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Waste material

Xiaolei Ye, Shenghui Guo, Wenwen Qu, Li Yang, Tu Hu, Shengming Xu, Libo Zhang, Bingguo Liu, Zimu Zhang
The exploration of the dielectric properties of waste hydrodesulfurization catalysts has important guiding significance for the development of microwave heat treatment of waste hydrodesulfurization catalysts for the recovery of valuable metals. The resonant cavity perturbation technique was used to measure the dielectric properties of waste catalyst and the mixture of waste catalyst and Na2 CO3 during roasting from room temperature to 700 °C at 2450 MHz. The heating properties of the waste catalyst and mixture of waste catalyst and Na2 CO3 were determined in the microwave field...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Ilhwan Park, Carlito Baltazar Tabelin, Sanghee Jeon, Xinlong Li, Kensuke Seno, Mayumi Ito, Naoki Hiroyoshi
Acid mine/rock drainage (AMD/ARD), effluents with low pH and high concentrations of hazardous and toxic elements generated when sulfide-rich wastes are exposed to the environment, is considered as a serious environmental problem encountered by the mining and mineral processing industries around the world. Remediation options like neutralization, adsorption, ion exchange, membrane technology, biological mediation, and electrochemical approach have been developed to reduce the negative environmental impacts of AMD on ecological systems and human health...
November 28, 2018: Chemosphere
Richa Soni, Dericks Praise Shukla
A zeolite-reduced graphene oxide (ZrGO) based composite was synthesized to remove arsenic from water. To make a low-cost adsorbent, zeolite was synthesized using an inexpensive waste material; fly ash, which was further used to produce the ZrGO composite. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Raman spectra were used to characterize the morphology and surface composition of the synthesized materials. Synthesized materials: zeolite, rGO and ZrGO were evaluated as an adsorbent to remove arsenic from water...
December 4, 2018: Chemosphere
Kunzhou Wang, Bin Wang, Huailiang Li, Xianguo Tuo, Kun Xiong, Minhao Yan, Jérémie Courtois
HYPOTHESIS: Nanoparticles functionalized with ligands which can on-demand and remotely be detached have recently attracted interest as stimuli-responsive materials. Research is now focused on multi-responsive systems, with applications in environmental science and biomedicine. The possibility to covalently couple two different ligands on a single nanoparticles, and to release them independently is investigated. This concept of nanoparticles functionalized with dual on-demand cleavable ligands is exploited in ground water decontamination and radionuclides separation...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Seong Kyum Kim, Asad Hanif, Il Young Jang
This paper assesses the feasibility of using liquid crystal display (LCD) waste glass as a supplementary cementing material in cement mortars. Two different sizes of LCD waste glass powder (LGP) particles were used (5 µm and 12 µm) with two substitution levels with cement in mortar (10% and 20%). The resulting mortars were evaluated for strength, hydration, porosity and durability through various experimental techniques. It was found that LGP particles lead to appreciable strength gain at all ages in comparison with control mortar, especially significant strength gain of 18% was observed at 28-day...
December 13, 2018: Materials
Alan Dyer, Joe Hriljac, Nick Evans, Ian Stokes, Peter Rand, Simon Kellet, Risto Harjula, Teresia Moller, Zoe Maher, Ross Heatlie-Branson, Jonathan Austin, Scott Williamson-Owens, Manon Higgins-Bos, Kurt Smith, Luke O'Brien, Nick Smith, Nick Bryan
Mud Hills clinoptilolite has been used in an effluent treatment plant (SIXEP) at the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing site. This material has been used to remove 134/137 Cs and 90 Sr successfully from effluents for 3 decades. Samples of the zeolite have been tested in column experiments to determine their ability to remove radioactive Cs+ and Sr2+ ions under increasing concentrations of competing ions, Ca2+ , Mg2+ , Na+ and K+ . These ions caused increased elution of Cs+ and Sr2+ . Ca2+ , Mg2+ and K+ were more effective competitors than Na+ ...
