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Disaster simulation

Lainy D Cochran, Craig M Marianno
The Department of Nuclear Engineering at Texas A&M University currently supports exercises at Disaster City, a mock community used for emergency response training that features full-scale, collapsible structures designed to simulate various levels of disaster and wreckage. Emergency response exercises can be enhanced by using unsealed radioactive sources to simulate a more realistic response environment following an incident involving the dispersion of radioactive material. Limited exercises are performed worldwide using unsealed radioactive sources, and most of that information is not publicly available...
January 2018: Health Physics
Waheeb Nasr Naser, Huda Ba Saleem
BACKGROUND: Medical professionals together with other first responder teams are the first to attend an emergency or disaster. Knowledge and training in emergency and disaster preparedness are important in responding effectively. This study aims to assess the current knowledge, attitude and training in emergency and disaster preparedness among Yemeni health professionals. METHOD: A descriptive, cross-sectional, non-probability based study was conducted in Yemen using self-reported on-line and paper surveys in 2017...
August 6, 2018: BMC Emergency Medicine
Il-Kyu Ha
Finding a target quickly is one of the most important tasks in drone operations. In particular, rapid target detection is a critical issue for tasks such as finding rescue victims during the golden period, environmental monitoring, locating military facilities, and monitoring natural disasters. Therefore, in this study, an improved hierarchical probabilistic target search algorithm based on the collaboration of drones at different altitudes is proposed. This is a method for reducing the search time and search distance by improving the information transfer methods between high-altitude and low-altitude drones...
August 2, 2018: Sensors
Kihwan Song, Soojin You, Jinhyung Chon
Floods are threats to ecosystems that are caused by natural disasters such as typhoons and heavy rain, and to respond to these threats, resilience needs to be improved. In this study, the response of the social-ecological system of Haeundae-gu (Busan, Republic of Korea) to disasters is analyzed by using a causal loop diagram, and a resilience improvement plan is presented by simulating the disaster resilience using green infrastructure through the System Resilience Dynamics Model. First, the resilience values are highest when green infrastructure is applied at the maximum applicable ratio (30%) compared with no application...
July 23, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Gennady Waizman, Shraga Shoval, Itzhak Benenson
Analysis of accidents that involve vehicles and pedestrians requires accurate reproduction of the dynamics of the vehicles and pedestrians immediately prior to and during the accident. In many cases, only centimeters and milliseconds separate survival from disaster, particularly when high-speed aggressive drivers and careless pedestrians are involved. In this paper we present a methodology for analyzing the dynamic interaction between drivers in conflict scenarios with pedestrians. We assess the safety of a traffic location's environment with a high-resolution, spatially explicit, dynamic agent-based simulation model - SAFEPED...
July 26, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Mark X Cicero, Travis Whitfill, Barbara Walsh, Maria Carmen Diaz, Grace Arteaga, Daniel J Scherzer, Scott Goldberg, Manu Madhok, Angela Bowen, Geno Paesano, Michael Redlener, Kevin Munjal, David Kessler, Marc Auerbach
Objectives: Paramedics and emergency medical technicians (EMTs) perform triage at disaster sites. There is a need for disaster triage training. Live simulation training is costly and difficult to deliver. Screen-based simulations may overcome these training barriers. We hypothesized that a screen-based simulation, 60 Seconds to Survival (60S), would be associated with in-game improvements in triage accuracy. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study of a screen-based simulation intervention, 60S...
April 2018: AEM education and training
Elizabeth K Hewett, Joshua Nagler, Michael C Monuteaux, Michele Morin, Mary Devine, Michelle Carestia, Sarita Chung
Objective: Emergency department (ED) providers require competency in responding to hazardous materials (HAZMAT) events. The optimal strategies to teach HAZMAT response principles to ED providers and to ensure skill retention are not known. Our aim was to design, implement, and evaluate a multifaceted, interprofessional educational curriculum for pediatric ED staff to improve their skills, knowledge, and confidence in responding to a HAZMAT event. Methods: In this longitudinal cohort study, we created and assessed a 3-hour educational curriculum comprised of didactics, skills stations, a tabletop exercise, and a simulated multivictim disaster...
