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Case Based Learning

Matthew J Nyflot, Phawis Thammasorn, Landon S Wootton, Eric C Ford, W Art Chaovalitwongse
PURPOSE: Patient-specific quality assurance (QA) for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is a ubiquitous clinical procedure, but conventional methods have often been criticized as being insensitive to errors or less effective than other common physics checks. Recently, there has been interest in the application of radiomics, quantitative extraction of image features, to radiotherapy quality assurance. In this work we investigate a deep learning approach to classify the presence or absence of introduced radiotherapy treatment delivery errors from patient-specific QA...
December 13, 2018: Medical Physics
Sharon Yeung, Amy Bombay, Chad Walker, Jeff Denis, Debbie Martin, Paul Sylvestre, Heather Castleden
BACKGROUND: Including content on Indigenous health in medical school curricula has become a widely-acknowledged prerequisite to reducing the health disparities experienced by Indigenous peoples in Canada. However, little is known about what levels of awareness and interest medical students have about Indigenous peoples when they enter medical school. Additionally, it is unclear whether current Indigenous health curricula ultimately improve students' beliefs and behaviours. METHODS: A total of 129 students completed a 43-item questionnaire that was sent to three cohorts of first-year medical students (in 2013, 2014, 2015) at one undergraduate medical school in Canada...
December 14, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Yunguan Wang, Jaswanth Yella, Anil G Jegga
Conventional drug discovery in general is costly and time-consuming with extremely low success and relatively high attrition rates. The disparity between high cost of drug discovery and vast unmet medical needs resulted in advent of an increasing number of computational approaches that can "connect" disease with a candidate therapeutic. This includes computational drug repurposing or repositioning wherein the goal is to discover a new indication for an approved drug. Computational drug discovery approaches that are commonly used are similarity-based wherein network analysis or machine learning-based methods are used...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Youichi Kumagai, Kaiyo Takubo, Kenro Kawada, Kazuharu Aoyama, Yuma Endo, Tsuyoshi Ozawa, Toshiaki Hirasawa, Toshiyuki Yoshio, Soichiro Ishihara, Mitsuhiro Fujishiro, Jun-Ichi Tamaru, Erito Mochiki, Hideyuki Ishida, Tomohiro Tada
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The endocytoscopic system (ECS) helps in virtual realization of histology and can aid in confirming histological diagnosis in vivo. We propose replacing biopsy-based histology for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) by using the ECS. We applied deep-learning artificial intelligence (AI) to analyse ECS images of the esophagus to determine whether AI can support endoscopists for the replacement of biopsy-based histology. METHODS: A convolutional neural network-based AI was constructed based on GoogLeNet and trained using 4715 ECS images of the esophagus (1141 malignant and 3574 non-malignant images)...
December 13, 2018: Esophagus: Official Journal of the Japan Esophageal Society
Kodeeswaran Marappan, Ranganathan Jothi, Sherina Paul Raj
Background: To compare the results of a series of microendoscopic discectomies done at a government medical college in South India, with other published series and to analyze the learning curve for the procedure. Methods: Microendoscopic discectomy (MED) was performed in 40 patients. The cases were in the age group between 20-50 years (mean age, 32.3 years). The period of study was 3 years. The most common level operated was L5-S1 (27 cases) followed by L4-L5 (12 cases)...
September 2018: Journal of Spine Surgery (Hong Kong)
Susanna Kaiser, Christopher Lang
In 3D pedestrian indoor navigation applications, position estimation based on inertial measurement units (IMUss) fails when moving platforms (MPs), such as escalators and elevators, are not properly implemented. In this work, we integrate the MPs in an upper 3D-simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) algorithm which is cascaded to the pedestrian dead-reckoning (PDR) technique. The step and heading measurements resulting from the PDR are fed to the SLAM that additionally estimates a map of the environment during the walk in order to reduce the remaining drift...
December 10, 2018: Sensors
Dario Cecilio-Fernandes, Wouter Kerdijk, André J Bremers, Wytze Aalders, René A Tio
PURPOSE: It is assumed that case-based questions require higher order cognitive processing, whereas questions that are not case-based require lower order cognitive processing. In this study, we investigated to what extent case-based questions and questions that are not case-based, relate to Bloom's taxonomy. METHODS: In this article, 4800 questions of the Progress Test were classified whether it was a case-based question and the level of Bloom's taxonomy. Lower-order questions require students to remember or/and basically understand the knowledge...
