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Waste material

Alicja Kicińska
The study presents the results of an analysis of fly ashes produced from burning of solid fuels mixed with municipal waste and assesses the environmental and health risk associated with infiltration of the selected metals to the environment. The phase composition suggests that the material is extremely mixed and diverse. Low-temperature components were mixed with substances formed in high temperatures. The variable composition of waste from different home furnaces with high content of the amorphous phase (which dissolves in water more easily than its crystalline equivalents) may be harmful to the environment and for the people...
October 15, 2018: Chemosphere
K Piszcz-Karaś, M Klein, J Hupka, J Łuczak
The development of technologies for unconventional hydrocarbon exploration requires designing procedures to manage drilling waste that are consistent with the waste management hierarchy. In view of this, the possibility to apply shale drill cuttings as a prospective additive (replacing bentonite) to fly ash used for the production of lightweight aggregates (LWAs) was investigated. Moreover, a facile, waste-free method of LWAs production with using shales was proposed. Cuttings were characterized in terms of their mineralogical and elemental composition (XRD and XRF) as well as thermophysical behavior (TG-DTA and fusibility test)...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Rafaela Ediene Dos Santos, Ivan Felipe Silva Dos Santos, Regina Mambeli Barros, Andressa Picionieri Bernal, Geraldo Lúcio Tiago Filho, Fernando das Graças Braga da Silva
The search for alternative energy sources and increasing concerns over the generation of municipal solid waste are two widely discussed themes in contemporary academic literature. A possible alternative for solving both of these problems is through electrical energy generation through the use of this waste material. Although this practice is encouraged by the Brazilian National Solid Waste Policy, energy production through such methods still requires improvement. Given these considerations, this study aims to evaluate the generation of electric energy from solid waste in three different systems (biogas from sanitary landfills; methanization of organic fraction in anaerobic digesters; and combustion in incinerators) through economic and energy analysis...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Catalina Filote, Irina Volf, Sílvia C R Santos, Cidália M S Botelho
In the context of developing the circular economy that enables a more sustainable use of the available resources and minimum waste generation, marine macroalgae have attracted the attention of researchers and industry due to its potential as a renewable resource. The current work aims to contribute to the design of a complete biorefinery processing, using Fucus spiralis seaweed (brown division) as starting material, and to determine the potential of the derived waste as biosorbent of heavy metals in aqueous solution...
January 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Anne P M Velenturf, Juliet S Jopson
People altered the biophysical environment upon which they depend through the overexploitation of resources and growing waste generation. Action is urgently needed to return the resource economy within planetary boundaries and safeguard human well-being, by realising an increasingly closed-loop system that maintains values of materials and products within a sustainable circular economy. Innovative technologies and business models must be developed and implemented, requiring convincing "business cases" for industry and government; why should they be interested in adopting circular, resource recovery practices? Despite multi-dimensional challenges facing people and their environment, and the ability of resource recovery to contribute to restoring environment, society and economy, arguments for circular practices are often overly focused on economic aspects...
January 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Quynh Anh Nguyen, Eun Jin Cho, Dae-Seok Lee, Hyeun-Jong Bae
Spent coffee grounds (SCG) or coffee residue wastes (CRW) provide excellent raw material for mannose and bioethanol production. In this study, SCG were used to produce valuable biosugars, including oligosaccharides (OSs), manno-oligosaccharides (MOSs), mannose, and bioethanol. SCG were subjected to delignification and defatting, producing SCG-derived polysaccharides. Two-stage enzymatic hydrolysis (short- and long-term) was performed to produce short-chain manno-oligosaccharides (MOSs) and monosaccharides (MSs), respectively...
October 6, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Esra Tugrul Tunc
It is necessary to prioritize recycling applications to contribute to the marble industry, ecology, and economy. In the current study, it is seen that the waste marble is used extensively in concrete instead of aggregate and cement. Thus, the aim involved minimizing the harmful effects of waste marble on the environment. Furthermore, the effects of waste marble on the strength of concrete were investigated. Recycling options for waste marble were explored in detail based on a review of previous studies. The results indicated that the use of waste marble in concrete in certain rates was adequate to replace the coarse/fine aggregate, cement, and admixture material and that the resulting concrete exhibited higher strength...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Lorena M Fortuna, Marco J Castaldi
In 2015, the city of New York (NYC) introduced a plan to reduce the volume of collected solid waste by 90% by 2030 and envisioned the expansion of reuse opportunities as one of its main drivers. The assessment of the contributions from reuse initiatives to the advancement of waste prevention and waste reduction goals requires a quantitative understanding of the scope of reuse activities. The high population density in NYC and well-organised collection efforts by The City of New York Department of Sanitation (DSNY) (DSNY) have resulted in a structure that enables the informal sector to readily contribute and access the reuse market...