January 2018: AEM education and training
Abdul Hannan, Sobia Arshad, Muhammad Awais Azam, Jonathan Loo, Syed Hassan Ahmed, Muhammad Faran Majeed, Sayed Chhattan Shah
Disasters are the uncertain calamities which within no time can change the situation quite drastically. They not only affect the system's infrastructure but can also put an adverse effect on human life. A large chunk of the IP-based Internet of Things (IoT) schemes tackle disasters such as fire, earthquake, and flood. Moreover, recently proposed Named Data Networking (NDN) architecture exhibited promising results for IoT as compare to IP-based approaches. Therefore to tackle disaster management system (DMS), it is needed to explore it through NDN architecture and this is the main motivation behind this work...
July 26, 2018: Sensors
Marlous Lmi Verheul, Michel LA Dückers, Bea B Visser, Ralf Jj Beerens, Joost Jlm Bierens
IntroductionThe central question this study sought to answer was whether the team members of Strategic Crisis Teams (SCTs) participating in mass-casualty incident (MCI) exercises in the Netherlands learn from their participation. METHODS: Evaluation reports of exercises that took place at two different times were collected and analyzed against a theoretical model with several dimensions, looking at both the quality of the evaluation methodology (three criteria: objectives described, link between objective and items for improvement, and data-collection method) and the learning effect of the exercise (one criterion: the change in number of items for improvement)...
July 17, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Huajun Zhang, Kai Wang, Lixin Shen, Heping Chen, Fanrong Hou, Xiaoyan Zhou, Demin Zhang, Xiangyu Zhu
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are serious ecological disasters in coastal areas, significantly influencing biogeochemical cycles driven by bacteria. The shifts in microbial communities during HABs have been widely investigated, yet the assembly mechanism of microbial communities during HABs is poorly understood. Here using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, we analyzed the microbial communities during an early spring diatom bloom, in order to investigate the dynamics of microbial assembly process. Rhodobacteraceae , Flavobacteriaceae, and Microbacteriaceae were the main bacterial families during the bloom...
July 13, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Soichiro Kato, Takehiko Tarui, Yoshihiro Yamaguchi
Aim: To evaluate the ease of use, reliability, and duplication risks of a new identification (ID) coding method, which works for mass casualty events such as disaster scenes. Methods: The new ID code consisted of 16 alphanumeric characters: seven characters for the responder's information and nine for the casualty, which can be created in a very low-tech manner without using any electronic devices. A simulated triage was carried out for virtual causalities by students of the same grade at our university's medical school...
July 2018: Acute Medicine & Surgery
Uyen T Nguyen, Sara A Lincoln, Ana Gabriela Valladares Juárez, Martina Schedler, Jennifer L Macalady, Rudolf Müller, Katherine H Freeman
A significant portion of oil released during the Deepwater Horizon disaster reached the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) seafloor. Predicting the long-term fate of this oil is hindered by a lack of data about the combined influences of pressure, temperature, and sediment composition on microbial hydrocarbon remineralization in deep-sea sediments. To investigate crude oil biodegradation by native GOM microbial communities, we incubated core-top sediments from 13 GOM sites at water depths from 60-1500 m with crude oil under simulated aerobic seafloor conditions...
2018: PloS One
Hani Alnabulsi, John Drury, Anne Templeton
Around 2 million pilgrims attend the annual Hajj to Mecca and the holy places, which are subject to dense crowding. Both architecture and psychology can be part of disaster risk reduction in relation to crowding, since both can affect the nature of collective behaviour-particularly cooperation-among pilgrims. To date, collective behaviour at the Hajj has not been systematically investigated from a psychological perspective. We examined determinants of cooperation in the Grand Mosque and plaza during the pilgrimage...
