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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743056/apigenin-attenuates-isoflurane-induced-cognitive-dysfunction-via-epigenetic-regulation-and-neuroinflammation-in-aged-rats
#1
Lin Chen, Wenji Xie, Wenqin Xie, Weiqiang Zhuang, Changcheng Jiang, Naizhen Liu
PURPOSE OF THE RESEARCH: Post operational cognitive dysfunction (POCD) occurs in patients after anesthesia and surgery. Abnormal histone acetylation and neuroinflammation are key factors in the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment. Apigenin not only has an anti-inflammatory activity but also modifies histone acetylation. We aimed to investigate whether apigenin can attenuate isoflurane exposure-induced cognitive decline by regulating histone acetylation and inflammatory signaling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Spatial learning and memory were assessed by Morris water maze test...
July 6, 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743005/xenopus-laevis-m18bp1-directly-binds-existing-cenp-a-nucleosomes-to-promote-centromeric-chromatin-assembly
#2
Bradley T French, Frederick G Westhorpe, Charles Limouse, Aaron F Straight
Vertebrate centromeres are epigenetically defined by nucleosomes containing the histone H3 variant, CENP-A. CENP-A nucleosome assembly requires the three-protein Mis18 complex (Mis18α, Mis18β, and M18BP1) that recruits the CENP-A chaperone HJURP to centromeres, but how the Mis18 complex recognizes centromeric chromatin is unknown. Using Xenopus egg extract, we show that direct, cell-cycle-regulated binding of M18BP1 to CENP-A nucleosomes recruits the Mis18 complex to interphase centromeres to promote new CENP-A nucleosome assembly...
July 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743004/association-of-m18bp1-knl2-with-cenp-a-nucleosome-is-essential-for-centromere-formation-in-non-mammalian-vertebrates
#3
Tetsuya Hori, Wei-Hao Shang, Masatoshi Hara, Mariko Ariyoshi, Yasuhiro Arimura, Risa Fujita, Hitoshi Kurumizaka, Tatsuo Fukagawa
Centromeres are specified and maintained by sequence-independent epigenetic mechanisms through the incorporation of CENP-A into centromeres. Given that CENP-A incorporation requires the Mis18 complex to be in the centromere region, it is necessary to precisely understand how the Mis18 complex localizes to the centromere region. Here, we showed that centromere localization of the Mis18 complex depends on CENP-A, but not CENP-C or CENP-T, in chicken DT40 cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that M18BP1/KNL2, a member of the Mis18 complex, contained the CENP-C-like motif in chicken and other vertebrates, which is essential for centromere localization and M18BP1/KNL2 function in DT40 cells...
July 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742998/reading-the-centromere-epigenetic-mark
#4
Lydia Smith, Paul S Maddox
Centromeres epitomize the central problem of propagating non-DNA sequence-based information across generations. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Hori et al. (2017) and French et al. (2017) show that the centromere-associated protein KNL-2/M18BP1 reads the centromere epigenetic code to maintain centromere identity.
July 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742980/disease-relevant-modifications-of-the-methylome-and-transcriptome-by-particulate-matter-pm2-5-from-biomass-combustion
#5
Katharina Heßelbach, Gwang-Jin Kim, Stephan Flemming, Thomas Häupl, Marc Bonin, Regina Dornhof, Stefan Günther, Irmgard Merfort, Matjaz Humar
Exposure to particulate matter (PM) is recognized as a major health hazard, but molecular responses are still insufficiently described. We analyzed the epigenetic impact of ambient PM2.5 from biomass combustion on the methylome of primary human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. The transcriptome was determined by the Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0 Array. PM2.5 induced genome wide alterations of the DNA methylation pattern, including differentially methylated CpGs in the promoter region associated with CpG islands...
