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Disaster simulation

Deepjyoti Deka, Sriram Vishwanath, Ross Baldick
Natural disasters like hurricanes, floods or earthquakes can damage power grid devices and create cascading blackouts and islands. The nature of failure propagation and extent of damage, among other factors, is dependent on the structural features of the grid, that are distinct from that of random networks. This paper analyzes the structural vulnerability of real power grids to impending disasters and presents intuitive graphical metrics to quantify the extent of topological damage. We develop two improved graph eigen-value based bounds on the grid vulnerability...
2018: PloS One
Sharon Farra, Eric Hodgson, Elaine T Miller, Nathan Timm, Whittney Brady, Matt Gneuhs, Jun Ying, Jackie Hausfeld, Emily Cosgrove, Ashley Simon, Michael Bottomley
OBJECTIVE: This study examined differences in learning outcomes among newborn intensive care unit (NICU) workers who underwent virtual reality simulation (VRS) emergency evacuation training versus those who received web-based clinical updates (CU). Learning outcomes included a) knowledge gained, b) confidence with evacuation, and c) performance in a live evacuation exercise. METHODS: A longitudinal, mixed-method, quasi-experimental design was implemented utilizing a sample of NICU workers randomly assigned to VRS training or CUs...
October 8, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Mengtian Zhao, Heather Rosoff, Richard S John
Previous research has evaluated public risk perception and response to a natural hazards in various settings; however, most of these studies were conducted either with a single scenario or after a natural disaster struck. To better understand the dynamic relationships among affect, risk perception, and behavioral intentions related to natural disasters, the current study implements a simulation scenario with escalating weather intensity, and includes a natural experiment allowing comparison of public response before and after a severe tornado event with extensive coverage by the national media...
October 5, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Mark X Cicero, Travis Whitfill, Barbara Walsh, Maria Carmen G Diaz, Grace M Arteaga, Daniel J Scherzer, Scott A Goldberg, Manu Madhok, Angela Bowen, Geno Paesano, Michael Redlener, Kevin Munjal, Marc Auerbach
BACKGROUND: Disaster triage is an infrequent, high-stakes skill set used by emergency medical services (EMS) personnel. Screen-based simulation (SBS) provides easy access to asynchronous disaster triage education. However, it is unclear if the performance during a SBS correlates with immersive simulation performance. METHODS: This was a nested cohort study within a randomized controlled trial (RCT). The RCT compared triage accuracy of paramedics and emergency medical technicians (EMTs) who completed an immersive simulation of a school shooting, interacted with an SBS for 13 weeks, and then completed the immersive simulation again...
August 21, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
Alexander Hart, Elias Nammour, Virginia Mangolds, John Broach
IntroductionThe most commonly used methods for triage in mass-casualty incidents (MCIs) rely upon providers to take exact counts of vital signs or other patient parameters. The acuity and volume of patients which can be present during an MCI makes this a time-consuming and potentially costly process.HypothesisThis study evaluates and compares the speed of the commonly used Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment (START) triage method with that of an "intuitive triage" method which relies instead upon the abilities of an experienced first responder to determine the triage category of each victim based upon their overall first-impression assessment...
August 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Hiroaki Ishiwata, Muneta Yokomatsu
This research formulates a dynamic stochastic macroeconomic model that includes an optimization problem for the formation of stock of human capital, production capital, and household assets, and quantitatively examines economic impacts of disaster on developing countries. We further investigate the optimal policy of development of disaster risk reduction (DRR) capital by considering costs of DRR investment, and show that the effect of DRR investment on economic growth is like a single-peaked curve with respect to the DRR investment rate, which implies that overaccumulation could decelerate economic growth...
August 20, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Paul J Ferraro, James N Sanchirico, Martin D Smith
Coupled human and natural systems (CHANS) are complex, dynamic, interconnected systems with feedback across social and environmental dimensions. This feedback leads to formidable challenges for causal inference. Two significant challenges involve assumptions about excludability and the absence of interference. These two assumptions have been largely unexplored in the CHANS literature, but when either is violated, causal inferences from observable data are difficult to interpret. To explore their plausibility, structural knowledge of the system is requisite, as is an explicit recognition that most causal variables in CHANS affect a coupled pairing of environmental and human elements...
