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Vladimir Svrcek, Marek Kolenda, Arunas Kadys, Ignas Reklaitis, Darius Dobrovolskas, Tadas Malinauskas, Mickael Lozach, Davide Mariotti, Martin Strassburg, Roland Tomašiūnas
In this paper, a superior-quality InN/p-GaN interface grown using pulsed metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) is demonstrated. The InN/p-GaN heterojunction interface based on high-quality InN (electron concentration 5.19 × 1018 cm-3 and mobility 980 cm²/(V s)) showed good rectifying behavior. The heterojunction depletion region width was estimated to be 22.8 nm and showed the ability for charge carrier extraction without external electrical field (unbiased). Under reverse bias, the external quantum efficiency (EQE) in the blue spectral region (300⁻550 nm) can be enhanced significantly and exceeds unity...
December 12, 2018: Nanomaterials
Jan Madacki, Guillem Mas Fiol, Roland Brosch
Over the long course of evolution from a probable environmental reservoir, the pathogen that we know today as Mycobacterium tuberculosis has become fully capable of adapting to the life inside host cells by evading and modifying their responses to infection. Factors contributing to the success of this pathogen are numerous and thanks to a large body of work accumulated over the past decades, we are closer to understanding the remarkable complexity of tuberculosis pathogenesis. The unique type VII secretion systems and various complex lipids of the cell envelope have emerged as some of the most important and most studied factors in this regard...
December 10, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Axel Bex, Peter Mulders, Michael Jewett, John Wagstaff, Johannes V van Thienen, Christian U Blank, Roland van Velthoven, Maria Del Pilar Laguna, Lori Wood, Harm H E van Melick, Maureen J Aarts, J B Lattouf, Thomas Powles, Igle Jan de Jong Md PhD, Sylvie Rottey, Bertrand Tombal, Sandrine Marreaud, Sandra Collette, Laurence Collette, John Haanen
Importance: In clinical practice, patients with primary metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) have been offered cytoreductive nephrectomy (CN) followed by targeted therapy, but the optimal sequence of surgery and systemic therapy is unknown. Objective: To examine whether a period of sunitinib therapy before CN improves outcome compared with immediate CN followed by sunitinib. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized clinical trial began as a phase 3 trial on July 14, 2010, and continued until March 24, 2016, with a median follow-up of 3...
December 13, 2018: JAMA Oncology
Mathias J Friedrich, Iraad F Bronner, Pentao Liu, Allan Bradley, Roland Rad
While sequencing and array-based studies are creating catalogues of genetic alterations in cancer, discriminating cancer drivers among the large sets of epigenetically, transcriptionally or posttranslationally dysregulated genes remains a challenge. Transposon-based genetic screening in mice has proven to be a powerful approach to address this challenge. Insertional mutagenesis directly flags biologically relevant genes and, combined with the transposon's unique molecular fingerprint, facilitates the recovery of insertion sites...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Christian Schneider, Dardan Ukaj, Raimund Koerver, A Alec Talin, Gregor Kieslich, Sidharam P Pujari, Han Zuilhof, Jürgen Janek, Mark D Allendorf, Roland A Fischer
The host-guest system TCNQ@Cu3 BTC2 (TCNQ = 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane, BTC = 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate) is a striking example of how semiconductivity can be introduced by guest incorporation in an otherwise insulating parent material. Exhibiting both microporosity and semiconducting behavior such materials offer exciting opportunities as next-generation sensor materials. Here, we apply a solvent-free vapor phase loading under rigorous exclusion of moisture, obtaining a series of the general formula x TCNQ@Cu3 BTC2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1...
October 7, 2018: Chemical Science
Qirui Zhang, Fang Yang, Zheng Hu, Qiang Xu, Boris C Bernhardt, Wei Quan, Qian Li, Zhiqiang Zhang, Guangming Lu
The objective was to study the modulation effects of levetiracetam on the fMRI activation/deactivation patterns associated with centrotemporal spikes (CTS) in Rolandic epilepsy. Forty patients with Rolandic epilepsy, including levetiracetam-medicated patients ( n = 20) and drug-naive patients ( n = 20), were studied. Single and sequential hemodynamic response functions-based EEG-fMRI analysis was performed to detect dynamic activation/deactivation associated with CTS. Comparisons of spatiotemporal features of activation/deactivation were performed between the two groups...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Georgette D Kanmogne, Julius Y Fonsah, Bin Tang, Roland F Doh, Anne M Kengne, Anya Umlauf, Claude T Tagny, Emilienne Nchindap, Léopoldine Kenmogne, Donald Franklin, Dora M Njamnshi, Dora Mbanya, Alfred K Njamnshi, Robert K Heaton
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are frequently associated with impaired executive function and verbal fluency. Given limited knowledge concerning HAND in Sub-Saharan-Africa and lack of Cameroonian adult neuropsychological (NP) test norms, we administered four executive function [Halstead Category Test (HCT), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Color Trails-II (CTT2), and Stroop Color-Word-Interference (SCWT)] and three verbal fluency (Category, Action, and Letter Fluency) tests to 742 adult Cameroonians (395 HIV-, 347 HIV+)...