October 18, 2018: Waste Management & Research
G De Feo, C Ferrara, V Iannone, P Parente
The main aim of the study was to propose a useful methodological approach to define easily understandable indicators to use in communication campaigns organized to improve the efficacy of municipal solid waste collection. For this purpose, six economic-environmental indicators were defined, combining life cycle thinking and environmental communication. The indicators make it possible to obtain several combinations that can follow a variety of communication channels. Three indicators (quantity of recyclable materials recoverable from unsorted residual waste; total potential economic saving; number of jobs for young people as communicators) are expressed in absolute value and therefore refer to the whole community even if they are also good for single-targeted messages...
October 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
M José Martin-Piñero, Pablo Ramirez, José Muñoz, M Carmen Alfaro
In the present work aqueous-based emulsions formulated with bio-based solvents and surfactants were studied. The droplet size distribution, rheology and physical stability of rosemary essential oil/water emulsions formulated with an emulsifier derived from wheat waste (alkyl polypentoside) were investigated as a function of the dispersed phase concentration (10-50 wt%) by means of laser diffraction, multiple light scattering and rheology measurements. Subsequently, processing variables, such as the pressure and the number of microfluidization passes, were studied to the best formulation (20 wt% rosemary oil)...
October 10, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Ruitong Gao, Zhenming Xu
The rapid replacement of electric and electronic equipment has produced large amount of waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs). At present, physical and mechanical methods are widely used to recover valuable metals from WPCBs. Unfortunately, produced nonmetal materials (NMMs) were typically hazardous waste and were usually disposed by landfill. Considering the characteristics of structure and composition of NMMs, debromination pyrolysis was regarded as the appropriate technique to decompose organics. However, pyrolysis oil and pyrolysis residue were still typically hazardous and difficult to disposal or recycle...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Satoru Kase, Kenichi Namba, Hiromi Kanno-Okada, Masahiro Onozawa, Daisuke Hidaka, Daiju Iwata, Kazuomi Mizuuchi, Takako Fukuhara, Junichi Fukuhara, Nobuyoshi Kitaichi, Yoshihiro Matsuno, Susumu Ishida
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to analyze immunohistochemical and immunocytological findings by examining enucleated eyes and vitreous cell block (CB) in patients with vitreoretinal lymphoma (VRL). METHODS: Histological specimens were obtained from two enucleated eyes with VRL associated with neovascular glaucoma. CB specimens were prepared in 18 patients from diluted waste fluids containing shredded vitreous. Histological and cytological specimens were submitted for hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunopathological analyses...
October 18, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Krisztina Mikulás, Mercedes Linninger, Emőke Takács, Barbara Kispélyi, Katalin Nagy, Pál Fejérdy, Péter Hermann
Dental amalgam has been used for more than 150 years due to its beneficial mechanical properties and durability in dentistry. In the past and to date, many questions about amalgam restorations have arisen, especially regarding the mercury content, which has been the subject of global disputes. By presenting the past and present of the 'amalgam issue', the aim of our paper is to display the current position of international literature. This summary is based on the publications in the PubMed database, the guidelines of the Council of European Dentists...
October 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
Gábor Tasnádi, Wolfgang Jud, Mélanie Hall, Kai Baldenius, Klaus Ditrich, Kurt Faber
Undesired product hydrolysis along with large amounts of waste in form of inorganic monophosphate by-product are the main obstacles associated with the use of pyrophosphate in the phosphatase-catalyzed synthesis of phosphate monoesters on large scale. In order to overcome both limitations, we screened a broad range of natural and synthetic organic phosphate donors with several enzymes on a broad variety of hydroxyl-compounds. Among them, acetyl phosphate delivered stable product levels and high phospho-transfer efficiency at the lower functional pH-limit, which translated into excellent productivity...
