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Disaster simulation

Simon Drees, Karin Geffert, Rex Brynen
Introduction: Every year, natural and other disasters cause significant loss of life around the world. This calls for an improved response from, among others, the health professions to strengthen disaster medicine, whether relating to prevention, emergency response or recovery. It includes both knowledge and competencies, such as planning, coordination, and communication. Simulations can be used to acquire these competencies. Project description: In 2016, the German Medical Students' Association founded the project "Disaster Medicine" with the goal of educating and connecting medical students interested in the topic...
2018: GMS Journal for Medical Education
Francesca Marino, Luca Nunziata
Policy Points Policymakers should invest more on researching the long-term health effects of low-ionizing radiation exposure, as we are far from reaching a consensus on a topic that is of enormous importance for public health and safety. Public policies such as those limiting the import of contaminated food from areas hit by a radioactive disaster or those regulating the resident population's access to such areas should follow a precautionary approach. Neoplasm diagnosis and medical care should be designed in order to take into account the possible role of long-term, low-dose radiation exposure...
December 2018: Milbank Quarterly
Libo Sun, Norman I Badler
Statistical analysis of accidents in recent years shows that crowd crushes have become significant non-combat, non-environmental public disasters. Unlike common accidents such as fires, crowd crushes may occur without obvious external causes, and may arise quickly and unexpectedly in otherwise normal surroundings. We use physics-based simulations to understand the processes and consequences of compressive forces on high density static crowds consisting of up to 400 agents in a restricted space characterized by barriers to free movement...
November 27, 2018: Sensors
Xuedong Yan, Xiaobing Liu, Yulei Song
Traffic assignment and management objectives are considered as two significant parts in developing the emergency evacuation plan, which can directly influence the evacuation performance and efficiency. From the perspective of disaster response operators, the evacuation objective frequently is to minimize the total evacuation time to reduce losses, which may lead to an unreasonable and unfair phenomenon where people in highest risk areas may be forced to sacrifice their priorities of evacuation to improve the system evacuation efficiency...
2018: PloS One
Hee Young Lee, Jeong Il Lee, Oh Hyun Kim, Kang Hyun Lee, Hyeong Tae Kim, Hyun Youk
PURPOSE: It was considered the challenges of the actual response and the potential for improvement, including the activities of the disaster response system, national emergency medical center, and the regional base hospital for the treatment of multiple traffic accident victims. The purpose of this study was to analyze the accident management system through real investigating the multiple collision over 10 vehicles with mass casualty events as a disaster situation. METHODS: This study was retrospective study to analyze the disaster event with multiple collision traffic accident on the expressway in Korea...
November 20, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Amer Al-Rahayfeh, Abdul Razaque, Yaser Jararweh, Muder Almiani
Significant research has been conducted for maintaining a high standard of communication and good coverage in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), but extra power consumption and mobility issues are not yet fully resolved. This paper introduces a memory-less location mobility-aware Lattice Mobility Model (LMM) for WSNs. LMM is capable of concurrently determining the node and sink mobility. LMM has a lower pause time, fewer control packets, and less node dependency (e.g., the energy consumed by each node in each cycle that is independent of the data traffic)...
November 22, 2018: Sensors
Yukihiro Kamiya
Non-contact vital sensing using a Doppler sensor enables us to remotely measure vital signs such as respirations and heartbeats. In addition to such vital signs, the direction of arrival (DOA) of the multiple persons or animals is of our interest. For example, if a robot can detect DOAs of multiple living bodies, the robot is capable of tracing the living bodies, or discover them under disaster fields. ESPRIT is a well-known super-resolution DOA estimation method. However, it is also well-known that its performance is limited by the number of antennas and the coherence of the multiple incoming signals...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Bonnie Smithers, Monica L Tenhunen
As a component of disaster response, nurses need to understand their roles in preparing for and responding to a disaster. Limited evidence regarding educating undergraduate nursing students for disasters exists. An interdisciplinary disaster drill was developed and implemented at a university nursing program. Challenges in preparing the students without giving specific details and ways of providing a more realistic experience continue to be addressed. Continued evaluation of the simulation and making identified changes to the interdisciplinary disaster drills will improve student learning and help to prepare future nurses for disasters...
November 7, 2018: Nursing Education Perspectives
Guohui Li, Xiao Ma, Hong Yang
The change of the number of sunspots has a great impact on the Earth's climate, agriculture, communications, natural disasters, and other aspects, so it is very important to predict the number of sunspots. Aiming at the chaotic characteristics of monthly mean of sunspots, a novel hybrid model for forecasting sunspots time-series based on variational mode decomposition (VMD) and backpropagation (BP) neural network improved by firefly algorithm (FA) is proposed. Firstly, a set of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) are obtained by VMD decomposition of the monthly mean time series of the sunspots...
2018: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
Yabin Liang, Qian Feng, Dongsheng Li, Sijia Cai
Threaded connections are the most common pipe fittings used in oil and gas transportation systems. Due to external vibrations, cyclic loads, and pollution, the fitting parts may start getting loose, which could result in pipeline leaks and other environmental disasters. It is of great significance to develop a reliable technique that could provide real-time monitoring of the looseness of pipeline fittings. In this paper, a piezoceramic-based active sensing method combined with the electro-mechanical impedance (EMI) technique was developed to monitor the health condition of threaded pipe connections in real time...
October 30, 2018: Sensors
Adam Seward, Norman Ratcliffe, Stephen Newton, Richard Caldow, Daniel Piec, Paul Morrison, Tom Cadwallender, Wesley Davies, Mark Bolton
Habitat management to restore or create breeding sites may allow metapopulations to increase in size and reduce the risk of demographic stochasticity or disasters causing metapopulation extinction. However, if newly restored or created sites are of low quality, they may act as sinks that draw individuals away from better quality sites to the detriment of metapopulation size. Following intensive conservation effort, the metapopulation of roseate tern (Sterna dougallii) in NW Europe is recovering from a large crash in numbers, but most former colonies remain unoccupied and hence are potential targets for restoration...
