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Yu Xia, Stephen Forest, Patricia Friedmann, Lin-Chiang Chou, Snehal Patel, Ulrich Jorde, Daniel Goldstein
BACKGROUND: Limited data exists on factors predicting prolonged survival in left ventricular assist device (LVAD) recipients. We sought to identify patient characteristics and complications associated with prolonged survival. METHODS: We conducted retrospective review of the Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support (INTERMACS), including primary continuous flow LVAD recipients between May 2012 and March 2013. Patients were identified as having survived with a device in place after three years or not conditional on having initially survived six months...
October 11, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Moon Jeong Lee, Jiangxia Wang, David S Friedman, Michael V Boland, Carlos G De Moraes, Pradeep Y Ramulu
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between physical activity levels and the rate of visual field (VF) loss in glaucoma. DESIGN: Longitudinal, observational study. PARTICIPANTS: Older adults with suspect or manifest glaucoma. METHODS: Participants wore accelerometers for one week to define average steps per day, minutes of moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA) and minutes of non-sedentary activity. All available VF measurements before and after physical activity assessment were retrospectively analyzed to measure rates of VF loss...
October 10, 2018: Ophthalmology
Raphael Enrique Tiongco, Engracia Arceo, Benjie Clemente, Maria Ruth Pineda-Cortel
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to conduct a meta-analysis investigating the association of maternal iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: Literature search was conducted in various database websites such as PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science up to 17 June 2018 for related publications written in English. Selected data were extracted from the included studies and were subjected to statistical analysis...
October 12, 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Yasuo Yanagi, Valencia Hui Xian Foo, Akitoshi Yoshida
In Asian populations, polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), a distinct phenotype of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD), is more prevalent than Caucasians. Recently, there has been significant focus on how PCV differs from typical AMD. Although typical AMD and PCV share a variety of mechanisms by which abnormal angiogenic process occurs at the retinochoroidal interface, PCV has different clinical characteristics such as aneurysm-like dilation at the terminal of choroidal neovascular membranes, less frequent drusen and inner choroidal degeneration due to the thickened choroid...
October 12, 2018: Eye
Jo Lane, Emilie M F Rohan, Faran Sabeti, Rohan W Essex, Ted Maddess, Nick Barnes, Xuming He, Rachel A Robbins, Tamara Gradden, Elinor McKone
Patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) have difficulty recognising people's faces. We tested whether this could be improved using caricaturing: an image enhancement procedure derived from cortical coding in a perceptual 'face-space'. Caricaturing exaggerates the distinctive ways in which an individual's face shape differs from the average. We tested 19 AMD-affected eyes (from 12 patients; ages 66-93 years) monocularly, selected to cover the full range of vision loss. Patients rated how different in identity people's faces appeared when compared in pairs (e...
October 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jorge M Nieto, Fernando Ataúlfo González, José María Alonso, Eva Golvano, Lucia Guerrero, Beatriz Albarrán, Ana Villegas, Rafael B Martínez, Paloma Ropero
AIMS: Fusion proteins of unequal recombination events at the β-globin locus have pathological effect. The haemoglobin (Hb) variants of type Lepore are fusion proteins characterised by β-like globin chains with a δ-globin ( HBD ) N-terminus and a β-globin ( HBB ) C-terminus, whereas reciprocal products of underlying crossover events hold a HBB N-terminus and HBD C-terminus instead. Finally, Hb Parchman contains a β-like globin chain with a central HBB fragment and HBD -derived N-termini and C-termini, whereas reciprocal hybrid proteins are as yet unknown...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
Peizeng Yang, Wen Yuan, Liping Du, Qingyun Zhou, Chaokui Wang, Zi Ye, Aize Kijlstra
PURPOSE: To characterise the ocular and extraocular findings in patients with relapsing polychondritis (RP) patients. DESIGN: Retrospective, longitudinal study. METHODS: A total number of 16 patients with ocular RP, seen in our tertiary uveitis referral centre over a time period of 10 years were included in this study. Routine ocular examinations such as best-corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy and auxiliary examinations including ultrasound biomicroscopy, B-scanultrasonography, fundus fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography were performed...