June 15, 2018: Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis
Fatima Mustafa, Silvana Andreescu
The growing interest in food quality and safety requires the development of sensitive and reliable methods of analysis as well as technology for freshness preservation and food quality. This review describes the status of chemical and biological sensors for food monitoring and smart packaging. Sensing designs and their analytical features for measuring freshness markers, allergens, pathogens, adulterants and toxicants are discussed with example of applications. Their potential implementation in smart packaging could facilitate food-status monitoring, reduce food waste, extend shelf-life, and improve overall food quality...
October 16, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Zaheer Aslam, Ibnelwaleed A Hussein, Reyad A Shawabkeh, Mohammad Anwar Parvez, Waqar Ahmad, Ihsanullah
Waste oil fly ash (OFA) collected from disposal of power generation plants was treated by physico-chemical activation technique to improve the surface properties of OFA. This synthesized material was further used for potential H2 S adsorption from synthetic natural gas. The raw OFA was basically modified with the mixture of acids (20% HNO3 and 80% H3 PO4 ) and it was further treated with 2M KOH to enhance the surface affinity as well as surface area of synthesized activated carbon. Correspondingly, it enhanced the adsorption of H2 S...
October 16, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
D V Ivanov, E A Shishkina, D I Osipov, V I Starichenko, S N Bayankin, M V Zhukovsky, E A Pryakhin
Otoliths are the organs which fish use for hearing and keeping balance. Otoliths are the most calcified tissues in the fish body. In contrast to bones, otoliths are not affected by remodeling and, therefore, they are expected to accumulate any dose from ionizing radiation during lifetime. Therefore, EPR dosimetry with fish otoliths could be an important tool for dose reconstruction in radiobiology and radioecology. It could also provide useful information remediation actions to de-contaminate waterbodies. Consequently, in the present study, otoliths of three contaminated fish species (roach (Rutilus rutilus), pike (Esox lucius) and perch (Perca Fluviatilis)) were examined with Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy...
October 15, 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
Cezar A Bizzi, Daniel Santos, Tainara C Sieben, Gustavo V Motta, Paola A Mello, Erico M M Flores
Furanic platforms (e.g. furfural, furfuryl alcohol and hydroxymethylfurfural) can be obtained from biomass, being considered as a green alternative to petrochemical products such as fuels, and solvents. In this work, the use of ultrasound energy was investigated for the conversion of several lignocellulosic materials into furfural. The following parameters were evaluated: reaction time (30 to 120 min), ultrasound amplitude (20 to 70%) and feedstock amount (100 to 500 mg). The ultrasound-assisted acid hydrolysis (UAAH) process was applied to several lignocellulosic materials (sugar cane straw, rice husk, yerba-mate waste, grass and wood waste) aiming an investigation about the effects when working with real and complex feedstock...
September 27, 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Katarzyna Tyśkiewicz, Marcin Konkol, Edward Rój
The separation of phenolic compounds by supercritical fluid extraction has been widely studied throughout the last two decades. This is evidenced by a number of publications and articles. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) has become thus the effective method of separating the mentioned group of compounds. On the other hand, SFE is a beneficial approach in plant waste materials utilization and reduction of environmental burdens caused by the wastes. The aim of the study is to gather and systematize available information on the phenolic compounds separation that have been reported so far as well as to evaluate whether there is one optimal supercritical fluid extraction method for the phenolic compounds...
October 12, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Zahra Karbalaei Mirza Shahrbabaki, Farshid Pahlevani, Narjes Gorjizadeh, Rumana Hossain, Mohammad Bagher Ghasemian, Vaibhav Gaikwad, Veena Sahajwalla
The abundant application of metallized paper and the quick growth of their wastes lead to the removal of a huge amount of valuable resources from economic cycle. In this work, for the first-time, the thermal micronizing technique has been used to directly transform the metallized paper wastes to Al-Si nano-rod and Al nano-particles for use as the input in different manufacturing sectors such as additive manufacturing or composite fabrication. Structure of metallized paper has been investigated using FT-IR analysis and first-principle plane-wave calculation...
October 12, 2018: Materials
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