October 23, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
Sherrill J Smith, Sharon L Farra, Deborah L Ulrich, Eric Hodgson, Stephanie Nicely, Angelia Mickle
AIM: The aim of the study was to assess two levels of immersive virtual reality simulation (VRS) to teach the skill of decontamination. BACKGROUND: Little is known about the use of VRS in providing disaster education, including retention. METHOD: Quasiexperimental design with repeated measures, supplemented by qualitative data, using a convenience sample of senior baccalaureate nursing students (n = 197) from four Midwest campuses was used...
November 2018: Nursing Education Perspectives
Qing Han, Xue Zhao, Chenyu Wang, Bingpeng Chen, Xiaonan Wang, Ziyan Zhang, Kesong Zhang, Yuhao Zheng, Jincheng Wang
INTRODUCTION: Periprosthetic femoral fractures (PFF) around tumor prosthesis of knee are stubborn problems for surgeons, huge bone defect and inappropriate biomechanics of the revision implant design can be disaster for reconstruction. With the development of three-dimensional (3D) printing technology, surgeons participate more in precise preoperative design and simulation for treatment of such fractures. In this study we explored an accurate and feasible way to restore normal anatomy and function of the knee joint with 3D printing technology...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Tawfik Al-Hadhrami, Faisal Saeed, Funminiyi Olajide
Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) integrate the advantages of WLANs and mobile Ad Hoc networks, which have become the key techniques of next-generation wireless networks in the context of emergency recovery. Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) are multi-hop wireless networks with instant deployment, self-healing, self-organization and self-configuration features. These capabilities make WMNs a promising technology for incident and emergency communication. An incident area network (IAN) needs a reliable and lively routing path during disaster recovery and emergency response operations when infrastructure-based communications and power resources have been destroyed and no routes are available...
2018: PloS One
T E Bernard, D S Yantek, E D Thimons
Refuge alternatives provide shelter to miners trapped underground during a disaster. Manufacturers must demonstrate that their refuge alternatives meet the U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) requirements for oxygen supply, carbon dioxide removal, and management of heat from the occupants and mechanical/chemical systems. In this study, miner size and activity level were used to determine the metabolic heat rate, oxygen requirements and carbon dioxide generation that are representative of miners in a refuge situation...
August 2018: Mining Engineering
Deepjyoti Deka, Sriram Vishwanath, Ross Baldick
Natural disasters like hurricanes, floods or earthquakes can damage power grid devices and create cascading blackouts and islands. The nature of failure propagation and extent of damage, among other factors, is dependent on the structural features of the grid, that are distinct from that of random networks. This paper analyzes the structural vulnerability of real power grids to impending disasters and presents intuitive graphical metrics to quantify the extent of topological damage. We develop two improved graph eigen-value based bounds on the grid vulnerability...
2018: PloS One
Sharon Farra, Eric Hodgson, Elaine T Miller, Nathan Timm, Whittney Brady, Matt Gneuhs, Jun Ying, Jackie Hausfeld, Emily Cosgrove, Ashley Simon, Michael Bottomley
OBJECTIVE: This study examined differences in learning outcomes among newborn intensive care unit (NICU) workers who underwent virtual reality simulation (VRS) emergency evacuation training versus those who received web-based clinical updates (CU). Learning outcomes included a) knowledge gained, b) confidence with evacuation, and c) performance in a live evacuation exercise. METHODS: A longitudinal, mixed-method, quasi-experimental design was implemented utilizing a sample of NICU workers randomly assigned to VRS training or CUs...
October 8, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Mengtian Zhao, Heather Rosoff, Richard S John
Previous research has evaluated public risk perception and response to a natural hazards in various settings; however, most of these studies were conducted either with a single scenario or after a natural disaster struck. To better understand the dynamic relationships among affect, risk perception, and behavioral intentions related to natural disasters, the current study implements a simulation scenario with escalating weather intensity, and includes a natural experiment allowing comparison of public response before and after a severe tornado event with extensive coverage by the national media...
October 5, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Mark X Cicero, Travis Whitfill, Barbara Walsh, Maria Carmen G Diaz, Grace M Arteaga, Daniel J Scherzer, Scott A Goldberg, Manu Madhok, Angela Bowen, Geno Paesano, Michael Redlener, Kevin Munjal, Marc Auerbach
BACKGROUND: Disaster triage is an infrequent, high-stakes skill set used by emergency medical services (EMS) personnel. Screen-based simulation (SBS) provides easy access to asynchronous disaster triage education. However, it is unclear if the performance during a SBS correlates with immersive simulation performance. METHODS: This was a nested cohort study within a randomized controlled trial (RCT). The RCT compared triage accuracy of paramedics and emergency medical technicians (EMTs) who completed an immersive simulation of a school shooting, interacted with an SBS for 13 weeks, and then completed the immersive simulation again...
August 21, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
Alexander Hart, Elias Nammour, Virginia Mangolds, John Broach
IntroductionThe most commonly used methods for triage in mass-casualty incidents (MCIs) rely upon providers to take exact counts of vital signs or other patient parameters. The acuity and volume of patients which can be present during an MCI makes this a time-consuming and potentially costly process.HypothesisThis study evaluates and compares the speed of the commonly used Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment (START) triage method with that of an "intuitive triage" method which relies instead upon the abilities of an experienced first responder to determine the triage category of each victim based upon their overall first-impression assessment...
August 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
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