July 25, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742579/a-review-of-the-epigenetic-contributions-to-endometriosis
#6
Frances W Grimstad, Alan Decherney
Epigenetic influences have been postulated to affect the course of endometriosis. DNA methyltransferases, estrogen and progesterone receptors, micro-RNAs, and histone deacetylators, have shown differential expression in endometriosis compared with normal endometrium. Others such as aromatase, Steroid Factor-1, COX-2, and Homeobox A10 also have epigenetic modifications in endometriosis. Limitations in this area of research include heterogeneity in study design, patient populations, and methods of analysis. Larger, controlled studies are needed...
September 2017: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742231/different-resuscitation-strategies-and-novel-pharmacologic-treatment-with-valproic-acid-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
REVIEW
Simone E Dekker, Vahagn C Nikolian, Martin Sillesen, Ted Bambakidis, Patrick Schober, Hasan B Alam
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death in young adults, and effective treatment strategies have the potential to save many lives. TBI results in coagulopathy, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, cell death, and impaired epigenetic homeostasis, ultimately leading to morbidity and/or mortality. Commonly used resuscitation fluids such as crystalloids or colloids have several disadvantages and might even be harmful when administered in large quantities. There is a need for next-generation treatment strategies (especially in the prehospital setting) that minimize cellular damage, improve survival, and enhance neurological recovery...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742097/mrtadfinder-a-network-modularity-based-approach-to-identify-topologically-associating-domains-in-multiple-resolutions
#8
Koon-Kiu Yan, Shaoke Lou, Mark Gerstein
Genome-wide proximity ligation based assays such as Hi-C have revealed that eukaryotic genomes are organized into structural units called topologically associating domains (TADs). From a visual examination of the chromosomal contact map, however, it is clear that the organization of the domains is not simple or obvious. Instead, TADs exhibit various length scales and, in many cases, a nested arrangement. Here, by exploiting the resemblance between TADs in a chromosomal contact map and densely connected modules in a network, we formulate TAD identification as a network optimization problem and propose an algorithm, MrTADFinder, to identify TADs from intra-chromosomal contact maps...
July 24, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742090/t-dna-genome-junctions-form-early-after-infection-and-are-influenced-by-the-chromatin-state-of-the-host-genome
#9
Shay Shilo, Pooja Tripathi, Cathy Melamed-Bessudo, Oren Tzfadia, Theodore R Muth, Avraham A Levy
Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated T-DNA integration is a common tool for plant genome manipulation. However, there is controversy regarding whether T-DNA integration is biased towards genes or randomly distributed throughout the genome. In order to address this question, we performed high-throughput mapping of T-DNA-genome junctions obtained in the absence of selection at several time points after infection. T-DNA-genome junctions were detected as early as 6 hours post-infection. T-DNA distribution was apparently uniform throughout the chromosomes, yet local biases toward AT-rich motifs and T-DNA border sequence micro-homology were detected...
July 24, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741893/when-epigenetics-meets-bioengineering-a-material-characteristics-and-surface-topography-perspective
#10
REVIEW
Lena Larsson, Sophia P Pilipchuk, William V Giannobile, Rogerio M Castilho
The field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TE/RM) involves regeneration of tissues and organs using implantable biomaterials. The term epigenetics refers to changes in gene expression that are not encoded in the DNA sequence, leading to remodeling of the chromatin and activation or inactivation of gene expression. Recently, studies have demonstrated that these modifications are influenced not only by biological cues but also by mechanical and topographical signals. This review highlights the current knowledge on emerging approaches in TE/RM with a focus on the effect of materials and topography on the epigenetic expression pattern in cells with potential impacts on modulating regenerative biology...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741490/in-vivo-rnai-screening-for-pancreatic-cancer-drivers-piloting-the-wdr5-myc-axis
#11
Günter Schneider, Dieter Saur
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) represents a major global health problem that causes over 200000 deaths each year worldwide. The disease is highly resistant to cytotoxic and targeted therapies and the average survival is less than 12 months. This situation prompted Alessandro Carugo and Giulio Draetta to develop a novel genetic mouse system, termed Patient-Based In Vivo Lethality to Optimize Treatment (PILOT), to perform functional RNAi-based in vivo screens to uncover and target PDAC drivers. In a forward genetic screen focused on epigenetic modifiers, a WDR5-Myc axis that regulates the DNA replication checkpoint was identified and exploited in vivo for therapeutic intervention...
