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Hao Zhang, Tihomir Tomašič, Jie Shi, Matjaž Weiss, Rob Ruijtenbeek, Marko Anderluh, Roland J Pieters
O -GlcNAc transferase (OGT) attaches a GlcNAc moiety on specific substrate proteins using UDP-GlcNAc as the sugar donor. This modification can alter protein function by regulating cellular signaling and transcription pathways in response to altered nutrient availability and stress. Specific inhibitors of OGT would be valuable tools for biological studies and lead structures for therapeutics. The existing OGT inhibitors are mainly derived from the sugar donor substrate, but poor cell permeability and off-target effects limit their use...
May 1, 2018: MedChemComm
Alen Sevšek, Javier Sastre Toraño, Linda Quarles van Ufford, Ed E Moret, Roland J Pieters, Nathaniel I Martin
Alkylated guanidino derivatives of 1,5-dideoxy-1,5-imino-d-xylitol bearing an orthoester moiety were prepared using a concise synthetic protocol. Inhibition assays with a panel of glycosidases revealed that one of the compounds prepared displays potent inhibition against human β-glucocerebrosidase (GBA) at pH 7.0 with IC50 values in the low nanomolar range. Notably, a significant drop in inhibitory activity is observed when the same compound is tested at pH 5.2. This pH sensitive activity is due to degradation of the orthoester functionality at lower pH accompanied by loss of the alkyl group...
November 1, 2017: MedChemComm
Roland C Wilhelm
For the past 60 years Caulobacter spp. have been commonly attributed an aquatic and oligotrophic lifestyle yet are not uncommon in nutrient-rich or soil environments. This study evaluates the environmental and ecological associations of Caulobacter to reconcile past evidence, largely limited to culturing and microscopy, with currently available metagenomic and genomic data. The distribution of Caulobacter species and their characteristic adhesion-conferring genes, holdfast (hfaAB), were determined using collections of 10,641 16S rRNA gene libraries (196 studies) and 2625 shotgun metagenomes (190 studies) from a range of terrestrial and aquatic environments...
August 14, 2018: ISME Journal
Lluís Nisa, David Barras, Michaela Medová, Daniel M Aebersold, Matúš Medo, Michaela Poliaková, Jonas Koch, Beat Bojaxhiu, Olgun Elicin, Matthias S Dettmer, Paolo Angelino, Roland Giger, Urs Borner, Marco D Caversaccio, Thomas E Carey, Liza Ho, Thomas A McKee, Mauro Delorenzi, Yitzhak Zimmer
Metastases and tumor recurrence have a major prognostic impact in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC); however, cellular models that comprehensively characterize metastatic and recurrent HNSCC are lacking. To this end, we obtained genomic, transcriptomic and copy-number profiles of the UM-SCC cell line panel, encompassing patient-matched metastatic and recurrent cells. UM-SCC cells recapitulate the most prevalent genomic alterations described in HNSCC, featuring common TP53, PI3K, NOTCH, and Hippo pathway mutations...
August 14, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Xi Huang, Roland Hansson, Vaidas Palinauskas, Gediminas Valkiūnas, Olof Hellgren, Staffan Bensch
Genomic sequencing of avian haemosporidian parasites (Haemosporida) has been challenging due to excessive contamination from host DNA. In this study, we developed a cost-effective protocol to obtain parasite sequences from naturally infected birds, based on targeted sequence capture and next generation sequencing. With the genomic data of Haemoproteus tartakovskyi as a reference, we successfully sequenced up to 1,000 genes from each of the 15 selected samples belonging to nine different cytochrome b lineages, eight of which belong to Haemoproteus and one to Plasmodium...
August 11, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Thomas Kocar, Roland W Freudenmann, Manfred Spitzer, Heiko Graf
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
Ibrahim Cheik Njifon, Marjorie Bertolus, Roland Hayn, Michel Freyss
We present electronic structure calculations of bulk properties of (U, Pu)O2 , in the whole Pu content range for which only very few experimental data are available. We use DFT+U and the vdW-DF functional in order to take into account the strong 5f electron correlations and nonlocal correlations. We investigate structural, elastic, electronic, and energetic properties of (U, Pu)O2 in the approximation of the ideal solid solution as described by the special quasirandom structures (SQS) method. The results on electronic properties highlight the narrowing of the band gap due to the mixing of UO2 and PuO2 ...
