a national and international health priority to fight against the emergence of multiresistant bacteria. Neonates are particularly exposed to antibiotic treatments because of their high susceptibility to severe infection and the lack of specificity of sepsis signs that make diagnosis difficult. This population is also particularly susceptible to microbiota disruption due to antibiotic treatment. Implementation of antibiotic stewardship in neonate is then an urgent need. According to a literature review, principles of antibiotic stewardship implementation in neonate are based on: (i) a multidisciplinary team comprising infectious disease specialists and aware of neonatal specificities (diagnosis, bacterial epidemiology, pharmacology) ; (ii) clear and easy-to-evaluate goals discussed a priori with neonatologists ; (iii) short-term assessment of the impact on antibiotic consumption and antimicrobial resistance ; (iv) enablement of the healthcare professionals within the ward to enhance the sustainability and (v) support from the institution...
December 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433693/pharmacocin%C3%A3-tique-et-pharmacodynamie-des-antibiotiques-est-ce-diff%C3%A3-rent-en-n%C3%A3-onatologie
#4
R Cohen, M Tauzin, S Béchet, L Caeymaex
Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) data on antimicrobial agents enable physicians to optimize their use in clinical practice. Neonates exhibit a large inter-individual variability in antibiotic levels due to immaturity and maturational changes in the first weeks of life. This variability explains the large therapeutic margins needed to ensure an optimal efficacy of antibiotics. These pharmacokinetic characteristics have to be taken into account when treating neonatal sepsis, along with pharmacodynamics targets for each antibiotic and notably minimal inhibitory concentration for usual causes of neonatal bacterial infections (group B streptococcus and Escherichia coli)...
December 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429455/-early-rehabilitation-intervention-reduces-the-incidence-of-extrauterine-growth-retardation-in-preterm-infants
#5
Wen-Si Ni, Yong-Hong Zhang, Ting Li, Dong-Ying Zhao, Jin-Tong Tan, Tian-Wen Zhu, Li-Juan Xie
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of early rehabilitation intervention on the incidences of extrauterine growth retardation (EUGR) and early diseases in preterm infants. METHODS: The appropriate-for-gestational-age preterm infants with a gestational age of <34 weeks and a birth weight of 1 000 to <2 000 g who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) within 24 hours after birth were enrolled in a prospective randomized controlled trial...
February 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428742/short-communication-roles-of-outer-membrane-protein-w-ompw-on-survival-and-biofilm-formation-of-cronobacter-sakazakii-under-neomycin-sulfate-stress
#6
Yingwang Ye, Na Ling, Jina Gao, Maofeng Zhang, Xiyan Zhang, Liaowang Tong, Dexin Ou, Yaping Wang, Jumei Zhang, Qingping Wu
Cronobacter sakazakii is associated with severe infections including sepsis, neonatal meningitis, and necrotizing enterocolitis. Antibiotic resistance in Cronobacter species has been documented in recent years, but the genes involved in resistance in Cronobacter strains are poorly understood. In this study, we determined the role of outer membrane protein W (OmpW) on survival rates, morphologic changes, and biofilm formation between wild type (WT) and an OmpW mutant strain (ΔOmpW) under neomycin sulfate stress...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426264/comparison-between-maternal-and-neonatal-outcome-of-pprom-in-the-cases-of-amniotic-fluid-index-afi-of-more-and-less-than-5%C3%A2-cm
#7
Ashraf Sadat Mousavi, Neda Hashemi, Maryam Kashanian, Narges Sheikhansari, Arash Bordbar, Shayesteh Parashi
The study was performed on pregnant women with a gestational age of 26-32 weeks of pregnancy, who had been admitted to the hospital with a confirmed diagnosis of premature rupture of membranes. In all eligible women, ultrasounds were performed for the evaluation of amniotic fluid index. Then, the women were divided into two groups according to amniotic fluid index of ≥5 cm and <5 cm. These women were followed and monitored up to delivery. The women of the two groups did not have significant difference between them according to age, gestational age at the time of ruptured membrane, body mass index, gravidity, parity, gestational age at delivery and route of delivery...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425680/new-coxsackievirus-2apro-and-3cpro-protease-antibodies-for-virus-detection-and-discovery-of-pathogenic-mechanisms
#8
Olli H Laitinen, Emma Svedin, Sebastian Kapell, Minna M Hankaniemi, Pär G Larsson, Erna Domsgen, Virginia M Stone, Juha A E Määttä, Heikki Hyöty, Vesa P Hytönen, Malin Flodström-Tullberg
Enteroviruses (EVs), such as the Coxsackie B-viruses (CVBs), are common human pathogens, which can cause severe disease including meningitis, myocarditis and neonatal sepsis. EVs encode two proteases (2Apro and 3Cpro), which perform the proteolytic cleavage of the CVB polyprotein and also cleave host cell proteins to facilitate viral replication. The 2Apro cause direct damage to the infected heart and tools to investigate 2Apro and 3Cpro expression may contribute new knowledge on virus-induced pathologies. Here, we developed new antibodies to CVB-encoded 2Apro and 3Cpro; Two monoclonal 2Apro antibodies and one 3Cpro antibody were produced...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412430/neonatal-sepsis-mortality-in-a-municipality-in-southern-brazil-2000-to-2013
#9
Jakeline Barbara Alves, Flávia Lopes Gabani, Rosângela Aparecida Pimenta Ferrari, Mauren Teresa Grubisich Mendes Tacla, Arnildo Linck Júnior
OBJECTIVE: To describe the neonatal mortality coefficient attributed to sepsis and other causes, and to report the maternal, neonatal and death characteristics of newborn infants that died in the city of Londrina, Paraná, in Southern Brazil. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study with a time series analysis. Neonatal deaths that contained neonatal sepsis records in any field of the death certificate between the years 2000 and 2013 were studied. The years were grouped into biennia, and cause specific neonatal mortality coefficient was calculated, according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision...