August 2016: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741488/extraordinary-cancer-epigenomics-thinking-outside-the-classical-coding-and-promoter-box
#12
REVIEW
Matthew Murtha, Manel Esteller
The advent of functional genomics powered by high-throughput sequencing has given us a new appreciation of the genomic sequences that lie outside the canonical promoter-coding sequence box. These regions harbor distant regulatory elements, enhancers, super-enhancers, insulators, alternative promoters, and sequences that transcribe as noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) such as miRNAs and long ncRNAs. These functional genomics studies have also enabled a clearer understanding of the role of the 3D structure of the genome in epigenetic regulation...
October 2016: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741410/how-can-precision-medicine-be-applied-to-temporomandibular-disorders-and-its-comorbidities
#13
Joan B Wilentz, Allen W Cowley
The Eighth Scientific Meeting of The TMJ Association, Ltd. was held in Bethesda, Maryland, September 11-13, 2016. As in the past, the meeting was cosponsored by components of the National Institutes of Health with speakers invited to review the state of temporomandibular disorder science and propose recommendations to further progress. The theme of precision medicine, which aims to tailor disease treatment and prevention to match the characteristics of an individual patient (genetic, epigenetic, environmental, lifestyle) underscored the current consensus that temporomandibular disorders are no longer viewed as local conditions of jaw pain and dysfunction...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741224/comparative-analysis-of-histone-modifications-and-dna-methylation-at-osbz8-locus-under-salinity-stress-in-ir64-and-nonabokra-rice-varieties
#14
Amit Paul, Pratiti Dasgupta, Dipan Roy, Shubho Chaudhuri
Rice being an important cereal crop is highly sensitive to salinity stress causing growth retardation and loss in productivity. However, certain rice genotypes like Nonabokra and Pokkali show a high level of tolerance towards salinity stress compared to IR64 variety. This differential response of tolerant varieties towards salinity stress may be a cumulative effect of genetic and epigenetic factors. In this study, we have compared the salinity-induced changes in chromatin modifications at the OsBZ8 locus in salt-tolerant Nonabokra and salt-sensitive IR64 rice varieties...
July 24, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741130/epigenetic-involvement-in-etiopathogenesis-and-implications-in-treatment-of-systemic-lupus-erythematous
#15
REVIEW
Arron Munggela Foma, Saeed Aslani, Jafar Karami, Ahmadreza Jamshidi, Mahdi Mahmoudi
BACKGROUND: Recent researches in the field of genetics have extended our knowledge through the discovery of genetic factors associated with autoimmune diseases (AID). Genetics by itself, however, cannot elucidate all the uncertainties encountered in the etiopathology of AID. On the other hand, incomplete harmony in the prevalence of AID in identical twins suggests that non-genetic factors may play an important role in determining the disease susceptibility. Besides, epigenetics, which is defined by changes in gene expression without a corresponding change in the DNA sequences, has come in to provide new awareness in the disease etiopathology by bridging the genetic and epigenetic factors...
