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"traumatic Brain Injury"

Ryan Gise, Timothy Truong, David M Poulsen, Yssra Soliman, Afshin Parsikia, Joyce N Mbekeani
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of pediatric disability and mortality. Together with sight-threatening ocular injuries, TBIs may lead to devastating consequences in developing children and complicate rehabilitation. We sought to investigate this relationship in pediatric patients admitted with major trauma. METHODS: The records of pediatric patients admitted with ocular injury and concomitant TBI were reviewed retrospectively using the National Trauma Data Bank (2008-2014)...
October 17, 2018: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
Jamie N Hershaw, Mark L Ettenhofer
Despite increasing use of pupillometry to understand cognitive deficits in clinical populations, there is no consensus on what pupillary metrics are most useful. In this study, we compare the reliability, sensitivity to mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) and cognitive load differences, and the likelihood of replication between various pupillary metrics. Raw pupil diameter was recorded from 15 patients with chronic mild TBI and 23 uninjured controls while they performed a cognitive task with three levels of cognitive load...
October 17, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Corinne Ammann-Reiffer, Caroline H G Bastiaenen, Hubertus J A Van Hedel
AIM: To examine the responsiveness and minimal important change (MIC) of two gait performance measures, the Functional Mobility Scale (FMS) and the Gillette Functional Assessment Questionnaire walking scale (FAQ), in a paediatric inpatient setting. METHOD: Sixty-four children and adolescents with a motor disorder, including cerebral palsy, traumatic brain injury, or stroke (25 females, 39 males; mean age [SD] 12y 6mo [3y 2mo], range 6-18y 6mo), were recruited. Physiotherapists scored the FMS and FAQ at the start and end of active gait rehabilitation...
October 19, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Taylor C Harris, Rijk de Rooij, Ellen Kuhl
Cerebral atrophy in response to traumatic brain injury is a well-documented phenomenon in both primary investigations and review articles. Recent atrophy studies focus on exploring the region-specific patterns of cerebral atrophy; yet, there is no study that analyzes and synthesizes the emerging atrophy patterns in a single comprehensive review. Here we attempt to fill this gap in our current knowledge by integrating the current literature into a cohesive theory of preferential brain tissue loss and by identifying common risk factors for accelerated atrophy progression...
October 17, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Dewa Putu Gede Purwa Samatra, Ni Made Dwita Pratiwi, I Putu Eka Widyadharma
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) exerts a significant impact on society with regards to physical, affective, and cognitive impairment. The consequent cognitive sequelae include a problem in memory, attention, concentration, and processing speed. Following traumatic brain injury, inflammatory response developed, characterised by increased interleukin 1-β (IL-1β) levels in the blood. IL 1-β at pathophysiological concentration has been reported to cause an inhibition of the expression of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the areas CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus...
September 25, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Michal E Komlosh, Dan Benjamini, Elizabeth B Hutchinson, Sarah King, Margalit Haber, Alexandru V Avram, Lynne A Holtzclaw, Abhishek Desai, Carlo Pierpaoli, Peter J Basser
Double pulsed-field gradient (dPFG) MRI is proposed as a new sensitive tool to detect and characterize tissue microstructure following diffuse axonal injury. In this study dPFG MRI was used to estimate apparent mean axon diameter in a diffuse axonal injury animal model and in healthy fixed mouse brain. Histological analysis was used to verify the presence of the injury detected by MRI.
October 2018: Microporous and Mesoporous Materials: the Official Journal of the International Zeolite Association
Roula Al-Dahhak, Rita Khoury, Erum Qazi, George T Grossberg
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major health and economic burden. With increasing aging population, this issue is expected to continue to rise. Neurodegenerative disorders are more common with aging population in general regardless of history of TBI. Recent evidence continues to support a relation between a TBI and neurocognitive decline later in life (such as in athletes and military). This article summarizes the pathologic and clinical effects of TBI (regardless of severity) on the later development of dementia in individuals 65 years or older...
November 2018: Clinics in Geriatric Medicine
Colin P Doherty, Eoin O'Keeffe, James Keaney, Brian Lawlor, Robert F Coen, Michael Farrell, Matthew Campbell
A history of brain trauma has long been acknowledged as increasing an individual's risk of developing dementia in later life. The underlying mechanisms that belie this pre-disposition are, however, very poorly understood. Here, we report a clinical-neuropathological correlation of a man who presented at the age of 66 with a progressive complex atypical dementia with early and prominent neurobehavioral symptoms. His neurological condition continued to decline up to his death at the age of 74. During the compilation of his clinical history, it was established that the subject had experienced a single severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) aged 12 years in 1954 resulting in loss of consciousness, hospitalization, and coma for a number of days after which he was deemed to have recovered...
October 19, 2018: Clinical Neuropathology
Péter Hertelendy, Dániel P Varga, Ákos Menyhárt, Ferenc Bari, Eszter Farkas
Secondary injury following acute brain insults significantly contributes to poorer neurological outcome. The spontaneous, recurrent occurrence of spreading depolarization events (SD) has been recognized as a potent secondary injury mechanism in subarachnoid hemorrhage, malignant ischemic stroke and traumatic brain injury. In addition, SD is the underlying mechanism of the aura symptoms of migraineurs. The susceptibility of the nervous tissue to SD is subject to the metabolic status of the tissue, the ionic composition of the extracellular space, and the functional status of ion pumps, voltage-gated and other cation channels, glutamate receptors and excitatory amino acid transporters...
October 15, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Bilge Mutlu, Melissa Duff, Lyn Turkstra
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: Research studies and clinical observations of individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) indicate marked deficits in mentalizing-perceiving social information and integrating it into judgements about the affective and mental states of others. The current study investigates social-cognitive mechanisms that underlie mentalizing ability to advance our understanding of social consequences of TBI and inform the development of more effective clinical interventions. RESEARCH DESIGN: The study followed a mixed-design experiment, manipulating the presence of a mentalizing gaze cue across trials and participant population (TBI vs...
