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Case Based Learning

Evert-Ben van Veen
Insights into the incidence and survival of cancer, the influence of lifestyle and environmental factors and the interaction of treatment regimens with outcomes are hugely dependent on observational research, patient data derived from the healthcare system and from volunteers participating in cohort studies, often non-selective. Since 25th May 2018, the European General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) applies to such data. The GDPR focusses on more individual control for data subjects of 'their' data. Yet, the GDPR was preceded by a long debate...
October 15, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Yonghyun Nam, Jong Ho Jhee, Junhee Cho, Ji-Hyun Lee, Hyunjung Shin
Motivation: Immune diseases have a strong genetic component with Mendelian patterns of inheritance. While the tight association has been a major understanding in the underlying pathophysiology for the category of immune diseases, the common features of these diseases remain unclear. Based on the potential commonality among immune genes, we design Gene Ranker for key gene identification. Methods: Gene Ranker is a network-based gene scoring algorithm that initially constructs a backbone network based on protein interactions...
October 18, 2018: Bioinformatics
Junguo Cao, Ting Lei, Fan Chen, Chaochao Zhang, Chengyuan Ma, Haiyan Huang
RATIONALE: A sellar mass in children is most often seen in craniopharyngeal tumors, intracranial germ cell tumors, or pituitary adenomas. However, pituitary hyperplasia secondary to primary hypothyroidism (PHPH) is not commonly seen in children. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 10-year-old girl was admitted due to growth retardation and obesity for 4 years. On physical examination, the patient had a height of 118 cm, body weight of 46 kg, body mass index (BMI) of 33.0 kg/m...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Junjun Jiang, Yi Yu, Suhua Tang, Jiayi Ma, Akiko Aizawa, Kiyoharu Aizawa
Face hallucination is a technique that reconstructs high-resolution (HR) faces from low-resolution (LR) faces, by using the prior knowledge learned from HR/LR face pairs. Most state-of-the-arts leverage position-patch prior knowledge of the human face to estimate the optimal representation coefficients for each image patch. However, they focus only the position information and usually ignore the context information of the image patch. In addition, when they are confronted with misalignment or the small sample size (SSS) problem, the hallucination performance is very poor...
October 16, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
Guanjin Wang, Jie Lu, Kup-Sze Choi, Guangquan Zhang
The performance of a classifier might greatly deteriorate due to missing data. Many different techniques to handle this problem have been developed. In this paper, we solve the problem of missing data using a novel transfer learning perspective and show that when an additive least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) is adopted, model transfer learning can be used to enhance the classification performance on incomplete training datasets. A novel transfer-based additive LS-SVM classifier is accordingly proposed...
October 15, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
Mona M Savran, Anders Bo Nielsen, Bente Baekholm Poulsen, Poul Bak Thorsen, Lars Konge
BACKGROUND: Hysteroscopy is a technically challenging procedure. Specialty curricula of obstetrics and gynaecology appraise hysteroscopy for trainees but there is no present evidence-based training program that certifies the fundamental technical skills before performance on patients. The objectives of this study were to develop and gather validity evidence for a simulation-based test that can ensure basic competence in hysteroscopy. METHODS: We used the virtual-reality simulator HystMentor™...
October 17, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
Derek W Brown, Todd Atwood, Kevin Moore, Robert MacAulay, James Murphy, Arno Mundt, Todd Pawlicki
OBJECTIVES: To develop a training program designed to meet the specific needs of medical physicists as they transition into a clinical role with direct patient care responsibilities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The training program was designed in collaboration with the faculty at the UC San Diego School of Medicine and incorporates training techniques that have been shown to be effective in improving communication skills. The program emphasizes experiential, practice-based learning over didactic presentations...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Jingyi Shen, Yijia Shen, Fangyuan Xu, Xinguang Zhou, Laiming Wu
Storing and exhibiting cultural heritages are the basic social functions of museum. Since it is impossible to store or display objects without using containers, cases, or holders, the equipment quality is of great importance. Evaluating the suitability of the equipment should not only learn the mechanical behavior but also focus on the materials because some of them (such as woods) may do harm to the objects due to contaminants released. A convenient test by the deposited metal film method has been proposed previously in order to evaluate more potential museum materials in limited time...
October 16, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Gautam Singh Parmar, Bhushan Ghodke, Sunandini Bose, Ashok Kumar Meena
PURPOSE: To evaluate a new surgical technique ("prick and print") for harvesting shaped donor corneal grafts in cases with perforated peripheral ulcerative keratitis (PUK). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case series at a tertiary center. Medical records of 13 patients with perforated PUK, who underwent tectonic eccentric keratoplasty using the stenciling-based prick and print technique during the past 1 year, were reviewed. All patients (15 eyes of 13 patients) received grafts of varying sizes and shapes (14 crescentic and 1 biconvex)...
October 5, 2018: Cornea
Felix Hammann, Verena Schöning, Jürgen Drewe
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is the most common cause of acute liver failure and often responsible for drug withdrawals from the market. Clinical manifestations vary, and toxicity may or may not appear dose-dependent. We present several machine-learning models (decision tree induction, k-nearest neighbor, support vector machines, artificial neural networks) for the prediction of clinically relevant DILI based solely on drug structure, with data taken from published DILI cases. Our models achieved corrected classification rates of up to 89%...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Eivind Gottlieb-Vedi, Hugh Mackenzie, Frans van Workum, Camiel Rosman, Pernilla Lagergren, Sheraz Markar, Jesper Lagergren
BACKGROUND: Surgery proficiency gain curves must be shortened to reduce patient harm during esophagectomy learning. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to test whether surgeon volume and surgeon age influenced the length of period of surgical proficiency gain. METHODS: This population-based cohort study included 1384 patients with esophageal cancer who underwent esophagectomy by any of the 36 highest-volume surgeons in Sweden between 1987 and 2010, with follow-up until 2016...
