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"traumatic Brain Injury"

Chelsey R Wilks, Leslie A Morland, Kirsten H Dillon, Margaret-Anne Mackintosh, Shannon M Blakey, H Ryan Wagner, Eric B Elbogen
There have been considerable efforts to understand, predict, and reduce suicide among U.S. military veterans. Studies have shown that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depression (MDD), and traumatic brain injury (TBI) increase risk of suicidal behavior in veterans. Limited research has examined anger and social support as factors linked to suicidal ideation, which if demonstrated could lead to new, effective strategies for suicide risk assessment and prevention. Iraq/Afghanistan era veterans (N = 2467) were evaluated in the ongoing Veterans Affairs Mid-Atlantic Mental Illness Research, Education and Clinical Center (MIRECC) multi-site Study of Post-Deployment Mental Health on demographic and psychological variables...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Eva Keatley, Robin Hanks, Angelle M Sander, Anna L Kratz, David S Tulsky, Phillip Ianni, Jennifer Miner, Noelle E Carlozzi
OBJECTIVE: To examine group differences among caregivers of service members/veterans (SMVs) and civilians with traumatic brain injury (TBI). DESIGN: An observational research study examining the group differences between caregivers of SMVs and civilians with TBI. The data presented was collected as part of a larger study that calibrated and validated the TBI-CareQOL item banks. SETTING: Participants in this multicenter study completed an online survey via a study-specific website...
December 8, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Eliana Baez-Jurado, Gina Guio-Vega, Oscar Hidalgo-Lanussa, Janneth González, Valentina Echeverria, Ghulam Md Ashraf, Amirhossein Sahebkar, George E Barreto
Astrocytes are specialized cells capable of regulating inflammatory responses in neurodegenerative diseases or traumatic brain injury. In addition to playing an important role in neuroinflammation, these cells regulate essential functions for the preservation of brain tissue. Therefore, the search for therapeutic alternatives to preserve these cells and maintain their functions contributes in some way to counteract the progress of the injury and maintain neuronal survival in various brain pathologies. Among these strategies, the conditioned medium from human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (CM-hMSCA) has been reported with a potential beneficial effect against several neuropathologies...
December 8, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Eduardo A Albornoz, Trent M Woodruff, Richard Gordon
Neuroinflammation is a common pathological feature in almost all neurological diseases and is a response triggered as a consequence of the chronic activation of the innate immune response in the CNS against a variety of stimuli, including infection, traumatic brain injury, toxic metabolites, aggregated proteins, or autoimmunity. Crucial mediators of this neurinflammatory process are the intracellular protein complexes known as inflammasomes which can be triggered by pathogens as well as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs)...
2018: Experientia. Supplementum
Maria Cristina Morganti-Kossmann, Bridgette D Semple, Sarah C Hellewell, Nicole Bye, Jenna M Ziebell
This review recounts the definitions and research evidence supporting the multifaceted roles of neuroinflammation in the injured brain following trauma. We summarise the literature fluctuating from the protective and detrimental properties that cytokines, leukocytes and glial cells play in the acute and chronic stages of TBI, including the intrinsic factors that influence cytokine responses and microglial functions relative to genetics, sex, and age. We elaborate on the pros and cons that cytokines, chemokines, and microglia play in brain repair, specifically neurogenesis, and how such conflicting roles may be harnessed therapeutically to sustain the survival of new neurons...
December 7, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
Elizabeth M Kenny, Emin Fidan, Qin Yang, Tamil S Anthonymuthu, Lee Ann New, Elizabeth A Meyer, Hong Wang, Patrick M Kochanek, C Edward Dixon, Valerian E Kagan, Hülya Bayır
OBJECTIVES: Traumatic brain injury triggers multiple cell death pathways, possibly including ferroptosis-a recently described cell death pathway that results from accumulation of 15-lipoxygenase-mediated lipid oxidation products, specifically oxidized phosphatidylethanolamine containing arachidonic or adrenic acid. This study aimed to investigate whether ferroptosis contributed to the pathogenesis of in vitro and in vivo traumatic brain injury, and whether inhibition of 15-lipoxygenase provided neuroprotection...