2018: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Fan Yang, Yun Li, Yuhua Han, Wentao Qian, Guoxue Li, Wenhai Luo
This study investigated the performance of mature compost to mitigate gaseous emissions during kitchen waste composting. Cornstalk was mixed with kitchen waste at a ratio of 3:17 (wet weight) as the bulking agent. Mature compost (10% of raw composting materials on the wet weight basis) was mixed into or covered on the composting pile. A control treatment without any addition of mature compost was conducted for comparison. Results show that mature compost did not significantly affect the composting process. Nevertheless, gaseous emissions during kitchen waste composting were considerably reduced with the addition of mature compost...
December 4, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Rut Sanchis, Ana Dejoz, Isabel Vázquez, Enrique Vilarrasa-García, José Jiménez-Jiménez, Enrique Rodríguez-Castellón, José M López Nieto, Benjamín Solsona
Ferric chloride solutions are used as coagulants or flocculants in water treatment operations for human consumption. This treatment produces large amounts of clay-type solids formed mainly of montmorillonite with iron oxides and humic substances. This ferric sludge can be used as an efficient catalyst for the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by total oxidation. This waste isolated in the purification process has been activated by calcinations in air, characterized by several physicochemical techniques and employed as a catalyst for the removal by total oxidation of representative VOCs: toluene, propane and mixtures of toluene/propane with or without water...
December 7, 2018: Chemosphere
Nehal El-Shaboury, Manal Abdelhamid, Mohamed Marzouk
Unlike developing countries, most developed countries address the problem of construction and demolition wastes (CDW) accumulation. In Egypt, CDW recycling plants are minimal. This study is devoted to understanding the economic aspects of constructing and operating a construction and demolition concrete waste recycling plant in Egypt. This includes accounting for several factors such as location, design of the recycling plant, the equipment used, and the material entering and leaving the plant. This is followed by implementing a detailed economic viability analysis that assesses the savings resulted from recycling concrete waste to produce recycled aggregate...
December 12, 2018: Waste Management & Research
Jing Yuan, Longlong Du, Shuyan Li, Fan Yang, Zhiye Zhang, Guoxue Li, Guoying Wang
A study was conducted to investigate the utilization of mature compost as a biofilter medium for the removal of hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) from the exhaust gases of the composting process. Source-selected kitchen waste from municipal solid waste was composted in a reactor, and the exhaust gas was passed through a biofilter packed with a 1:4 (wet weight) mixture of mature compost and sand. Two treatments were applied under sterilized and unsterilized conditions to quantify the contribution of microbial activity...
December 11, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yaoping Hu, Zhijin Gao, Jie Yang, Hui Chen, Lei Han
The increasing production of waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is a growing problem worldwide. Environmentally benign conversion of waste PET to valuable materials remains a substantial challenge. In this paper, we developed a green route to reuse waste PET for low-cost synthesis of fluorescent carbon dots (CDs) via air oxidation followed by hydrothermal treatment in aqueous H2 O2 solution. No expensive, corrosive, or toxic reagents, or severe conditions were required in the synthetic process. The resultant CDs possessed abundant oxygenous groups and unique photoluminescence (PL) properties, which showed a highly selective and sensitive detection of ferric ion (Fe3+ ) through a PL quenching effect (on-off)...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Suresh Bandi, Syamsai Ravuri, Dilip Ramkrishna Peshwe, Ajeet Kumar Srivastav
Utilization of extracted graphite rods from discharged dry cell batteries for synthesis of graphene oxide / graphene serves two purposes, one is waste management which supports environmental safety and the second is low cost production of graphene oxide / graphene which are highly promising 2D materials in various fields of research. In the present work, a sustainable feasibility for the synthesis of graphene oxide / graphene from graphite rods of waste dry cell batteries is demonstrated. The graphite rods separated from the waste dry cell batteries were subjected to electrochemical exfoliation (ECE) in an acidic media...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Ling Yuan, Zhaofu Qiu, Lin Yuan, Muhammad Tariq, Yunqing Lu, Ji Yang, Zhen Li, Shuguang Lyu
The waste materials utilization has attained increasing attention due to the generation of a large number of spent materials. In the current study, a practical magnetic adsorbent (Fe3 O4 -doped spent Fluid Catalytic Cracking catalysts, abbreviated as FCCx @(Fe)y -O) was prepared, liable to be separated. The batch experiments were employed to investigate the phosphate removal behavior. The findings of this study demonstrated that FCC4 @(Fe)1 -O exhibited the best phosphate removal performance among the adsorbents (FCCx @(Fe)y -O), attributed to rough surface layer, i...