December 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Marie-Thérèse Lussier, Fatoumata Binta Diallo, Pierre Pluye, Roland Grad, Andréa Lessard, Caroline Rhéaume, Michel Labrecque
OBJECTIVE: To draw a portrait of drug sample distribution and to assess the concordance between drug samples distributed and the medical problems encountered in the ambulatory primary health care setting. DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional survey. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to all health care professionals (HCPs) in family medicine teaching units (FMTUs) that kept drug samples between February and December 2013. Dispensers were defined as HCPs reporting the use of drug samples...
December 2018: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
Andréa Lessard, Marie-Thérèse Lussier, Fatoumata Binta Diallo, Michel Labrecque, Caroline Rhéaume, Pierre Pluye, Roland Grad
OBJECTIVE: To draw a portrait of drug sample management in academic primary health care settings and assess conformity to existing Canadian guidelines. DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional survey. SETTING: All 33 family medicine teaching units (FMTUs) in Quebec that kept drug samples. PARTICIPANTS: Health care professionals or FMTU staff who managed drug samples (ie, managers ). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Drug sample managers completed a self-administered questionnaire between February and December 2013...
December 2018: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
Caroline Rhéaume, Michel Labrecque, Nadine Moisan, Jacky Rioux, Émilie Tardieux, Fatoumata Binta Diallo, Marie-Thérèse Lussier, Andréa Lessard, Roland Grad, Pierre Pluye
OBJECTIVE: To determine the existence and the level of health care professional (HCP) knowledge of local policies regarding drug sample use and the relationship between residents and the pharmaceutical industry in academic primary health care settings. DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional survey. Health care providers were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire on drug sample use between February and December 2013. Managers of drug samples were also asked to complete a specific questionnaire on drug sample management and policies and an inventory log sheet...
December 2018: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
Jiang-Ti Kong, Brandon MacIsaac, Ruti Cogan, Amanda Ng, Christine Sze Wan Law, Joseph Helms, Rosa Schnyer, Nicholas Vasilis Karayannis, Ming-Chih Kao, Lu Tian, Beth D Darnall, James J Gross, Sean Mackey, Rachel Manber
BACKGROUND: Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is the most common chronic pain condition and is often resistant to conventional treatments. Acupuncture is a popular alternative for treating CLBP but its mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. Evidence suggests that pain regulatory mechanisms (particularly the ascending and secondarily the descending pain modulatory pathways) and psychological mechanisms (e.g., expectations, pain catastrophizing and self-efficacy) may be involved in the pathogenesis of CLBP and its response to treatments...
December 13, 2018: Trials
Rolande Mindekem, Monique Lechenne, Moto Doumagoum Daugla, Jakob Zinsstag, Laurent Tinoaga Ouedraogo, Salifou Salifou
INTRODUCTION: Rabies, an infectious disease mainly transmitted by dog bites, is fatal due to lack of appropriate knowledge-attitudes-practices (KAP). The KAP of healthcare providers are particularly important because of their presence in the communities and their profession and were evaluated in the present study. METHODS: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based descriptive study was conducted in healthcare providers recruited from four health districts in Chad in 2015...
May 2018: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
Silvia C Mendonca, Gary A Abel, Carolynn Gildea, Sean McPhail, Michael D Peake, Greg Rubin, Hardeep Singh, Willie Hamilton, Fiona M Walter, Martin O Roland, Georgios Lyratzopoulos
Background: Large variation in measures of diagnostic activity has been described previously between English general practices, but related predictors remain understudied. Objective: To examine associations between general practice population and characteristics, with the use of urgent referrals for suspected cancer, and use of endoscopy. Methods: Cross-sectional observational study of English general practices. We examined practice-level use (/1000 patients/year) of urgent referrals for suspected cancer, gastroscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy...
December 12, 2018: Family Practice
Stefanie Völk, Uwe Koedel, Hans-Walter Pfister, Roland Schwankhart, Mark Op den Winkel, Konstanze Mühlbauer, Matthias Klein
BACKGROUND: The approach to unconscious patients in the emergency department (ED) is difficult, often depends on local resources and interests, and workup strategies often lack standardization. One reason for this is that data on causes, management, and outcome of patients who present to the ED with sudden onset unconsciousness of unknown cause is limited. OBJECTIVES: This study was performed to analyze the causes of acute impaired consciousness in patients in an interdisciplinary ED...
