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Waste material

K B Rozov, V G Rumynin, A M Nikulenkov, P G Leskova
The study demonstrates the effect of sorption properties of fractured host rocks from the Yeniseysky site (Nizhne-Kansky rock massif, Krasnoyarsk region) on the migration of dissolved radioactive components (137 Cs, 90 Sr, 79 Se, 99 Tc, 152(154) Eu, 239(240) Pu) in the deep geological conditions of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Estimates of radionuclide distribution coefficients between the aqueous solution and fractured rocks obtained from sorption experiments were used to study the influence of various petrographic types and fracture-filling substances on the retardation of radioactive components by different fractured rock units of Nizhne-Kansky rock massif...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Dien Li, Daniel I Kaplan, Allison Sams, Brian A Powell, Anna S Knox
Radioiodine (present mostly as 129 I) is difficult to remove from waste streams or contaminated groundwater because it tends to exist as multiple anionic species (i.e., iodide (I- ), iodate (IO3 - ) and organo-iodide) that do not bind to minerals or synthetic materials. In this work, the efficacy of organoclay OCB and OCM, and granular activated carbon (GAC) as sorbents to bind I- and IO3 - from artificial groundwater (AGW) was examined. These sorbents were highly effective at removing I- and IO3 - from AGW under oxic condition, with the adsorption capacity up to 30 mg I/g sorbent...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Joan Manuel F Mendoza, Alejandro Gallego-Schmid, Ximena C Schmidt Rivera, Joan Rieradevall, Adisa Azapagic
The sustainability benefits of using solar cookers in developing countries have been analysed widely in the literature. However, the sustainability potential of solar cookers in developed economies has not been explored yet, which is the topic of this paper. Three types of solar cooker - box, panel and parabolic - were built as part of this research, using mostly (>70%) reused household materials. Their life cycle environmental and economic performance was analysed and compared to conventional microwaves...
August 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Taoufik Ben Halima, Jeanne Masson-Makdissi, Stephen G Newman
Despite being one of the most important and frequently run chemical reactions, the synthesis of amide bonds is accomplished primarily by wasteful methods that proceed by stoichiometric activation of one of the starting materials. We report a nickel-catalyzed procedure that can enable diverse amides to be synthesized from abundant methyl ester starting materials, producing only volatile alcohol as a stoichiometric waste product. In contrast to acid- and base-mediated amidations, the reaction is proposed to proceed by a neutral cross coupling-type mechanism, opening up new opportunities for direct, efficient, chemoselective synthesis...
August 16, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Jinfeng Tang, Lezhang Wei, Minhua Su, Hongguo Zhang, Xiangyang Chang, Yu Liu, Nana Wang, Enzong Xiao, Christian Ekberg, Britt-Marie Steenari, Tangfu Xiao
Rapid economic development accelerates the generation of municipal solid waste (MSW), and thereby calls for an effective and reliable waste management strategy. In the present work, we systematically investigated the status of MSW management in a mega-city of China (Guangzhou). The data were collected from literatures, government statistics and field sampling work. It can be found that a combination of waste sorting by individual residents and a necessary quantity of sanitation workers is one of the most feasible strategies to achieve a sustainable waste management...
August 16, 2018: Waste Management & Research
Liang Cheng, Da-Ming Wang, Abdul Rajjak Shaikh, Li-Feng Fang, Sungil Jeon, Daisuke Saeki, Lei Zhang, Cui-Jing Liu, Hideto Matsuyama
Efficient treatment of difficult emulsified oil/water wastes is a global challenge. Membranes exhibiting unusual dual superlyophobicity (combined underwater superoleophobicity and underoil superhydrophobicity) are intriguing to realize high efficiency separation of both oil-in-water and water-in-oil emulsions. For the first time, a robust polymeric membrane demonstrating dual superlyophobicity to common apolar oils was facilely fabricated via a simple one-step phase separation process using an aliphatic polyketone (PK) polymer, thanks to a conjunction of intermediate hydrophilicity and re-entrant fibril-like texture upon the prepared PK membrane...
August 15, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Tamas Panda, Dilip K Maiti, Manas K Panda
Development of a novel organic luminescent material for inkless writing, and self-erasing application is a remarkable solution to reduce paper waste, recycling cost in the printing industry. These innovative materials also offer to reduce global warming due to the lower consumption of paper made from plants. To this endeavor, herein we report the design, synthesis and simple material fabrication of a donor-acceptor type (Z)-1,2-diarylacrylonitrile (1) compound, which in solid state displayed highly contrast and reversible vapochromism under the visible light as well as UV light...