August 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Anisa J N Jafar, Rachel J Fletcher, Fiona Lecky, Anthony D Redmond
IntroductionImproving medical record keeping is a key part of the World Health Organization's (WHO's; Geneva, Switzerland) drive to standardize and evaluate emergency medical team (EMT) response to sudden onset disasters (SODs).ProblemIn response to the WHO initiative, the UK EMT is redeveloping its medical record template in line with the WHO minimum dataset (MDS) for daily reporting. When changing a medical record, it is important to understand how well it functions before it is implemented. METHODS: The redeveloped medical record was piloted at a UK EMT deployment course using simulated patients in order to examine ease of use by practitioners, and rates of data capture for key MDS variables...
July 2, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Diana Mitsova
There is a growing understanding that cross-sector risks faced by critical infrastructure assets in natural disasters require a collaborative foresight from multiple disciplines. However, current contributions to infrastructure interdependency analysis remain centered in discipline-specific methodologies often constrained by underlying theories and assumptions. This perspective article contributes to ongoing discussions about the uses, challenges, and opportunities provided by interdisciplinary research in critical infrastructure interdependency analysis...
June 20, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Thomas Hennequin, Hjalte Jomo Danielsen Sørup, Yan Dong, Karsten Arnbjerg-Nielsen
Sustainable flood management is a basic societal need. In this article, life cycle assessment is used to compare two ways to maintain the state of a coastal urban area in a changing climate with increasing flood risk. On one side, the construction of a dike, a hard and proactive scenario, is modelled using a bottom up approach. On the other, the systematic repair of houses flooded by sea surges, a post-disaster measure, is assessed using a Monte Carlo simulation allowing for aleatory uncertainties in predicting future sea level rise and occurrences of extreme events...
November 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Kris Wernstedt, Patrick S Roberts, Joseph Arvai, Kelly Redmond
Emergency managers who work on floods and other weather-related hazards constitute critical frontline responders to disasters. Yet, while these professionals operate in a realm rife with uncertainty related to forecasts and other unknowns, the influence of uncertainty on their decision-making is poorly understood. Consequently, a national-level survey of county emergency managers in the United States was administered to examine how they interpret forecast information, using hypothetical climate, flood, and weather scenarios to simulate their responses to uncertain information...
June 12, 2018: Disasters
Guillaume Mortamet, Noella Lode, Nadia Roumeliotis, Florent Baudin, Etienne Javouhey, François Dubos, Julien Naud
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine paediatric hospital preparedness for a mass casualty disaster involving children in both prehospital and hospital settings. The study findings will serve to generate recommendations, guidelines and training objectives. DESIGN AND SETTING: The AMAVI-PED study is a cross-sectional survey. An electronic questionnaire was sent to French physicians with key roles in specialised paediatric acute care. RESULTS: In total, 81% (26 of 32) of French University Hospitals were represented in the study...
June 2, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Melinda J Morton Hamer, Paul L Reed, Jane D Greulich, Charles W Beadling
OBJECTIVE: The West African Disaster Preparedness Initiative held a disaster preparedness tabletop exercise with representatives from the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) in November 2015. The tabletop exercise was hosted by the Republic of Ghana's National Disaster Management Organization and partners in Accra, Ghana. METHODS: ECOWAS Commission delegates and representatives from 10 member states were confronted with a series of simulated crises...
May 30, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Dan Zhang, Qi Zhang, Jiaming Qiu, Peng Bai, Kang Liang, Xianghu Li
Hydrological extremes are changing under the impacts of environmental change, i.e., climate variation and human activity, which can substantially influence ecosystems and the living environment of humans in affected region. This study investigates the impacts of environmental change on hydrological drought in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River in China based on hydrological modelling. Change points for streamflow into two major lakes and a reservoir in the study area were detected in the late 1980s using the Mann-Kendall test...
October 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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