October 12, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Mary E Duffy, Kristin E Henkel, Thomas E Joiner
PURPOSE: This study examined prevalence of self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITBs) in transgender individuals with eating disorders, as compared to cisgender individuals with eating disorders and transgender individuals without eating disorders. METHODS: Data were analyzed from 365,749 individuals (median age 21years, 71.8% White/Caucasian, 34.9% male, 64.9% female, and 0.2% transgender) who participated in American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment, an annual national assessment of college student health, from 2008 to 2011...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Abigail Quintos, Mario Naranjo, Colleen Kelly, Stuart F Quan, Sunil Sharma
PURPOSE: The HoSMed Database recently demonstrated a high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in hospitalized obese patients. Based on a long-term follow-up, this study showed an improved survival among patients who were adherent with the therapy. In this post-hoc analysis we explore the characteristics, associations, and mortality outcome of OSA in the African American (AA) population. METHODS: These subset analyses included obese AA patients screened in the hospital as high-risk for OSA...
October 9, 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
Ivan Marin
DNA barcoding of stygobiotic shrimps of the genus Xiphocaridinella Sadowsky, 1930 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Atyidae) collected in underground streams flowing inside two neighboring large karst caves (Otap and Abrskil сaves) revealed the presence of two distinct genetic lineages representing the first case of species co-occurrence in the Western Caucasus. The paper presents the complete morphological re-description of stygobiotic atyid shrimp Xiphocaridinella ablaskiri (Birštein, 1939) and the description of a new species using genetic and morphological analysis...
June 27, 2018: Zootaxa
Michael M Rey, Michael P Bonk, Denis Hadjiliadis
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common life-limiting genetic disease in Caucasian patients. Continued advances have led to improved survival, and adults with CF now outnumber children. As our understanding of the disease improves, new therapies have emerged that improve the basic defect, enabling patient-specific treatment and improved outcomes. However, recurrent exacerbations continue to lead to morbidity and mortality, and new pathogens have been identified that may lead to worse outcomes. In addition, new complications, such as CF-related diabetes and increased risk of gastrointestinal cancers, are creating new challenges in management...
October 12, 2018: Annual Review of Medicine
Tore Haslemo, Erik Eliasson, Marin M Jukić, Magnus Ingelman-Sundberg, Espen Molden
AIM: CYP2D6*9, CYP2D6*10 and CYP2D6*41 are the most frequent reduced-function CYP2D6 alleles in Caucasians. Despite lacking in vivo evidence, they are collectively classified with an enzyme activity score of 0.5. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the functional impact of CYP2D6*9, CYP2D6*10 and CYP2D6*41 on CYP2D6 metabolism in a large patient population. METHODS: 1,003 patients (mainly Caucasians) with data on CYP2D6 genotype and serum concentrations of venlafaxine and metabolites were included from a therapeutic drug monitoring service in Oslo, Norway...
October 12, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Natalia Gonzalez Caldito, Shiv Saidha, Elias S Sotirchos, Blake E Dewey, Norah J Cowley, Jeffrey Glaister, Kathryn C Fitzgerald, Omar Al-Louzi, James Nguyen, Alissa Rothman, Esther Ogbuokiri, Nicholas Fioravante, Sydney Feldman, Ohemaa Kwakyi, Hunter Risher, Dorlan Kimbrough, Teresa C Frohman, Elliot Frohman, Laura Balcer, Ciprian Crainiceanu, Peter C M Van Zijl, Ellen M Mowry, Daniel S Reich, Jiwon Oh, Dzung L Pham, Jerry Prince, Peter A Calabresi
On average, African Americans with multiple sclerosis demonstrate higher inflammatory disease activity, faster disability accumulation, greater visual dysfunction, more pronounced brain tissue damage and higher lesion volume loads compared to Caucasian Americans with multiple sclerosis. Neurodegeneration is an important component of multiple sclerosis, which in part accounts for the clinical heterogeneity of the disease. Brain atrophy appears to be widespread, although it is becoming increasingly recognized that regional substructure atrophy may be of greater clinical relevance...