August 14, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Christian Weisstanner, Georg Kägi, Werner Krammer, Chin B Eap, Roland Wiest, John H Missimer, Bruno J Weder
INTRODUCTION: Serving as a pilot study of poststroke pharmacotherapy, the present investigation was intended to establish the effect of a single dose of escitalopram on motor task performance in normal volunteers. METHODS: Ten healthy volunteers of median age 63 years including four females performed a well-studied tactile manipulation task in two fMRI sessions using a double-blind cross-over design. The sessions began approximately three hours after ingestion of 20 mg escitalopram or placebo presented in pseudorandom order...
June 2018: Brain and Behavior
Hans Halbwachs, Gary L Easton, Roland Bol, Erik A Hobbie, Mark H Garnett, Derek Peršoh, Liz Dixon, Nick Ostle, Peter Karasch, Gareth W Griffith
Several lines of evidence suggest that the agaricoid, non-ectomycorrhizal members of the family Hygrophoraceae (waxcaps) are biotrophic with unusual nitrogen nutrition. However, methods for the axenic culture and lab-based study of these organisms remain to be developed, so our current knowledge is limited to field-based investigations. Addition of nitrogen, lime or organophosphate pesticide at an experimental field site (Sourhope) suppressed fruiting of waxcap basidiocarps. Furthermore, stable isotope natural abundance in basidiocarps were unusually high in 15 N and low in 13 C, the latter consistent with mycorrhizal nutritional status...
August 13, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Yi Shan, Jing-Juan Wang, Zhi-Qun Wang, Zhi-Lian Zhao, Mo Zhang, Jian-Yang Xu, Ying Han, Kun-Cheng Li, Jie Lu
Although acupuncture is considered to be effective and safe for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), the mechanism underlying its therapeutic effect is still unknown. Most studies clarifying the neuronal pathway produced by acupuncture were still applied to healthy subjects with limited single acupuncture point stimulation, which was inconsistency with clinical practice. Thus, in our present study, we investigate the differences between brain activity changes in AD and MCI patients caused by multi-acupuncture point Siguan (four gates), in order to provide visualized evidence for neuronal specificity of clinical acupuncture...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Lorenz J Maier, Stefan M Kallenberger, Katharina Jechow, Marcel Waschow, Roland Eils, Christian Conrad
Three-dimensional protein localization intricately determines the functional coordination of cellular processes. The complex spatial context of protein landscape has been assessed by multiplexed immunofluorescent staining or mass spectrometry, applied to 2D cell culture with limited physiological relevance or tissue sections. Here, we present 3D SPECS, an automated technology for 3D Spatial characterization of Protein Expression Changes by microscopic Screening. This workflow comprises iterative antibody staining, high-content 3D imaging, and machine learning for detection of mitoses...
August 13, 2018: Molecular Systems Biology
Kelly A Jenkins, Martin J Fossat, Siwen Zhang, Durgesh K Rai, Sean Klein, Richard Gillilan, Zackary White, Grayson Gerlich, Scott A McCallum, Roland Winter, Sol M Gruner, Doug Barrick, Catherine A Royer
The effect of introducing internal cavities on protein native structure and global stability has been well documented, but the consequences of these packing defects on folding free-energy landscapes have received less attention. We investigated the effects of cavity creation on the folding landscape of the leucine-rich repeat protein pp32 by high-pressure (HP) and urea-dependent NMR and high-pressure small-angle X-ray scattering (HPSAXS). Despite a modest global energetic perturbation, cavity creation in the N-terminal capping motif (N-cap) resulted in very strong deviation from two-state unfolding behavior...