2018: Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions
Xi Fu, Jia Qiao, Lai Gui, Sabine Girod, Feng Niu, Jianfeng Liu, Qi Jin, Huijun Zhang, Shixing Xu, Xiaoyan Mao, Ying Chen
BACKGROUND: In East Asia, intraoral facial skeletal contour surgeries (intraoral FSCSs), including reduction gonioplasty, reduction malarplasty, and genioplasty, have become increasingly popular. Nonetheless, intraoral FSCSs are technically difficult and have a steep learning curve. An effective simulator could be beneficial for intraoral FSCS training. However, there is no intraoral FSCS simulator available. We introduced an intraoral FSCS simulator and assessed its effectiveness. METHODS: An intraoral FSCS simulator was established by covering a 3-dimensional printed skull with elastic cloth...
January 2019: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Augustin Coisne, Julien Dreyfus, Yohann Bohbot, Vincent Pelletier, Edouard Collette, Arthur Cescau, Eve Cariou, Cécile Alexandrino, Sophie Coulibaly, Aurélien Seemann, Clément Karsenty, Alexis Theron, Thibault Caspar, Laurie Soulat-Dufour, Julien Ternacle
BACKGROUND: Few data are available on the application of transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) recommendations in daily practice. AIMS: To evaluate TOE practice based on echocardiography societies' guidelines, and to determine complication rates and factors associated with patient feelings. METHODS: Between April and June 2017, we prospectively included all consecutive patients referred to 14 French hospitals for a transoesophageal echocardiogram (TOE)...
December 2018: Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases
Diantha Soemantri, Agnes Dodds, Geoff Mccoll
Background: Despite the growing use, studies have demonstrated some limitations related to the feedback provided in the context of the increasing use of the Mini Clinical Evaluation Exercise (Mini-CEX) in undergraduate medical education. This study examined the written feedback provided on the Mini-CEX form to determine its usefulness as a learning tool for students. Methods: 1427 Mini-CEX assessment forms of final year medical students were collected. Written feedback, both on students' strength and weakness, was categorized and correlated with the variables of clinical case complexity, assessors' clinical position and students' clinical performance rating...
2018: GMS Journal for Medical Education
Efrain Riveros-Perez, Mary E Arthur, Ankit Jain, Vikas Kumar, Alexander Rocuts
Problem: Passing the American Board of Anesthesiology (ABA) basic examination is required to progress through anesthesiology training in USA. Failing the test may be related to medical knowledge gaps, presence of negative psychosocial factors, and/or individual approaches to learning. This article describes the experience of development and implementation of a multifaceted remediation program (MRP) in residents who failed the ABA basic test. Intervention: This is a retrospective analysis of four cases of residents who failed the ABA basic test between 2016 and 2017...
2018: Advances in Medical Education and Practice
James Y Dai, Michael LeBlanc, Phyllis J Goodman, M Scott Lucia, Ian M Thompson, Catherine M Tangen
In the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT), genotypes that may modify the effect of finasteride on the risk of prostate cancer have not been identified. Germline Genetic data from 1157 prostate cancer cases in PCPT were analyzed by case-only methods. Genotypes included 357 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 83 candidate genes in androgen metabolism, inflammation, circadian rhythm and other pathways. Univariate case-only analysis was conducted to evaluate whether individual SNPs modified the finasteride effect on the risk of high-grade and low-grade prostate cancer...
December 11, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Matin Kheirkhahan, Avirup Chakraborty, Amal A Wanigatunga, Duane B Corbett, Todd M Manini, Sanjay Ranka
BACKGROUND: There has been an increasing interest in understanding the usefulness of wrist-based accelerometer data for physical activity (PA) assessment due to the ease of use and higher user compliance than other body placements. PA assessment studies have relied on machine learning methods which take accelerometer data in forms of variables, or feature vectors. METHODS: In this work, we introduce automated shape feature derivation methods to transform epochs of accelerometer data into feature vectors...