October 15, 2018: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Tao Tan, Zhang Li, Haixia Liu, Farhad G Zanjani, Quchang Ouyang, Yuling Tang, Zheyu Hu, Qiang Li
Bronchoscopy inspection, as a follow-up procedure next to the radiological imaging, plays a key role in the diagnosis and treatment design for lung disease patients. When performing bronchoscopy, doctors have to make a decision immediately whether to perform a biopsy. Because biopsies may cause uncontrollable and life-threatening bleeding of the lung tissue, thus doctors need to be selective with biopsies. In this paper, to help doctors to be more selective on biopsies and provide a second opinion on diagnosis, we propose a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for lung diseases, including cancers and tuberculosis (TB)...
2018: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
Emily K Flores, Rick Hess
Objective. To determine whether using standardized patients dressed in moulage improves pharmacy students' ability to assess skin disorders compared to using picture-based paper cases. To determine pharmacy student preferences when learning assessment of skin disorders through these two educational methods. Methods. Faculty members investigated student assessments of drug-induced skin disorders and contact dermatitis by using picture-based paper cases compared with using standardized patients dressed in moulage in a patient assessment course...
September 2018: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
Michael Heinrich, Alan Hesketh
BACKGROUND: When in 1992 the Convention on Biological Diversity was adopted, it was a response to centuries of exploitative use of biodiversity and to a lack of recognition of the rights of the countries and regions of origin. At the same time, it was an outcome of the increasing drive, especially in many European and American countries, to ascertain more equitable sharing of wealth between the global North and South. It is a result of negotiations between states and driven by political consensus...
May 10, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
P Baldi, P Sadowski
Learning in physical neural systems must rely on learning rules that are local in both space and time. Optimal learning in deep neural architectures requires that non-local information be available to the deep synapses. Thus, in general, optimal learning in physical neural systems requires the presence of a deep learning channel to communicate non-local information to deep synapses, in a direction opposite to the forward propagation of the activities. Theoretical arguments suggest that for circular autoencoders, an important class of neural architectures where the output layer is identical to the input layer, alternative algorithms may exist that enable local learning without the need for additional learning channels, by using the forward activation channel as the deep learning channel...
September 27, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
A Zhigalov, E Heinilä, T Parviainen, L Parkkonen, A Hyvärinen
Neurofeedback requires a direct translation of neuronal brain activity to sensory input given to the user or subject. However, decoding certain states, e.g., mindfulness or wandering thoughts, from ongoing brain activity remains an unresolved problem. In this study, we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to acquire brain activity during mindfulness meditation and thought-inducing tasks mimicking wandering thoughts. We used a novel real-time feature extraction to decode the mindfulness, i.e., to discriminate it from the thought-inducing tasks...
October 11, 2018: NeuroImage
Alexander P N van der Jagt, Mike Smith, Bianca Ambrose-Oji, Cecil C Konijnendijk, Vincenzo Giannico, Dagmar Haase, Raffaele Lafortezza, Mojca Nastran, Marina Pintar, Špela Železnikar, Rozalija Cvejić
Urban green infrastructure (UGI) and nature-based solutions are increasingly recognized as instruments to address urban sustainability challenges, yet rely on a good understanding of complex social-ecological system (SES) to function adequately. Adaptive co-management (ACM), engaging a broad variety of stakeholders in collaborative learning, is an effective strategy to improve the resilience of a SES. However, ACM studies have been criticized for neglecting the urban context, while also offering little clarity on process objectives and outcomes...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Sally Theobald, Neal Brandes, Margaret Gyapong, Sameh El-Saharty, Enola Proctor, Theresa Diaz, Samuel Wanji, Soraya Elloker, Joanna Raven, Helen Elsey, Sushil Bharal, David Pelletier, David H Peters
Implementation research is important in global health because it addresses the challenges of the know-do gap in real-world settings and the practicalities of achieving national and global health goals. Implementation research is an integrated concept that links research and practice to accelerate the development and delivery of public health approaches. Implementation research involves the creation and application of knowledge to improve the implementation of health policies, programmes, and practices. This type of research uses multiple disciplines and methods and emphasises partnerships between community members, implementers, researchers, and policy makers...
October 8, 2018: Lancet
Sara Catherine Pearson, Travis Eddlemon, Madalyn Kirkwood, Adam Pate
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Case based learning is a commonly used pedagogy to facilitate active learning and development of problem-solving skills, however its utility may be limited in a large lecture environment. Fishbowl activities have been utilized in higher education to encourage discussion and postformal thinking and may be useful in engaging large class sizes in collective problem-solving activities. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: The fishbowl activity took place in a second-year six-credit hour infectious disease course delivered in the spring of 2017, consisting 95 students...
August 2018: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
Walter H L Pinaya, Andrea Mechelli, João R Sato
Machine learning is becoming an increasingly popular approach for investigating spatially distributed and subtle neuroanatomical alterations in brain-based disorders. However, some machine learning models have been criticized for requiring a large number of cases in each experimental group, and for resembling a "black box" that provides little or no insight into the nature of the data. In this article, we propose an alternative conceptual and practical approach for investigating brain-based disorders which aim to overcome these limitations...
October 11, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
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