August 13, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Xuan-Hung Nguyen, Yves Dauvilliers, Clémence Quériault, Corine Perals, Raphaelle Romieu-Mourez, Pierre-Emmanuel Paulet, Raphaël Bernard-Valnet, Nicolas Fazilleau, Roland Liblau
Despite genetic and epidemiological evidence strongly supporting an autoimmune basis for narcolepsy type 1, the mechanisms involved have remained largely unknown. Here, we aimed to investigate whether the frequency and function of circulating follicular helper and follicular regulatory T cells are altered in narcolepsy type 1. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected from 32 patients with narcolepsy type 1, including 11 who developed disease after Pandemrix® vaccination, and 32 age-, sex-, and HLA-DQB1*06:02-matched healthy individuals...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
Roland Bamou, Lili Ranaise Mbakop, Edmond Kopya, Cyrille Ndo, Parfait Awono-Ambene, Timoleon Tchuinkam, Martin Kibet Rono, Joseph Mwangangi, Christophe Antonio-Nkondjio
BACKGROUND: Increased use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) over the last decade has considerably improved the control of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. However, there is still a paucity of data on the influence of LLIN use and other factors on mosquito bionomics in different epidemiological foci. The objective of this study was to provide updated data on the evolution of vector bionomics and malaria transmission patterns in the equatorial forest region of Cameroon over the period 2000-2017, during which LLIN coverage has increased substantially...
August 13, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Sofia Ryman Augustsson, Roy Tranberg, Roland Zügner, Jesper Augustsson
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether different vertical drop jump (VDJ) landing depth (small versus deep) and stance width (wide versus narrow) may alter movement biomechanics in female recreational athletes. The purpose was also to identify whether leg muscle strength is a predictive factor for knee control during a VDJ. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Biomechanics laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Eighteen women aged between 18 and 30 years...
August 7, 2018: Physical Therapy in Sport
Yuko Mizuno, Darrel H Higa, Carolyn A Leighton, Katherine B Roland, Julia B Deluca, Linda J Koenig
OBJECTIVE: To provide the first systematic review on the associations between HIV patient navigation and HIV care continuum outcomes (i.e., linkage to care, retention in care, ART uptake, medication adherence, and viral suppression) in the United States (U.S.). We identified primary research studies that addressed these associations and qualitatively assessed whether provision of patient navigation was positively associated with these outcomes, including strength of the evidence. METHODS: A systematic review, including both electronic (MEDLINE [OVID], EMBASE [OVID], PsycINFO [OVID], and CINAHL [EBSCOhost]) online databases and manual searches, was conducted to locate studies published from January 1, 1996 through April 23, 2018...
August 9, 2018: AIDS
Rudolf A Werner, Hiroshi Wakabayashi, Jochen Bauer, Claudia Schütz, Christina Zechmeister, Nobuyuki Hayakawa, Mehrbod S Javadi, Constantin Lapa, Roland Jahns, Süleyman Ergün, Valerie Jahns, Takahiro Higuchi
Aims: Although mortality rate is very high, diagnosis of acute myocarditis remains challenging with conventional tests. We aimed to elucidate the potential role of longitudinal 2-Deoxy-2-18F-fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) inflammation monitoring in a rat model of experimental autoimmune myocarditis. Methods and results: Autoimmune myocarditis was induced in Lewis rats by immunizing with porcine cardiac myosin emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant...
August 8, 2018: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
Fady Gh Haddad, Roland Eid, Hampig Raphael Kourie, Elie Barouky, Marwan Ghosn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 13, 2018: Future Oncology
Hanh Thi Hoang, Roland Bäumle
Environmental isotope techniques were applied to study the hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater in Soc Trang Province, Southern Vietnam, in frame of the project Improvement of Groundwater Protection in Vietnam (IGPVN). Groundwater samples were collected from various monitoring wells (newly drilled by the IGPVN project), national monitoring wells, private tube wells and production wells. Surface water samples were collected from rivers, ponds or canals. The aquifer system is more complex than presumed as the hydrochemical and stable isotope compositions of groundwater samples in the Middle-Upper Pleistocene (qp2-3 ) aquifer differ significantly in lateral direction...
August 12, 2018: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Violeta Fuentes-Landete, Karsten W Köster, Roland Böhmer, Thomas Loerting
Isotope effects accompanying the order-disorder transition of ice XIV to ice XII are studied using calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and dielectric spectroscopy. Particular emphasis is placed on the impact of the cooling rate applied during high-pressure production and during ambient-pressure recooling on the degree of hydrogen order in the low-temperature ice XIV phase. For specimens from D2O, ordering is harder to achieve in the sense that despite smaller cooling rates, the degree of order is less than in crystals produced from H2O...
August 13, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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