December 6, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Timothy J Coats, Marisol Fragoso-Iñiguez, Ian Roberts
OBJECTIVE: To describe the use of tranexamic acid (TXA) in trauma care in England and Wales since the Clinical Randomization of an Antifibrinolytic in Significant Hemorrhage (CRASH-2) trial results were published in 2010. METHODS: A national longitudinal and cross-sectional study using data collected through the Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN), the clinical audit of major trauma care for England and Wales. All patients in the TARN database injured in England and Wales were included apart from those with an isolated traumatic brain injury, with a primary outcome of the proportion of patients given TXA and the secondary outcome of time to treatment...
December 8, 2018: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Colston A Edgerton, Stuart M Leon, Melissa A Hite, Stephen P Kalhorn, Lancer A Scott, Evert A Eriksson
The use of Airway Pressure Release Ventilation (APRV) in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains controversial. Some believe that elevated mean airway pressures transmitted to the thorax may cause clinically significant increases in Central Venous Pressure (CVP) and intracranial pressure (ICP) from venous congestion. We perform a retrospective review from 2009 to 2015 of traumatically injured patients who were transitioned from traditional ventilator modes to APRV and also had an ICP monitor in place...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Critical Care
Volha Liaudanskaya, Dennis Jgamadze, Alexander N Berk, David J Bischoff, Ben J Gu, Hannah Hawks-Mayer, Michael J Whalen, H Isaac Chen, David L Kaplan
Stroke, traumatic brain injuries, and other similar conditions often lead to significant loss of functional brain tissue and associated disruption of neuronal signaling. A common strategy for replacing lost neurons is the injection of dissociated neural stem cells or differentiated neurons. However, this method is unlikely to be suitable for replacing large brain cavities, and the resulting distribution of neurons may lack the necessary architecture to support appropriate brain function. Engineered neural tissues may be a viable alternative...
November 26, 2018: Biomaterials
Adam C Raikes, Brieann C Satterfield, William D S Killgore
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) are frequently associated with long-term, self-reported sleep disruption. Objective corroboration of these self-reports is sparse and limited by small sample sizes. The purpose of this study was to report on actigraphically-measured sleep outcomes in individuals with and without a history of recent mTBI in two U.S. cities (Boston, MA and Tucson, AZ). PATIENTS/METHODS: Fifty-eight individuals with a recent (within 18 months) mTBI and 35 individuals with no prior mTBI history were recruited for one of four studies across two sites...
October 9, 2018: Sleep Medicine
Nashira Grigg, Andrew Schoenrock, Kevin Dick, James R Green, Ashkan Golshani, Alex Wong, Frank Dehne, Eve C Tsai, Kyle K Biggar
The stimulation of the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) offers the possibility of a renewable source of replacement cells to treat numerous neurological diseases including spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury and stroke. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) have been used to stimulate NSCs to renew, expand, and produce precursors for neural repair within an adult brown rat (Rattus norvegicus). To provide greater insight into the interspecies protein-protein interactions between human FGF-2 and EGF proteins and native R...
November 30, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Bhagavatula Indira Devi, Dhaval P Shukla, Dhananjaya I Bhat, Manjul Tripathi, Amara Warren, Nagesh C Shanbhag, Subhas K Konar, Anne L Stake, Ruchika Singhal
BACKGROUND: With increasing population, motorization and road traffic accidents, neurotrauma is on rise in India. Inadequate triage and under-utilization of locally available resources at all healthcare levels has led to a non-uniform neurotrauma care delivery. We present our experience in a tertiary care hospital (NIMHANS) in Bengaluru, India, and evaluate the referral pattern of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) cases to enable adequate care to moderate and severely injured TBI patients...
December 6, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Shaotao Weng, Wanqi Wang, Quantang Wei, Huanzhen Lan, Jing Su, Yimin Xu
OBJECTIVE: Tranexamic acid (TXA) reduces hemorrhage volume and consequently the need for operative intervention. However, its effectiveness and safety in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients is unclear. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the safety and efficacy of TXA in TBI patients. METHODS: In July 2018, a systematic search for studies including TBI patients treated with TXA was conducted using PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library databases...