August 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Isabel T Gross, Ryan F Coughlin, David C Cone, Sandy Bogucki, Marc Auerbach, Mark X Cicero
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the staff perception of a global positioning system (GPS) as a patient tracking tool at an emergency department (ED) receiving patients from a simulated mass casualty event. METHODS: During a regional airport disaster drill a plane crash with 46 pediatric patients was simulated. Personnel from airport fire, municipal fire, law enforcement, emergency medical services, and emergency medicine departments were present. Twenty of the 46 patient actors required transport for medical evaluation, and we affixed GPS devices to 12 of these actors...
August 17, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
Lainy D Cochran, Craig M Marianno
The Department of Nuclear Engineering at Texas A&M University currently supports exercises at Disaster City, a mock community used for emergency response training that features full-scale, collapsible structures designed to simulate various levels of disaster and wreckage. Emergency response exercises can be enhanced by using unsealed radioactive sources to simulate a more realistic response environment following an incident involving the dispersion of radioactive material. Limited exercises are performed worldwide using unsealed radioactive sources, and most of that information is not publicly available...
January 2018: Health Physics
Waheeb Nasr Naser, Huda Ba Saleem
BACKGROUND: Medical professionals together with other first responder teams are the first to attend an emergency or disaster. Knowledge and training in emergency and disaster preparedness are important in responding effectively. This study aims to assess the current knowledge, attitude and training in emergency and disaster preparedness among Yemeni health professionals. METHOD: A descriptive, cross-sectional, non-probability based study was conducted in Yemen using self-reported on-line and paper surveys in 2017...
August 6, 2018: BMC Emergency Medicine
Il-Kyu Ha
Finding a target quickly is one of the most important tasks in drone operations. In particular, rapid target detection is a critical issue for tasks such as finding rescue victims during the golden period, environmental monitoring, locating military facilities, and monitoring natural disasters. Therefore, in this study, an improved hierarchical probabilistic target search algorithm based on the collaboration of drones at different altitudes is proposed. This is a method for reducing the search time and search distance by improving the information transfer methods between high-altitude and low-altitude drones...
August 2, 2018: Sensors
Kihwan Song, Soojin You, Jinhyung Chon
Floods are threats to ecosystems that are caused by natural disasters such as typhoons and heavy rain, and to respond to these threats, resilience needs to be improved. In this study, the response of the social-ecological system of Haeundae-gu (Busan, Republic of Korea) to disasters is analyzed by using a causal loop diagram, and a resilience improvement plan is presented by simulating the disaster resilience using green infrastructure through the System Resilience Dynamics Model. First, the resilience values are highest when green infrastructure is applied at the maximum applicable ratio (30%) compared with no application...
November 2018: Environmental Pollution
Gennady Waizman, Shraga Shoval, Itzhak Benenson
Analysis of accidents that involve vehicles and pedestrians requires accurate reproduction of the dynamics of the vehicles and pedestrians immediately prior to and during the accident. In many cases, only centimeters and milliseconds separate survival from disaster, particularly when high-speed aggressive drivers and careless pedestrians are involved. In this paper we present a methodology for analyzing the dynamic interaction between drivers in conflict scenarios with pedestrians. We assess the safety of a traffic location's environment with a high-resolution, spatially explicit, dynamic agent-based simulation model - SAFEPED...
October 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Mark X Cicero, Travis Whitfill, Barbara Walsh, Maria Carmen Diaz, Grace Arteaga, Daniel J Scherzer, Scott Goldberg, Manu Madhok, Angela Bowen, Geno Paesano, Michael Redlener, Kevin Munjal, David Kessler, Marc Auerbach
Objectives: Paramedics and emergency medical technicians (EMTs) perform triage at disaster sites. There is a need for disaster triage training. Live simulation training is costly and difficult to deliver. Screen-based simulations may overcome these training barriers. We hypothesized that a screen-based simulation, 60 Seconds to Survival (60S), would be associated with in-game improvements in triage accuracy. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study of a screen-based simulation intervention, 60S...