November 21, 2018: Chemosphere
Li Gan, Beibei Li, Yuan Chen, Bing Yu, Zuliang Chen
Graphene is usually synthesized through deoxygenation of graphene oxide (GO) by hydrazine which functions as a reducing agent, but the production of graphene via this method suffers a high cost and is often regarded to be not environmental-friendly. In this work, we developed a simple and efficient method for the green reduction of GO to reduced graphene oxide (rGO) dispersed on sugarcane bagasse derived from rGO/bagasse material. The rGO/bagasse was characterized by Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis...
December 3, 2018: Chemosphere
Isabella Panovic, Christopher S Lancefield, Darren Phillips, Mark Gronnow, Nicholas James Westwood
Chemically modified lignins are important for the generation of biomass-derived materials and as precursors to renewable aromatic monomers. A butanol-based organosolv pretreatment has been used to convert an abundant agricultural waste product, rice husks, into a cellulose pulp and three additional product streams. One of these streams, a butanol-modified lignin, was oxidised at the γ-position to give a carboxylic acid functionalized material. Subsequent coupling of the acid with aniline aided lignin characterization and served as an example of the flexibility of this approach for grafting side chains onto a lignin core structure...
December 10, 2018: ChemSusChem
Vaille A Swenson, Amanda D Stacy, Michael O Gaylor, Blake Ushijima, Benjamin Philmus, Loralyn M Cozy, Nina M Videau, Patrick Videau
Laboratory science requires careful maintenance of sterile reagents and tools as well as the sterilization of waste prior to disposal. However, steam autoclaves typically used for this purpose may not be readily accessible to everyone in the scientific community, such as K-12 teachers, researchers in the field, students in under-funded laboratories, or persons in the developing world who lack funding and resources. This work examines the use of commercial electric pressure cookers as an alternative method for the sterilization of media, instruments, and waste...
2018: PloS One
Guangliang Yang, Tony Clarkson, Simon Gardner, David Ireland, Ralf Kaiser, David Mahon, Ramsey Al Jebali, Craig Shearer, Matthew Ryan
Owing to the high penetrating power of high-energy cosmic ray muons, muon imaging techniques can be used to image large bulky objects, especially objects with heavy shielding. Muon imaging systems work just like CT scanners in the medical imaging field-that is, they can reveal information inside of a target. There are two forms of muon imaging techniques: muon absorption imaging and muon multiple scattering imaging. The former is based on the flux attenuation of muons, and the latter is based on the multiple scattering of muons in matter...
December 10, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Sabyasachi Patra, Chhavi Agarwal, Sanhita Chaudhury
Large volume radioactive waste drums with low/intermediate level of alpha activity, generated in radiochemical laboratories, are in general screened for special nuclear materials (SNM) in a segmented gamma scanner (SGS) before disposal. The assay methodology traditionally requires a standard drum of identical geometry and thereby making the procedure relying on the availability of a true standard, which is often difficult to organize. Here, we report a non-conventional absolute segmented gamma scanning (ASGS) methodology for the assay of 200 L waste drums, avoiding the use of a standard drum...
November 27, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Asim A Mohammed, Chao Chen, Zhihong Zhu
Due to an effective synthesis strategy, two kinds of hierarchical porous activated carbons were derived via KOH and H3 PO4 activation and carbonization processes from baobab fruit shells (BFSs) used as a green and low-cost biomass precursor. The physicochemical properties and the morphological structure of the baobab fruit shell derived carbons (BFSCs) were systematically studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectra, nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Vijay Bahadur Yadav, Ranu Gadi, Sippy Kalra
The exponential increment in world population, recent industrialization, civilization, agricultural and household activities leads to greater levels of water pollution in terms of organic and inorganic contaminants. However, numerous workers have done research for the removal of these pollutants and various types of clays and/or modified clays have been extensively used for this purpose. But all identified adsorbent materials are not able to remove pollutants after certain concentration and sometimes these contaminants are left as such in environment which may create other environmental issues...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
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