December 6, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Zhihao Chen, Hong Wang, Jianjun Zhong, Junqing Yang, Rami Darwazeh, Xiaocui Tian, Zhijian Huang, Li Jiang, Chongjie Cheng, Yue Wu, Zongduo Guo, Xiaochuan Sun
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Circular RNA (circRNA) is an important type of non-coding RNA that has not been widely researched in traumatic brain injury (TBI). The present study aimd to detect the altered circRNA expression around an injury site in the mouse cerebral cortex after TBI and explore its potential functions. METHOD: C57BL/6 mice were used to construct a controlled cortical impact (CCI) model to simulate TBI. At 24 h post-TBI, the cortex around the injury site was collected, and the total RNA was extracted to perform RNA sequencing (RNA-seq)...
December 5, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Nagwan Shanan, Alireza GhasemiGharagoz, Reham Abdel-Kader, Hans-Georg Breitinger
The inability of central nervous system (CNS) to regenerate following traumatic brain injury (TBI) can be attributed to apoptotic cell death, inhibitory extrinsic environment and the limited ability of neurons to regenerate. Thus, fostering the intrinsic regenerative potential and minimizing neuronal cell death could be a promising therapeutic approach. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) was previously reported for its neuroprotective and regenerative potential on peripheral nerves. Here, we investigated the ability of PQQ to induce neurite re-growth in a wound healing model on cultured cerebral granular neurons (CGNs); an integral part of cerebellar circuitry, as one of the most affected areas following TBI...
December 5, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Christine Resch, Vicki A Anderson, Miriam H Beauchamp, Louise Crossley, Stephen J C Hearps, Caroline M van Heugten, Petra P M Hurks, Nicholas P Ryan, Cathy Catroppa
Childhood and adolescence represent sensitive developmental periods for brain networks implicated in a range of complex skills, including executive functions (EF; inhibitory control, working memory, and cognitive flexibility). As a consequence, these skills may be particularly vulnerable to injuries sustained during these sensitive developmental periods. The present study investigated 1) whether age at injury differentially affects EF 6 months and 2 years after TBI in children aged 5-15 years, and 2) whether the association between brain lesions and EF depend on age at injury...
December 5, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Caíque J N Ribeiro, Alanna G C Fontes Lima, Raphael A Santiago de Araújo, Mariangela da Silva Nunes, José A Barreto Alves, Daniele Vieira Dantas, Maria do C de Oliveira Ribeiro
BACKGROUND: Pain assessment of patients with traumatic brain injury is a challenge because they are unable to self-report their pain experience. AIMS: To investigate the psychometric properties of validity, reliability, and responsiveness of the Brazilian version of the Behavioral Pain Scale (BPS-Br) in patients with traumatic brain injury. METHODS: This was an observational, cross-sectional, repeated-measure and analytical study. This study was developed at the medical and surgical ICUs in a high-complexity public hospital at Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil...
December 5, 2018: Pain Management Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses
Patricia Peebles, Sydney Cruz
Incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is increasing on campuses. Despite growing media attention and athletic program protocols to address the issue, many are unaware of the potential effects such an injury can cause. This may be true for nursing faculty who teach or advise students recovering from TBI. This article will examine relevant aspects of injury and recovery, as well as ways faculty can advocate for and support students who struggle during what can be a protracted period of recovery. Students' symptoms while recovering from TBI may diminish cognitive, emotional, and physical resources...
November 2018: Journal of Professional Nursing: Official Journal of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing
John A Harvin, Jeanette M Podbielski, Laura E Vincent, Mike K Liang, Lillian S Kao, Charles E Wade, John B Holcomb
BACKGROUND: Exception from informed consent (EFIC) allows clinician scientists to perform much needed emergency research. Obtaining this exception, however, requires many meetings with community groups for consultation, which can make the process time-consuming and expensive. We aim to determine the impact of using social media in lieu of some community meetings in an effort to obtain an EFIC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An economic analysis of four randomized clinical trials was performed...
February 2019: Journal of Surgical Research
Morgan Schellenberg, Kenji Inaba, Jessica Chen, James M Bardes, Elizabeth Crow, Lydia Lam, Elizabeth Benjamin, Demetrios Demetriades
BACKGROUND: When ground-level falls occur in the bathroom, there is particular potential for morbidity and mortality given the high density of hard surfaces. Risk factors are not clearly defined by the existing literature. The objective of this study was to define the epidemiology, injury patterns, and outcomes after falls in the bathroom. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients presenting to LAC+USC Medical Center (01/2008-05/2015) after a fall in the bathroom (ICD-9 code E884...
February 2019: Journal of Surgical Research
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