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"traumatic Brain Injury"

Gonul Guvenc, Ceren Kizmazoglu, Hasan Emre Aydin
The primary aim of this paper is to investigate the neuroprotective and antiinflammatory effects of mannitol on optic nerve injury after acute traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage and brain injury in rat models. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (tSAH) were produced by a custom-made weight-drop impact acceleration device. Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups. Group I (n = 10) was the sham group, group II (n = 10) received TBI, and group III (n = 10) received TBI + mannitol (1 mg/kg intravenously)...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Lin Zhu, Tao Tang, Rong Fan, Jie-Kun Luo, Han-Jin Cui, Chun-Hu Zhang, Wei-Jun Peng, Peng Sun, Xin-Gui Xiong, Yang Wang
Xuefu Zhuyu decoction has been used for treating traumatic brain injury and improving post-traumatic dysfunction, but its mechanism of action needs further investigation. This study established rat models of traumatic brain injury by controlled cortical impact. Rat models were intragastrically administered 9 and 18 g/kg Xuefu Zhuyu decoction once a day for 14 or 21 days. Changes in neurological function were assessed by modified neurological severity scores and the Morris water maze. Immunohistochemistry, western blot assay, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction were used to analyze synapsin protein and mRNA expression at the injury site of rats...
August 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Fernando Dobrachinski, Rogério R Gerbatin, Gláubia Sartori, Ronaldo M Golombieski, Alfredo Antoniazzi, Cristina W Nogueira, Luiz F Royes, Michele R Fighera, Lisiane O Porciúncula, Rodrigo A Cunha, Félix A A Soares
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of disability worldwide, triggering chronic neurodegeneration underlying cognitive and mood disorder still without therapeutic prospects. Based on our previous observations that guanosine (GUO) attenuates short-term neurochemical alterations caused by TBI, this study investigated the effects of chronical GUO treatment in behavioral, molecular, and morphological disturbances 21 days after trauma. Rats subject to TBI displayed mood (anxiety-like) and memory dysfunction...
August 13, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Jyoti A Chuckowree, Zhendan Zhu, Mariana Brizuela, Ka M Lee, Catherine A Blizzard, Tracey C Dickson
Microtubule dynamics underpin a plethora of roles involved in the intricate development, structure, function, and maintenance of the central nervous system. Within the injured brain, microtubules are vulnerable to misalignment and dissolution in neurons and have been implicated in injury-induced glial responses and adaptive neuroplasticity in the aftermath of injury. Unfortunately, there is a current lack of therapeutic options for treating traumatic brain injury (TBI). Thus, using a clinically relevant model of mild TBI, lateral fluid percussion injury (FPI) in adult male Thy1-YFPH mice, we investigated the potential therapeutic effects of the brain-penetrant microtubule-stabilizing agent, epothilone D...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Heather Wood
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 13, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neurology
K Bergen, M Frödin, C von Gertten, A -C Sandberg-Nordqvist, M K Sköld
Following traumatic brain injuries (TBI), insulin-like growth factor (IGF) is cortically widely upregulated. This upregulation has a potential role in the recovery of neuronal tissue, plasticity, and neurotrophic activity, though the molecular mechanisms involved in IGF regulation and the exact role of IGF after TBI remain unclear. Vitronectin (VN), an extracellular matrix (ECM) molecule, has recently been shown to be of importance for IGF-mediated cellular growth and migration. Since VN is downregulated after TBI, we hypothesized that insufficient VN levels after TBI impairs the potential beneficial activity of IGF...
August 11, 2018: Brain Sciences
Rohit Sharma, Lalit Janjani, Vishal Kulkarni, Seema Patrikar, Shailey Singh
PURPOSE: Autologous bone removed at the time of decompressive craniectomy (DC) is always the first choice for cranioplasty. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of cranioplasty after DC by measuring the changes in the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) score, as well as to draw a comparison with the pre-cranioplasty FIM score and to evaluate the differences in the outcomes of cases managed by 2 methods: autologous bone (group I) or titanium mesh (group II)...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Tomoo Watanabe, Yasuyuki Kawai, Asami Iwamura, Naoki Maegawa, Hidetada Fukushima, Kazuo Okuchi
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability in trauma patients. Patients with TBI frequently sustain concomitant injuries in extracranial regions. The effect of severe extracranial injury (SEI) on the outcome of TBI is controversial. For 8 years, we retrospectively enrolled 485 patients with the blunt head injury with head abbreviated injury scale (AIS) ≧ 3. SEI was defined as AIS ≧ 3 injuries in the face, chest, abdomen, and pelvis/extremities. Vital signs and coagulation parameter values were also extracted from the database...