December 12, 2018: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
Ming Ma, Nataliya Kovalchuk, Mark K Buyyounouski, Lei Xing, Yong Yang
PURPOSE: Few features characterizing the dosimetric properties of the patients are included in currently available dose-volume histogram (DVH) prediction models, making it intractable to build a correlative relationship between the input and output parameters. Here we use PTV-only treatment plans of the patients (i.e., the achievable dose distribution in the absence of organs-at-risks (OARs) constraints) to estimate the potentially achievable quality of treatment plans and establish a machine learning-based DVH prediction framework with the use of the dosimetric metric as model input parameters...
December 11, 2018: Medical Physics
Ian Neath, Aimée M Surprenant
The impurity principle (Surprenant & Neath, 2009b) states that because memory is fundamentally reconstructive, tasks and processes are not pure. This principle is based on a long line of research showing the effects of one memory system or process on another. Although the principle is widely accepted, many researchers appear hesitant to endorse it in extreme edge cases. One such case involves the effects of long-term memory and lexical factors when a small, closed set of items is used. According to this view, because the subject knows the set of items, there will be no effect of item information...
December 7, 2018: Memory & Cognition
Melis Onel, Chris A Kieslich, Yannis A Guzman, Efstratios N Pistikopoulos
Rapid detection and identification of process faults in industrial applications is crucial to sustain a safe and profitable operation. Today, the advances in sensor technologies have facilitated large amounts of chemical process data collection in real time which subsequently broadened the use of data-driven process monitoring techniques via machine learning and multivariate statistical analysis. One of the well-known machine learning techniques is Support Vector Machines (SVM) which allows the use of high dimensional feature sets for learning problems such as classification and regression...
2018: International symposium on process systems engineering
Zhi-Yu Luo, Ji Cui, Xiao-Juan Hu, Li-Ping Tu, Hai-Dan Liu, Wen Jiao, Ling-Zhi Zeng, Cong-Cong Jing, Li-Jie Qiao, Xu-Xiang Ma, Yu Wang, Jue Wang, Ching-Hsuan Pai, Zhen Qi, Zhi-Feng Zhang, Jia-Tuo Xu
Objective: In this study, machine learning was utilized to classify and predict pulse wave of hypertensive group and healthy group and assess the risk of hypertension by observing the dynamic change of the pulse wave and provide an objective reference for clinical application of pulse diagnosis in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Method: The basic information from 450 hypertensive cases and 479 healthy cases was collected by self-developed H20 questionnaires and pulse wave information was acquired by self-developed pulse diagnostic instrument (PDA-1)...
2018: BioMed Research International
Wen Zhang, Xiang Yue, Guifeng Tang, Wenjian Wu, Feng Huang, Xining Zhang
LncRNA-protein interactions play important roles in post-transcriptional gene regulation, poly-adenylation, splicing and translation. Identification of lncRNA-protein interactions helps to understand lncRNA-related activities. Existing computational methods utilize multiple lncRNA features or multiple protein features to predict lncRNA-protein interactions, but features are not available for all lncRNAs or proteins; most of existing methods are not capable of predicting interacting proteins (or lncRNAs) for new lncRNAs (or proteins), which don't have known interactions...
December 11, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Juana Canul-Reich, José Hernández-Torruco, Oscar Chávez-Bosquez, Betania Hernández-Ocaña
Nowadays, Machine Learning methods have proven to be highly effective on the identification of various types of diseases, in the form of predictive models. Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a potentially fatal autoimmune neurological disorder that has barely been studied with computational techniques and few predictive models have been proposed. In a previous study, single classifiers were successfully used to build a predictive model. We believe that a predictive model is imperative to carry out adequate treatment in patients promptly...
2018: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
Ohoud Al Mohareb, Mussa H Al Malki, O Thomas Mueller, Imad Brema
Resistance to thyroid hormone-beta (RTHbeta) is a rare inherited syndrome characterized by variable reduced tissue responsiveness to the intracellular action of triiodothyronine (T3), the active form of the thyroid hormone. The presentation of RTHbeta is quite variable and mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor beta (THR-B) gene have been detected in up to 90% of patients. The proband was a 34-year-old Jordanian male who presented with intermittent palpitations. His thyroid function tests (TFTs) showed a discordant profile with high free T4 (FT4) at 45...
December 5, 2018: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
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