April 2018: AEM education and training
Elizabeth K Hewett, Joshua Nagler, Michael C Monuteaux, Michele Morin, Mary Devine, Michelle Carestia, Sarita Chung
Objective: Emergency department (ED) providers require competency in responding to hazardous materials (HAZMAT) events. The optimal strategies to teach HAZMAT response principles to ED providers and to ensure skill retention are not known. Our aim was to design, implement, and evaluate a multifaceted, interprofessional educational curriculum for pediatric ED staff to improve their skills, knowledge, and confidence in responding to a HAZMAT event. Methods: In this longitudinal cohort study, we created and assessed a 3-hour educational curriculum comprised of didactics, skills stations, a tabletop exercise, and a simulated multivictim disaster...
January 2018: AEM education and training
Abdul Hannan, Sobia Arshad, Muhammad Awais Azam, Jonathan Loo, Syed Hassan Ahmed, Muhammad Faran Majeed, Sayed Chhattan Shah
Disasters are the uncertain calamities which within no time can change the situation quite drastically. They not only affect the system's infrastructure but can also put an adverse effect on human life. A large chunk of the IP-based Internet of Things (IoT) schemes tackle disasters such as fire, earthquake, and flood. Moreover, recently proposed Named Data Networking (NDN) architecture exhibited promising results for IoT as compare to IP-based approaches. Therefore to tackle disaster management system (DMS), it is needed to explore it through NDN architecture and this is the main motivation behind this work...
July 26, 2018: Sensors
Marlous Lmi Verheul, Michel LA Dückers, Bea B Visser, Ralf Jj Beerens, Joost Jlm Bierens
IntroductionThe central question this study sought to answer was whether the team members of Strategic Crisis Teams (SCTs) participating in mass-casualty incident (MCI) exercises in the Netherlands learn from their participation. METHODS: Evaluation reports of exercises that took place at two different times were collected and analyzed against a theoretical model with several dimensions, looking at both the quality of the evaluation methodology (three criteria: objectives described, link between objective and items for improvement, and data-collection method) and the learning effect of the exercise (one criterion: the change in number of items for improvement)...
August 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Huajun Zhang, Kai Wang, Lixin Shen, Heping Chen, Fanrong Hou, Xiaoyan Zhou, Demin Zhang, Xiangyu Zhu
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are serious ecological disasters in coastal areas, significantly influencing biogeochemical cycles driven by bacteria. The shifts in microbial communities during HABs have been widely investigated, but the assembly mechanisms of microbial communities during HABs are poorly understood. Here, using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, we analyzed the microbial communities during an early-spring diatom bloom, in order to investigate the dynamics of microbial assembly processes. Rhodobacteraceae , Flavobacteriaceae , and Microbacteriaceae were the main bacterial families during the bloom...
September 15, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Soichiro Kato, Takehiko Tarui, Yoshihiro Yamaguchi
Aim: To evaluate the ease of use, reliability, and duplication risks of a new identification (ID) coding method, which works for mass casualty events such as disaster scenes. Methods: The new ID code consisted of 16 alphanumeric characters: seven characters for the responder's information and nine for the casualty, which can be created in a very low-tech manner without using any electronic devices. A simulated triage was carried out for virtual causalities by students of the same grade at our university's medical school...
July 2018: Acute Medicine & Surgery
Uyen T Nguyen, Sara A Lincoln, Ana Gabriela Valladares Juárez, Martina Schedler, Jennifer L Macalady, Rudolf Müller, Katherine H Freeman
A significant portion of oil released during the Deepwater Horizon disaster reached the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) seafloor. Predicting the long-term fate of this oil is hindered by a lack of data about the combined influences of pressure, temperature, and sediment composition on microbial hydrocarbon remineralization in deep-sea sediments. To investigate crude oil biodegradation by native GOM microbial communities, we incubated core-top sediments from 13 GOM sites at water depths from 60-1500 m with crude oil under simulated aerobic seafloor conditions...
2018: PloS One
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