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Vionnie W C Yu, Rushdia Z Yusuf, Toshihiko Oki, Juwell Wu, Borja Saez, Xin Wang, Colleen Cook, Ninib Baryawno, Michael J Ziller, Eunjung Lee, Hongcang Gu, Alexander Meissner, Charles P Lin, Peter V Kharchenko, David T Scadden
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 23, 2017: Cell
Hadijat M Makinde, Talia B Just, Carla M Cuda, Harris Perlman, Steven J Schwulst
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that presents as a late sequela from traumatic brain injury (TBI). Traumatic brain injury is a growing and under-recognized public health concern with a high degree of morbidity and large associated global costs. While the immune response to TBI is complex, its contribution to the development of CTE remains largely unknown. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the link between CTE and the resident innate immune system of the brain- microglia...
February 23, 2017: Shock
M Kalani, H Hodjati, A GhamarTalepoor, A Samsami Dehaghani, M Doroudchi
Given that the basic mechanism of the effect of Helicobacter (H.) pylori in the induction of atherosclerosis remains unknown and regarding the regulatory role of micro RNAs (miRNAs) in endothelial cell (EC) functions, we aimed to investigate the effect of H. pylori on the expression of miRNAs involved in atherosclerosis (atheromiRs) and their correlation with apoptosis in human umbilical vein EC (HUVEC). HUVECs were treated with different cytotoxin associated gene A (CagA) positive and negative H. pylori derived products, then the levels of apoptosis and miR-21, 92a, 155 and 663 were measured using flowcytometry and real time-PCR methods, respectively...
January 30, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Xiaofei Sun, Qiyuan Yang, Carl J Rogers, Min Du, Mei-Jun Zhu
Impairment in gut epithelial integrity and barrier function is associated with many diseases. The homeostasis of intestinal barrier is based on a delicate regulation of epithelial proliferation and differentiation. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master regulator of energy metabolism, and cellular metabolites are intrinsically involved in epigenetic modifications governing cell differentiation. We aimed to evaluate the regulatory role of AMPK on intestinal epithelial development and barrier function...
February 24, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
Alexandre A Lussier, Joanne Weinberg, Michael S Kobor
Adverse in utero events can alter the development and function of numerous physiological systems, giving rise to lasting neurodevelopmental deficits. In particular, data have shown that prenatal alcohol exposure can reprogram neurobiological systems, altering developmental trajectories and resulting in increased vulnerability to adverse neurobiological, behavioral and health outcomes. Increasing evidence suggests that epigenetic mechanisms are potential mediators for the reprogramming of neurobiological systems, as they may provide a link between the genome, environmental conditions and neurodevelopmental outcomes...
March 2017: Epigenomics
Linda Valeri, Sarah L Reese, Shanshan Zhao, Christian M Page, Wenche Nystad, Brent A Coull, Stephanie J London
AIMS: Assessing whether epigenetic alterations mediate associations between environmental exposures and health outcomes is increasingly popular. We investigate the impact of exposure misclassification in such investigations. MATERIALS & METHODS: We quantify bias and false-positive rates due to exposure misclassification in mediation analysis and assess the performance of the simulation extrapolation method (SIMEX). We evaluate whether DNA-methylation mediates smoking-birth weight relationship in the Norwegian Mother and Child Study birth cohort...
March 2017: Epigenomics
Paige A Bommarito, Elizabeth Martin, Rebecca C Fry
Exposure to environmental contaminants during pregnancy has been linked to adverse outcomes at birth and later in life. The link between prenatal exposures and latent health outcomes suggests that these exposures may result in long-term epigenetic reprogramming. Toxic metals and endocrine disruptors are two major classes of contaminants that are ubiquitously present in the environment and represent threats to human health. In this review, we present evidence that prenatal exposures to these contaminants result in fetal epigenomic changes, including altered global DNA methylation, gene-specific CpG methylation and microRNA expression...