August 11, 2018: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
(no author information available yet)
Moriarty, H., Winter, L., Short, T. H., & True, G. (2018). Exploration of factors related to depressive symptomatology in family members of military veterans with traumatic brain injury. Journal of Family Nursing, 24, 184-216. doi: 10.1177/1074840718773470 .
August 2018: Journal of Family Nursing
Ievgen Levadnyi, Jan Awrejcewicz, Yan Zhang, Márcio Fagundes Goethel, Yaodong Gu
This study investigated the influence of human head impact on the severity of traumatic brain injury. Simulation of the dynamic impact of a human head was performed using FEM (finite element method) and employing HIC (Head Injury Criterion). The study of traumatic brain injury included impacts with the occiput, temporal, forehead, and parietal part of the head, and the impact velocity at the surface ranged from 1 to 7 m/s. The following characteristics were considered and analyzed in the simulation: duration of the impact, intracranial pressure, HIC, and change in accelerations at the center of gravity of the brain...
2018: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Elizabeth Compton
Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) is a syndrome classified by episodic presentation of abnormal sympathetic and motor symptoms observed in patients with acquired brain injuries. Although the exact physiologic mechanism of PSH is not fully understood, its clinical significance has been well-established. PSH diagnosis depends on the identification of symptom presence, severity, and patterns. Treatment of PSH is rooted in pharmacologic management of targeted symptoms. Although complex, recognition and management of PSH has meaningful implications on the hospitalization and recovery trajectory for adult patients with traumatic brain injuries...
September 2018: Nursing Clinics of North America
James M Walker, Caroline Mulatya, Donald Hebert, Steffanie H Wilson, Anne S Lindblad, Lindell K Weaver
STUDY OBJECTIVE: In this exploratory, double-blind, longitudinal sham-controlled trial of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2 ) for military personnel with post concussive mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), self-reports and objective measures of sleep-wake disturbances were assessed and compared to normals. METHODS: Self-reports consisting of Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), sleep diary, screening for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) risk, restless legs syndrome (RLS), cataplexy, and objective actigraphic measures of sleep-wake were obtained on 71 military personnel with mTBI [baseline, 13 weeks and six months post-randomization (post-intervention)], of which 35 met post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) criteria, and 75 healthy volunteers (baseline)...
June 30, 2018: Sleep Medicine
Reid P, Say I, Shah S, Tolia S, Musku S, Prestigiacomo Cj, C D Gandhi
INTRODUCTION: Decompressive hemicraniectomy to control medically refractory intracranial hypertension, cerebral edema, and evacuate mass lesions in traumatic brain injury is a widely accepted treatment paradigm. However, critical specifications of bone flap size to control intracranial pressure and provide improved patient outcomes is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of craniectomy size on outcomes in surgical decompression for traumatic brain injury. METHODS: From 2003 to 2011, 58 decompressive hemicraniectomies were performed for evacuation of hematoma and treatment of refractory increased intracranial pressure in adult traumatic brain injury...
August 9, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Idrish Ali, Juliana Silva, Shijie Liu, Sandy Shultz, Patrick Kwan, Nigel Jones, Terence J O'Brien
In the quest for developing new therapeutic targets for post-traumatic epilepsies (PTE), identifying mechanisms relevant to development and progression of disease is critical. A growing body of literature suggests involvement of neurodegenerative mechanisms in the pathophysiology of acquired epilepsies, including following traumatic brain injury (TBI). In this review, we discuss the potential of some of these mechanisms to be targets for the development of a therapy against PTE.