October 11, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Sadeer G Al-Kindi, Jassim Al-Suwaidi, Amin Jayyousi, Guilherme H Oliveira, Charbel Abi Khalil
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with increased mortality in advanced heart failure and in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. However, its impact on outcomes in patients supported with left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) is not well established. We queried the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) for all adults listed for heart transplantation and bridged with continuous-flow LVAD in the United States from 2000 to 2015. We compared the pre- and post-transplant mortality of patients with and without DM...
October 9, 2018: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
Wenjuan Zheng, Jiao Wang, Xiaoshui Si, Mengyan Chen
Emerging evidence has indicated that the interleukin-1B (IL-1B) +3954 C > T polymorphism may affect individual susceptibility to sepsis. However, the results of published studies are inconclusive. The aim of this meta-analysis was to elucidate the association of this polymorphism with sepsis risk. Eligible studies were identified by a search of electronic databases. Overall and subgroup analyses were performed. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were applied to assess the associations between the IL-1B +3954 C > T polymorphism and sepsis risk...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Giulia Prete, Luca Tommasi
The Own-Race Bias (ORB) is the ability to better recognize and categorize a face when the depicted person belongs to the observer's ethnicity group. The relationship between the ORB and hemispheric asymmetries has been poorly explored, and the present study was aimed at investigating this relationship, as well as that between the ORB and the bias to better recognize own gender faces. Female and male Caucasian participants categorized the ethnicity of Caucasian and Asian female and male facial stimuli in a divided visual field paradigm...
October 12, 2018: Social Neuroscience
Barbara Joyce Dinkins, Shayne Jones
This study replicates and extends prior research indicating that individuals with elevated psychopathic traits are better able to identify vulnerability to criminal victimization. Specifically, the current study aims to further assess this finding, examine if criminal experience aids in the assessment in vulnerability to criminal victimization, and determine if the finding generalizes to females and non-Caucasians. Through an online survey, participants (undergraduate students; n = 247) viewed several videos of people walking alone down a hallway and subsequently rated the vulnerability to criminal victimization of the depicted person...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Nicolas Cazals, Quentin Le Hingrat, Bruno Abraham, Patricia Da Silva, Laure Guindre, Sylvie Goffart, Florence Damond, Benoît Visseaux, Charlotte Charpentier, Sylvie Ranger-Rogez, Diane Descamps
More than 1 million individuals, mainly in West Africa, are thought to be infected with HIV-2. Acute HIV-2 infection is rarely observed, only 2 primary infections have been described to date. We report a detailed case of HIV-2 primary infection in a 69-year-old French bisexual Caucasian man, thereby providing valuable insights into HIV-2 early infection.
October 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Seug Yun Yoon, Min-Young Lee, Jina Yoon, Han Jo Kim, Kyoung-Ha Kim, Se Hyung Kim, Sang-Cheol Lee, Sang Byung Bae, Chan-Kyu Kim, Nam-Su Lee, Kyu Taek Lee, Sung Kyu Park, Dae Sik Hong, Jong-Ho Won
Background: Pancreatic cancer is among the most common malignancies associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE). Asian patients are known to have a lower incidence of VTE compared to Caucasian patients. However, few studies have investigated the incidence of VTE in Asian patients with pancreatic cancer. Methods: This retrospective review of medical records was performed on 505 patients with histopathologically proven advanced stage pancreatic cancer, from January 2006 to December 2012, at Soonchunhyang University Hospitals...
September 2018: Blood Research
Mitchell S Cappell, Ismail Hader, Mitual Amin
AIM: To systematically review liver disease associated with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), propose reasonable contraindications for liver transplantation for liver failure in HLH, and report an illustrative case. METHODS: Systematic review according to PRISMA guidelines of hepatic manifestations of HLH using computerized literature search via PubMed of articles published since 1980 with keywords ("hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis" or "HLH") AND ("liver" or "hepatic")...
September 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
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