July 24, 2017: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740750/herbicide-injury-induces-dna-methylome-alterations-in-arabidopsis
#16
Gunjune Kim, Christopher R Clarke, Hailey Larose, Hong T Tran, David C Haak, Liqing Zhang, Shawn Askew, Jacob Barney, James H Westwood
The emergence of herbicide-resistant weeds is a major threat facing modern agriculture. Over 470 weedy-plant populations have developed resistance to herbicides. Traditional evolutionary mechanisms are not always sufficient to explain the rapidity with which certain weed populations adapt in response to herbicide exposure. Stress-induced epigenetic changes, such as alterations in DNA methylation, are potential additional adaptive mechanisms for herbicide resistance. We performed methylC sequencing of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves that developed after either mock treatment or two different sub-lethal doses of the herbicide glyphosate, the most-used herbicide in the history of agriculture...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740608/gne-886-a-potent-and-selective-inhibitor-of-the-cat-eye-syndrome-chromosome-region-candidate-2-bromodomain-cecr2
#17
Terry D Crawford, James E Audia, Steve Bellon, Daniel J Burdick, Archana Bommi-Reddy, Alexandre Côté, Richard T Cummings, Martin Duplessis, E Megan Flynn, Michael Hewitt, Hon-Ren Huang, Hariharan Jayaram, Ying Jiang, Shivangi Joshi, James R Kiefer, Jeremy Murray, Christopher G Nasveschuk, Arianne Neiss, Eneida Pardo, F Anthony Romero, Peter Sandy, Robert J Sims, Yong Tang, Alexander M Taylor, Vickie Tsui, Jian Wang, Shumei Wang, Yongyun Wang, Zhaowu Xu, Laura Zawadzke, Xiaoqin Zhu, Brian K Albrecht, Steven R Magnuson, Andrea G Cochran
The biological function of bromodomains, epigenetic readers of acetylated lysine residues, remains largely unknown. Herein we report our efforts to discover a potent and selective inhibitor of the bromodomain of cat eye syndrome chromosome region candidate 2 (CECR2). Screening of our internal medicinal chemistry collection led to the identification of a pyrrolopyridone chemical lead, and subsequent structure-based drug design led to a potent and selective CECR2 bromodomain inhibitor (GNE-886) suitable for use as an in vitro tool compound...
July 13, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740569/dna-oncogenic-virus-induced-oxidative-stress-genomic-damage-and-aberrant-epigenetic-alterations
#18
REVIEW
Mankgopo Magdeline Kgatle, Catherine Wendy Spearman, Asgar Ali Kalla, Henry Norman Hairwadzi
Approximately 20% of human cancers is attributable to DNA oncogenic viruses such as human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Unrepaired DNA damage is the most common and overlapping feature of these DNA oncogenic viruses and a source of genomic instability and tumour development. Sustained DNA damage results from unceasing production of reactive oxygen species and activation of inflammasome cascades that trigger genomic changes and increased propensity of epigenetic alterations...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740412/prevalence-of-diabetes-and-obesity-in-association-with-prematurity-and-growth-restriction
#19
REVIEW
Gretchen Kopec, Prem S Shekhawat, Maroun J Mhanna
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is when fetuses and newborn infants have not reached their true growth potential as genetically defined. Fetuses with IUGR develop in a less than ideal environment that leads to epigenetic changes and marks infants' metabolism for the rest of their lives. Epigenetic changes affect insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels and lead to insulin resistance and ultimately to a metabolic syndrome. The metabolic syndrome is a constellation of illnesses that raise one's risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, and ischemic heart disease, including hypertension, dyslipidemia, central obesity, insulin resistance, and inflammation...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739824/epigenetic-mechanisms-regulate-innate-immunity-against-uropathogenic-and-commensal-like-escherichia-coli-in-the-surrogate-insect-model-galleria-mellonella
#20
Miriam Heitmueller, André Billion, Ulrich Dobrindt, Andreas Vilcinskas, Krishnendu Mukherjee
Innate immunity-related genes in humans are activated during urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli but are suppressed by commensals. Epigenetic mechanisms play a pivotal role in the regulation of gene expression in response to environmental stimuli. To determine whether epigenetic mechanisms can explain the different behaviors of pathogenic and commensal bacteria, we infected larvae of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella, a widely-used model insect host, with a uropathogenic E...
July 24, 2017: Infection and Immunity
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