January 15, 2018: Revista Paulista de Pediatria: Orgão Oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405832/beyond-sepsis-staphylococcus-epidermidis-is-an-underestimated-but-significant-contributor-to-neonatal-morbidity
#10
Ying Dong, Christian P Speer, Kirsten Glaser
Staphylococcus epidermidis accounts for the majority of cases of neonatal sepsis. Moreover, it has been demonstrated to be associated with neonatal morbidities, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), white matter injury (WMI), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), which affect short-term and long-term neonatal outcome. Imbalanced inflammation has been considered to be a major underlying mechanism of each entity. Conventionally regarded as a harmless commensal on human skin, S...
February 6, 2018: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403648/bacteriological-profile-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-pattern-of-common-isolates-of-neonatal-sepsis-ho-municipality-ghana-2016
#11
Fortress Yayra Aku, Patricia Akweongo, Kofi Nyarko, Samuel Sackey, Fredrick Wurapa, Edwin Andrew Afari, Donne Kofi Ameme, Ernest Kenu
Background: Globally, 4 million neonates die annually, with one-third of such deaths occurring as a result of infections. In 2011, there were 7.2million deaths in children below 5 years globally, and a proportion of 40% of these deaths occurred in neonates. Sepsis was reported to account for one-third of these deaths. Presently, multidrug antibiotic resistance is rapidly increasing in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs), particularly in developing countries and poses a threat to public health...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398054/severe-neurodevelopmental-impairment-in-neonates-born-preterm-impact-of-varying-definitions-in-a-canadian-cohort
#12
Matthew D Haslam, Sarka Lisonkova, Dianne Creighton, Paige Church, Junmin Yang, Prakesh S Shah, K S Joseph, Anne Synnes
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of variations in the definition of severe neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) on the incidence of severe NDI and the association with risk factors using the Canadian Neonatal Follow-Up Network cohort. STUDY DESIGN: Literature review of severe NDI definitions and application of these definitions were performed in this database cohort study. Infants born at 23-28 completed weeks of gestation between 2009 and 2011 (n = 2187) admitted to a Canadian Neonatal Network neonatal intensive care unit and assessed at 21 months' corrected age were included...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396929/is-less-noise-light-and-parental-caregiver-stress-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-better-for-neonates
#13
Rohini Venkataraman, Majeeda Kamaluddeen, Harish Amin, Abhay Lodha
In utero sensory stimuli and interaction with the environment strongly influence early phases of fetal and infant development. Extremely premature infants are subjected to noxious procedures and routine monitoring, in addition to exposure to excessive light and noise, which disturb the natural sleep cycle and induce stress. Non-invasive ventilation, measures to prevent sepsis, and human milk feeding improve short-term and long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes in premature infants. To preserve brain function, and to improve quality of life and long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes, the focus now is on the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) environment and its impact on the infant during hospital stay...
January 15, 2018: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393415/identification-of-risk-factors-for-sepsis-associated-mortality-by-gene-expression-profiling-analysis
#14
Yan Qi, Xinxin Chen, Na Wu, Chuihui Ma, Xueling Cui, Zhonghui Liu
Sepsis is a common cause of mortality due to systemic infection. Although numerous studies have investigated this life-threatening condition, there remains a lack of suitable markers to evaluate the severity of sepsis. The present study focused on the identification of risk factors for sepsis‑associated mortality by genome‑wide expression profiling. Initially, the GEO2R web tool was used to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between sepsis survivors and nonsurvivors. It was identified that the upregulated DEGs in the nonsurvivors compared with survivors were highly enriched in the type I interferon (IFN‑I) signaling pathway...