August 9, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Andrew R Mayer, Mayank Kaushal, Andrew B Dodd, Faith M Hanlon, Nicholas A Shaff, Rebekah Mannix, Christina L Master, John J Leddy, David Stephenson, Christopher J Wertz, Elizabeth M Suelzer, Kristy B Arbogast, Timothy B Meier
There is growing public concern about neurodegenerative changes (e.g., Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy) that may occur chronically following clinically apparent and clinically silent (i.e., subconcussive blows) pediatric mild traumatic brain injury (pmTBI). However, there are currently no biomarkers that clinicians can use to objectively diagnose patients or predict those who may struggle to recover. Non-invasive neuroimaging, electrophysiological and neuromodulation biomarkers have promise for providing evidence of the so-called "invisible wounds" of pmTBI...
August 9, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Madelyn Batey, Jason Hecht, Cherise Callahan, Wendy Wahl
BACKGROUND: Falls are now the leading cause of trauma and represent the most common type of trauma in the elderly. The use of anticoagulants is increasing in older patients, but there are little data on outcomes after traumatic brain injury while anticoagulated with direct oral anticoagulants compared with warfarin. We hypothesized that anticoagulated patients would have a greater mortality and complications than nonanticoagulated patients, and patients on direct oral anticoagulants would have more fatal outcomes after low-level falls because of lack of reversal agents...
August 8, 2018: Surgery
Joseph T Giacino, Douglas I Katz, Nicholas D Schiff, John Whyte, Eric J Ashman, Stephen Ashwal, Richard Barbano, Flora M Hammond, Steven Laureys, Geoffrey S F Ling, Risa Nakase-Richardson, Ronald T Seel, Stuart Yablon, Thomas S D Getchius, Gary S Gronseth, Melissa J Armstrong
OBJECTIVE: To update the 1995 American Academy of Neurology (AAN) practice parameter on persistent vegetative state and the 2002 case definition for the minimally conscious state (MCS) by reviewing the literature on the diagnosis, natural history, prognosis, and treatment of disorders of consciousness lasting at least 28 days. METHODS: Articles were classified per the AAN evidence-based classification system. Evidence synthesis occurred through a modified Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation process...
August 7, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Jyothsna Chitturi, Ying Li, Vijayalakshmi Santhakumar, Sridhar S Kannurpatti
Pathophysiology of developmental traumatic brain injury (TBI) is unique due to intrinsic differences in the developing brain. Energy metabolic studies of the brain during early development (P13 to P30) have indicated acute oxidative energy metabolic decreases below 24 h after TBI, which generally recovered by 48 h. However, marked neurodegeneration and altered neural functional connectivity have been observed at later stages into adolescence. As secondary neurodegeneration is most prominent during the first week after TBI in the rat model, we hypothesized that the subacute TBI-metabolome may contain predictive markers of neurodegeneration...
August 9, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Paul A Wetzel, Anne S Lindblad, Hardik Raizada, Nathan James, Caroline Mulatya, Mary A Kannan, Zoe Villamar, George T Gitchel, Lindell K Weaver
Purpose: Standard physical, neurologic, and neuropsychologic examinations may not detect abnormalities after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). An analysis of eye movements may be more sensitive to neurologic dysfunction. Methods: We performed eye tracking assessments in 71 active duty and veteran military personnel with persistent postconcussive symptoms (3 months to 5 years after mTBI) and 75 volunteers with no history of brain injury. Both eyes were sampled at 500 Hz and analyzed for various eye measurement parameters during visual tasks involving the saccadic and smooth systems...
August 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Hanna Kaltiainen, Liisa Helle, Mia Liljeström, Hanna Renvall, Nina Forss
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) patients continue to pose a diagnostic challenge due to their diverse symptoms without trauma-specific changes in structural imaging. We addressed here the possible early changes in spontaneous oscillatory brain activity after mTBI, and their feasibility as an indicator of injury in clinical evaluation. We recorded resting-state magnetoencephalography (MEG) data in both eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions from 26 patients (11 females and 15 males, aged 20-59) with mTBI 6 days-6 months after the injury, and compared their spontaneous oscillatory activity to corresponding data from 139 healthy controls...
August 10, 2018: Brain Topography
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