March 2017: Epigenomics
Elizabeth Martin, Lisa Smeester, Paige A Bommarito, Matthew R Grace, Kim Boggess, Karl Kuban, Margaret R Karagas, Carmen J Marsit, T Michael O'Shea, Rebecca C Fry
AIM: Sex-based differences in response to adverse prenatal environments and infant outcomes have been observed, yet the underlying mechanisms for this are unclear. The placental epigenome may be a driver of these differences. METHODS: Placental DNA methylation was assessed at more than 480,000 CpG sites from male and female infants enrolled in the extremely low gestational age newborns cohort (ELGAN) and validated in a separate US-based cohort. The impact of gestational age on placental DNA methylation was further examined using the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study for a total of n = 467 placentas...
March 2017: Epigenomics
Toby Mansell, Richard Saffery
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Epigenomics
Alexandra E Shields
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Epigenomics
Shriram N Rajpathak, Deepti D Deobagkar
The gene balance hypothesis predicts that an imbalance in the dosage sensitive genes affects the cascade of gene networks that may influence the fitness of individuals. The phenotypes associated with chromosomal aneuploidies demonstrate the importance of gene dosage balance. We have employed untransformed human fibroblast cells with different number of X chromosomes to assess the expression of miRNAs and autosomal genes in addition to the DNA methylation status. High throughput NGS analysis using illumina Next seq500 has detected several autosomal as well as X linked miRNAs as differentially expressed in X monosomy and trisomy cells...
February 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
Fei Gao, Yuyu Niu, Yi Eve Sun, Hanlin Lu, Yongchang Chen, Siguang Li, Yu Kang, Yuping Luo, Chenyang Si, Juehua Yu, Chang Li, Nianqin Sun, Wei Si, Hong Wang, Weizhi Ji, Tao Tan
Critical epigenetic regulation of primate embryogenesis entails DNA methylome changes. Here we report genome-wide composition, patterning, and stage-specific dynamics of DNA methylation in pre-implantation rhesus monkey embryos as well as male and female gametes studied using an optimized tagmentation-based whole-genome bisulfite sequencing method. We show that upon fertilization, both paternal and maternal genomes undergo active DNA demethylation, and genome-wide de novo DNA methylation is also initiated in the same period...
February 24, 2017: Cell Research
Christoph Schartner, Christiane Ziegler, Miriam A Schiele, Leonie Kollert, Heike Weber, Peter Zwanzger, Volker Arolt, Paul Pauli, Jürgen Deckert, Andreas Reif, Katharina Domschke
The corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) is crucially involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and thus a major regulator of the stress response. CRHR1 gene variation is associated with several mental disorders including anxiety disorders. Studies in rodents have demonstrated epigenetic regulation of CRHR1 gene expression to moderate response to stressful environment. In the present study, we investigated CRHR1 promoter methylation for the first time regarding its role in panic disorder applying a case-control approach (N=131 patients, N=131 controls)...
February 20, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Takahito Sugase, Tsuyoshi Takahashi, Satoshi Serada, Rie Nakatsuka, Minoru Fujimoto, Tomoharu Ohkawara, Hisashi Hara, Takahiko Nishigaki, Koji Tanaka, Yasuhiro Miyazaki, Tomoki Makino, Yukinori Kurokawa, Makoto Yamasaki, Kiyokazu Nakajima, Shuji Takiguchi, Tadamitsu Kishimoto, Masaki Mori, Yuichiro Doki, Tetsuji Naka
Chronic inflammation is involved in cancer growth in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), which is a highly refractory cancer with poor prognosis. This study investigated the antitumor effect and mechanisms of SOCS1 gene therapy for ESCC. Patients with ESCC showed epigenetics silencing of SOCS1 gene by methylation in the CpG islands. We infected ten ESCC cells with an adenovirus-expressing SOCS1 (AdSOCS1) to examine the antitumor effect and mechanism of SOCS1 overexpression. SOCS1 overexpression markedly decreased the proliferation of all ESCC cell lines and induced apoptosis...