December 12, 2018: European Neurology
Hans Roland Dürr, Carl Ferdinand Capellen, Alexander Klein, Andrea Baur-Melnyk, Christof Birkenmaier, Volkmar Jansson, Reinhold Tiling
INTRODUCTION: Tenosynovial giant-cell tumor also known as pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVS) is a benign but aggressive synovial proliferative disease most often affecting the knee joint. The mainstay of therapy is surgical resection. Due to a high rate of local recurrence, radiosynoviorthesis (RSO) is used as an adjuvant method in many cases. The aim of this study was to compare local recurrence (LR) rates after surgical synovectomy with and without adjuvant RSO. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 1996 to 2014, 37 surgical interventions were performed in 32 patients with diffuse pigmented villonodular synovitis of the knee...
December 11, 2018: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
Sverre Andre Valstad, Erna von Heimburg, Boye Welde, Roland van den Tillaar
This study compared the effects of long (4×4 min) and short intervals (4×8×20 s) of high-intensity interval exercise bouts (HIIT) on running performance, physiological and perceptual responses, and excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). Twelve healthy college students (8 men, 4 women; mean age=22±2 years) performed long (90-95% of peak heart rate) and short intervals (maximal intensity) of high-intensity training (running on a non-motorized treadmill) with the same total duration on separate days...
January 2018: Sports medicine international open
Daniel Klotz, Marie Schreiner, Valeria Falcone, Daniel Jonas, Mirjam Kunze, Andrea Weber, Hans Fuchs, Roland Hentschel
Background: Human milk (HM) for preterm infants will often be pasteurized for cytomegalovirus (CMV) inactivation and reduction of its bacterial count. High-temperature short-time (HTST) treatment compared to standard Holder pasteurization (HoP) reduces the impact of heat treatment on bioactive HM proteins while effectively inactivating CMV. No data are available for the efficacy of bacterial count reduction using HTST treatments that are available for clinical use. Objective: To test the antiviral and antibacterial efficacy of HTST treatment protocols in HM using a modified HTST treatment device compared to standard HoP...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Clarissa Gerhauser, Francesco Favero, Thomas Risch, Ronald Simon, Lars Feuerbach, Yassen Assenov, Doreen Heckmann, Nikos Sidiropoulos, Sebastian M Waszak, Daniel Hübschmann, Alfonso Urbanucci, Etsehiwot G Girma, Vladimir Kuryshev, Leszek J Klimczak, Natalie Saini, Adrian M Stütz, Dieter Weichenhan, Lisa-Marie Böttcher, Reka Toth, Josephine D Hendriksen, Christina Koop, Pavlo Lutsik, Sören Matzk, Hans-Jörg Warnatz, Vyacheslav Amstislavskiy, Clarissa Feuerstein, Benjamin Raeder, Olga Bogatyrova, Eva-Maria Schmitz, Claudia Hube-Magg, Martina Kluth, Hartwig Huland, Markus Graefen, Chris Lawerenz, Gervaise H Henry, Takafumi N Yamaguchi, Alicia Malewska, Jan Meiners, Daniela Schilling, Eva Reisinger, Roland Eils, Matthias Schlesner, Douglas W Strand, Robert G Bristow, Paul C Boutros, Christof von Kalle, Dmitry Gordenin, Holger Sültmann, Benedikt Brors, Guido Sauter, Christoph Plass, Marie-Laure Yaspo, Jan O Korbel, Thorsten Schlomm, Joachim Weischenfeldt
Identifying the earliest somatic changes in prostate cancer can give important insights into tumor evolution and aids in stratifying high- from low-risk disease. We integrated whole genome, transcriptome and methylome analysis of early-onset prostate cancers (diagnosis ≤55 years). Characterization across 292 prostate cancer genomes revealed age-related genomic alterations and a clock-like enzymatic-driven mutational process contributing to the earliest mutations in prostate cancer patients. Our integrative analysis identified four molecular subgroups, including a particularly aggressive subgroup with recurrent duplications associated with increased expression of ESRP1, which we validate in 12,000 tissue microarray tumors...
December 10, 2018: Cancer Cell
Peter Camfield, Carol Camfield
Regression in children with epilepsy may involve loss of cognitive abilities, failure to progress or a slowing of developmental trajectory. A few seizures do not lead to regression. Large numbers of seizures may be associated with regression but the cause is an important cofounder. Individual spike discharges on EEG are associated with transient cognitive impairment and continuous spike discharges with regression. Regression may be global in continuous spike wave in slow sleep (CSWS) or specific (auditory agnosia) in Landau Kleffner syndrome...
December 8, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Christel Roland, Aurélie Guérin, Pascal Vaconsin, Jean-François Bussières
OBJECTIVES: To describe practice and perceptions of hospital pharmacy technicians (HPTs) in France and in Quebec, Canada. The secondary objective was to compare both work settings to identify differences. METHODS: Cross-sectional online survey in December 2016 and February 2017. The survey was comprised of four sections: demographic, factors contributing to career choice and satisfaction, perceptions regarding training, skills and recognition and interest in new opportunities...
December 11, 2018: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
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