October 18, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
T Tyler Patterson, Susannah Nicholson, David Wallace, Gregory W J Hawryluk, Ramesh Grandhi
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) contributes to nearly one in three injury-related deaths in the United States and accounts for a substantial public health burden and cost. The current literature reports that physiologic responses in the gastrointestinal system after TBI include, but are not limited to, epithelial barrier dysfunction, microbiota changes, and immunologic transformations. Recent evidence suggests gut alterations after TBI modify the homeostasis of the bidirectional gut-microbiota-brain axis, resulting in altered immune responses in the periphery and the brain...
October 17, 2018: Shock
Mary Alexis Iaccarino, Sabrina Paganoni, Ross Zafonte
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 16, 2018: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Ciaran S Hill, David K Menon, Michael P Coleman
The antiapoptotic, neuroprotective compound P7C3-A20 reduces neurological deficits when administered to murine in-vivo models of traumatic brain injury. P7C3-A20 is thought to exert its activity through small-molecule activation of the enzyme nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase. This enzyme converts nicotinamide to nicotinamide mononucleotide, the precursor to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide synthesis. Alterations to this bioenergetic pathway have been shown to induce Wallerian degeneration (WD) of the distal neurite following injury...
October 16, 2018: Neuroreport
Piotr Poznanski, Anna Lesniak, Michal Korostynski, Mariusz Sacharczuk
Several preclinical and clinical studies that deal with the neuropathological consequences of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) have focused on unraveling its effect on ethanol drinking behavior. Previous reports describe changes in ethanol consumption, both in animal models of mTBI as well as in patients, after concussive brain injury. However, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are still poorly understood. In the present study, we used a unique model of mouse lines divergently selected for high (HA) or low (LA) swim stress-induced analgesia to examine the effect of mTBI on ethanol drinking behavior...
October 18, 2018: Addiction Biology
Yuan Zhou, Li-Li Wen, Han-Dong Wang, Xiao-Ming Zhou, Jiang Fang, Jian-Hong Zhu, Ke Ding
Background: The increasing frequency of explosive injuries has increased interest in blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI). Various shock tube models have been used to study bTBI. Mild-to-moderate explosions are often overlooked because of the slow onset or mildness of the symptoms. However, heavy gas cylinders and large volume chambers in the model may increase the complexity and danger. This study sought to design a modified model to explore the effect of moderate explosion on brain injury in mice...
October 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
Ryne Jenkins, Nicholas A Morris, Bryce Haac, Richard Van Besien, Deborah M Stein, Wan-Tsu Chang, Gary Schwartzbauer, Gunjan Parikh, Neeraj Badjatia
BACKGROUND: Data regarding who will require tracheostomy are lacking which may limit investigations into therapeutic effects of early tracheostomy. METHODS: We performed an observational study of adult traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission for ≥ 72 h and mechanical ventilation for ≥ 24 h between January 2014 and December 2014 at a level 1 trauma center. Patients who had life-sustaining measures withdrawn were excluded...
October 17, 2018: Neurocritical Care
Roxana Maria Tudor, Christopher J Thompson
Neurohypophysial dysfunction is common in the first days following traumatic brain injury (TBI), manifesting as dysnatremia in approximately 1 in 4 patients. Both hyponatremia and hypernatremia can impair recovery from TBI and in the case of hypernatremia, there is a significant association with excess mortality. Hyponatremia secondary to syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIAD) is the commonest electrolyte disturbance following TBI. Acute adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)/cortisol deficiency occurs in 10-15% of TBI patients and can present with a biochemical picture identical to SIAD...
October 17, 2018: Pituitary
Guilherme Gozzoli Podolsky-Gondim, Luciano Lopes Furlanetti, Dinark Conceição Viana, Matheus Fernando Manzolli Ballestero, Ricardo Santos de Oliveira
INTRODUCTION: Head injury is a significant economic, social, and medical problem in developing countries and remains one of the leading causes of pediatric morbidity and mortality. The association of traumatic brain injury and coagulopathy in children is linked with an increase in mortality and poor functional outcomes. However, its impact on long-term outcome has not been discussed in the literature so far. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of coagulopathy diagnosed by routine laboratory tests on neurological outcome following traumatic brain injury in children...
October 18, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Jacek Szczygielski, Cosmin Glameanu, Andreas Müller, Markus Klotz, Christoph Sippl, Vanessa Hubertus, Karl-Herbert Schäfer, Angelika E Mautes, Karsten Schwerdtfeger, Joachim Oertel
Both hypothermia and decompressive craniectomy have been considered as a treatment for traumatic brain injury. In previous experiments we established a murine model of decompressive craniectomy and we presented attenuated edema formation due to focal brain cooling. Since edema development is regulated via function of water channel proteins, our hypothesis was that the effects of decompressive craniectomy and of hypothermia are associated with a change in aquaporin-4 (AQP4) concentration. Male CD-1 mice were assigned into following groups ( n = 5): sham, decompressive craniectomy, trauma, trauma followed by decompressive craniectomy and trauma + decompressive craniectomy followed by focal hypothermia...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Mathilde Saint-Jean, Philippe Allain, Jérémy Besnard
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: Patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) have difficulty dealing with the social world and may display inappropriate social behavior that negatively affects their social and occupational rehabilitation. This difficulty may be explained by a social problem-solving (SPS) impairment, but little is yet known about the cognitive processes involved in the ability to solve social problems. Several publications have demonstrated that executive functions are related to social problem solving, but the role of social cognition needs to be confirmed...
October 17, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
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