February 24, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Magimairajan Issai Vanan, D Alan Underhill, David D Eisenstat
Progress in the treatment of adult high-grade gliomas (HGG), including chemoradiation with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide for glioblastoma, has not translated into significant therapeutic advances for pediatric HGG, where overall survival has plateaued at 15% to 20%, especially when considering specialized pediatric treatment in tertiary care centers, maximal safe neurosurgical resection, optimized delivery of involved field radiation, and improvements in supportive care. However, recent advances in our understanding of pediatric HGG, including the application of next-generation sequencing and DNA methylation profiling, have identified mutations in the histone variant H3...
February 23, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Jing Qin Wu, Sharadha Sakthikumar, Chongmei Dong, Peng Zhang, Christina A Cuomo, Robert F Park
Leaf rust is one of the most common and damaging diseases of wheat, and is caused by an obligate biotrophic basidiomycete, Puccinia triticina (Pt). In the present study, 20 Pt isolates from Australia, comprising 10 phenotype-matched pairs with contrasting pathogenicity for Lr20, were analyzed using whole genome sequencing. Compared to the reference genome of the American Pt isolate 1-1 BBBD Race 1, an average of 404,690 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) per isolate was found and the proportion of heterozygous SNPs was above 87% in the majority of the isolates, demonstrating a high level of polymorphism and a high rate of heterozygosity...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Christopher R Vakoc, David A Tuveson
Comparative genomic analyses of primary tumors and metastases within individuals with pancreatic cancer have exposed the complex clonal dynamics that underlie the dissemination of cancer cells to distant sites. Recent studies implicate non-genetic mechanisms in this process, particularly fluctuations in chromatin states and metabolism, which can endow rare cells within a primary tumor with metastatic potential.
February 24, 2017: Nature Genetics
Huxing Cui, Miguel López, Kamal Rahmouni
Obesity, a major risk factor for the development of diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and certain types of cancer, arises from a chronic positive energy balance that is often due to unlimited access to food and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle on the background of a genetic and epigenetic vulnerability. Our understanding of the humoral and neuronal systems that mediate the control of energy homeostasis has improved dramatically in the past few decades. However, our ability to develop effective strategies to slow the current epidemic of obesity has been hampered, largely owing to the limited knowledge of the mechanisms underlying resistance to the action of metabolic hormones such as leptin and ghrelin...
February 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
Michael Camilleri, Guy Boeckxstaens
This review introduces the principles of visceral sensation and appraises the current approaches to management of visceral pain in functional GI diseases, principally IBS. These approaches include dietary measures including fibre supplementation, low fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols diet, and pharmacological approaches such as antispasmodics, peppermint oil, antidepressants (tricyclic agents, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors), 5-HT3 receptor antagonists (alosetron, ondansetron, ramosetron), non-absorbed antibiotic (rifaximin), secretagogues (lubiprostone, linaclotide), μ-opioid receptor (OR) and κ-OR agonist, δ-OR antagonist (eluxadoline), histamine H1 receptor antagonist (ebastine), neurokinin-2 receptor antagonist (ibodutant) and GABAergic agents (gabapentin and pregabalin)...
February 23, 2017: Gut
Marie-Aude Tschopp, Taichiro Iki, Christopher A Brosnan, Pauline E Jullien, Nathan Pumplin
Small RNAs play an important role in regulating gene expression through transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene silencing. Biogenesis of small RNAs from longer double-stranded (ds)RNA requires the activity of DICER-LIKE ribonucleases (DCLs), which in plants are aided by dsRNA binding proteins (DRBs). To gain insight into this pathway in the model plant Arabidopsis, we searched for interactors of DRB4 by immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry-based finger printing and discovered DRB7.1. This interaction, verified by reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation, colocalizes with markers of cytoplasmic siRNA bodies and nuclear dicing bodies...
February 23, 2017: RNA
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