January 25, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390542/particularities-of-the-management-and-the-treatment-in-a-rare-sepsis-with-candida-tropicalis-of-a-collodion-baby-case-report
#15
Alina Mariela Murgu, Irina Geanina Crişcov, Silvia Fotea, Ginel Baciu, Anca Chiriac, Elena Tarca, Violeta Streanga
RATIONALE: Collodion baby is a rare autosomal recessive disorder. It can be the first expression of some forms of ichthyosis. PATIENT CONCERNS: The authors present the case of a newborn diagnosed with severe Collodion baby syndrome who required prolonged hospitalization in the intensive care unit because of infectious complications like the fungal sepsis and other bacterial superinfections. DIAGNOSES: The case has many diagnostic and therapeutic particularities and management difficulties...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385640/randomised-controlled-trial-of-diazoxide-for-small-for-gestational-age-neonates-with-hyperinsulinaemic-hypoglycaemia-provided-early-hypoglycaemic-control-without-adverse-effects
#16
Binesh Balachandran, Kanya Mukhopadhyay, Naresh Sachdeva, Rama Walia, Savita Verma Attri
AIM: Hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia (HH) is a very common cause of hypoglycaemia in small for gestational age (SGA) neonates. We compared using early oral diazoxide or a placebo for this patient group. METHODS: This was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that focused on SGA neonates born at at least 32 weeks of gestation with HH during the first five days of life. Neonates with severe perinatal asphyxia, sepsis or contraindications for oral feeds were excluded...
January 31, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384892/hemoglobin-levels-across-the-pediatric-critical-care-spectrum-a-point-prevalence-study
#17
Nabil E Hassan, Diann E Reischman, Robert K Fitzgerald, Edward Vincent S Faustino
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevailing hemoglobin levels in PICU patients, and any potential correlates. DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of prospective multicenter observational data. SETTINGS: Fifty-nine PICUs in seven countries. PATIENTS: PICU patients on four specific days in 2012. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Patients' hemoglobin and other clinical and institutional data...
January 30, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382648/why-are-preterm-newborns-at-increased-risk-of-infection
#18
REVIEW
Amélie Collins, Jörn-Hendrik Weitkamp, James L Wynn
One in 10 newborns will be born before completion of 36 weeks' gestation (premature birth). Infection and sepsis in preterm infants remain a significant clinical problem that represents a substantial financial burden on the healthcare system. Many factors predispose premature infants for having the greatest risk of developing and succumbing to infection as compared with all other age groups across the age spectrum. It is clear that the immune system of preterm infants exhibits distinct, rather than simply deficient, function as compared with more mature and older humans and that the immune function in preterm infants contributes to infection risk...
January 30, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382352/the-global-maternal-sepsis-study-and-awareness-campaign-gloss-study-protocol
#19
Mercedes Bonet, Joao Paulo Souza, Edgardo Abalos, Bukola Fawole, Marian Knight, Seni Kouanda, Pisake Lumbiganon, Ashraf Nabhan, Ruta Nadisauskiene, Vanessa Brizuela, A Metin Gülmezoglu
BACKGROUND: Maternal sepsis is the underlying cause of 11% of all maternal deaths and a significant contributor to many deaths attributed to other underlying conditions. The effective prevention, early identification and adequate management of maternal and neonatal infections and sepsis can contribute to reducing the burden of infection as an underlying and contributing cause of morbidity and mortality. The objectives of the Global Maternal Sepsis Study (GLOSS) include: the development and validation of identification criteria for possible severe maternal infection and maternal sepsis; assessment of the frequency of use of a core set of practices recommended for prevention, early identification and management of maternal sepsis; further understanding of mother-to-child transmission of bacterial infection; assessment of the level of awareness about maternal and neonatal sepsis among health care providers; and establishment of a network of health care facilities to implement quality improvement strategies for better identification and management of maternal and early neonatal sepsis...
January 30, 2018: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381011/inflammasome-function-in-monocyte-subsets-and-a-risk-of-late-onset-sepsis-in-preterm-very-low-birth-weight-neonates
#20
Magdalena Zasada, Marzena Lenart, Magdalena Rutkowska-Zapała, Małgorzata Stec, Ola Czyz, Nina Mól, Maciej Siedlar, Przemko Kwinta
BACKGROUND: Immature immune systems predispose very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates to systemic infections in early life. Defective inflammasome function may increase a neonate's susceptibility to late-onset sepsis (LOS). METHODS: Blood samples were taken on the 5th day of life (DOL) for all VLBW neonates (non-LOS and before-LOS groups; n=76), and within 24 hours of sepsis onset (LOS group; n=39). Monocyte (MO) subsets and intracellular interleukin-1β (IL-1β) expression were analysed using flow cytometry...
January 29, 2018: Minerva Pediatrica
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