August 15, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Andrew J Gooday, Dan Sykes, Tomasz Góral, Mikhail V Zubkov, Adrian G Glover
Xenophyophores, giant foraminifera, are distinctive members of the deep-sea megafauna that accumulate large masses of waste material ('stercomare') within their agglutinated tests, and organise their cells as branching strands enclosed within an organic tube (the 'granellare' system). Using non-destructive, three-dimensional micro-CT imaging we explored these structures in three species from the abyssal eastern Pacific Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ). In Psammina spp., the low-density stercomare occupied much of the test interior, while high-density granellare strands branched throughout the structure...
August 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Andrew J Sun, Craig V Comiter, Christopher S Elliott
METHODS: We estimated the prevalence of CIC use in the United States using a neurogenic population, consisting of persons with multiple sclerosis, spina bifida, and spinal cord injury. We measured catheter samples to obtain the amount of waste per catheter. RESULTS: At least 300 800 persons in the United States perform CIC for neurogenic bladder management. Assuming five catheterization events per day, the amount of waste generated by single-use CIC is between 26 500 to 235 400 pounds or 22 600 to 564 000 liters per day, depending on catheter model...
August 14, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
Huanhuan Wei, Kexuan Liao, Penghui Shi, Jinchen Fan, Qunjie Xu, Yulin Min
A 3D porous carbon matrix with a high nitrogen content has been synthesized by employing particles of a nitrogen-enriched superabsorbent polymer (SAP) from the waste diapers of newborn babies. The derived material exhibits an ultrathin layered structure with interconnected pores and a large specific surface area. As it inherits the unique skeleton of the functional polymer from waste diapers, the resulting material (NSAPC-W) has been assessed as an inserting host anode with excellent ultralong cycling performance, as well as steady rate capability for both Li+ and Na+ ions in half cells...
August 14, 2018: Nanoscale
Evan E Groopman, David G Willingham, Alex P Meshik, Olga V Pravdivtseva
Understanding the release and sequestration of specific radioactive signatures into the environment is of extreme importance for long-term nuclear waste storage and reactor accident mitigation. Recent accidents at the Fukushima and Chernobyl nuclear reactors released radioactive 137 Cs and 134 Cs into the environment, the former of which is still live today. We have studied the migration of fission products in the Oklo natural nuclear reactor using an isotope imaging capability, the NAval Ultra-Trace Isotope Laboratory's Universal Spectrometer (NAUTILUS) at the US Naval Research Laboratory...
August 13, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Aubrey L Woern, Dennis J Byard, Robert B Oakley, Matthew J Fiedler, Samantha L Snabes, Joshua M Pearce
Fused particle fabrication (FPF) (or fused granular fabrication (FGF)) has potential for increasing recycled polymers in 3-D printing. Here, the open source Gigabot X is used to develop a new method to optimize FPF/FGF for recycled materials. Virgin polylactic acid (PLA) pellets and prints were analyzed and were then compared to four recycled polymers including the two most popular printing materials (PLA and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS)) as well as the two most common waste plastics (polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polypropylene (PP))...
August 12, 2018: Materials
Danyi Wei, Hailong Zhang, Lu Cai, Jian Guo, Yaning Wang, Lili Ji, Wendong Song
Biomass is known to efficiently adsorb pollutants from wastewater. In this paper, we demonstrated that a new antistatic oil-cleaning material can be prepared and assembled by using two surfactants, alkyl polyglucosides (APG) and dimethyl octadecyl hydroxy ethyl ammonium nitrate (SN), to modify calcined mussel shell powder (CMSP) through a two-step hydrotherm-assisted adsorption. The pore size and structure of CMSP was measured by BET and a contact angle meter was used to characterize the surface wetting ability...
August 11, 2018: Materials
Enrica Uggetti, Joan García, Juan Antonio Álvarez, María Jesús García-Galán
Within the European project INCOVER, an experimental microalgae-based treatment system has been built for wastewater reuse and added-value products generation. This article describes this new experimental plant and the start-up stage, starting from the new design of three semi-closed horizontal photobioreactors with low energy requirements for microalgae cultivation (30 m3 total), using agricultural runoff and urban wastewater as feedstock. The inflow nutrients concentration is adjusted to select cyanobacteria, microalgae able to accumulate polyhydroxybutyrates, which can be used for bioplastics production...
August 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Vilde Steiro Amundsen, Tonje Cecilie Osmundsen
In this paper, we present and describe data comprising indicators of sustainability, collected from eight of the major certification schemes for salmon aquaculture and categorized according to the topics covered by each. These indicators cover most aspects of aquaculture production, including biotic and abiotic effects, feed, emission and waste, fish health and welfare, social assurance, and respect for native culture. In addition to being published in its entirety as supplementary material alongside this article, the data is available through a searchable database on the SustainFish project site: https://sustainfish...
October 2018: Data in Brief
Ye A Morozov, S V Trifonov, S A Ushakova, O V Anishchenko, A A Tikhomirov
The present study addresses the ways to increase the closure of biotechnical life support systems (BTLSS) for space applications. A promising method of organic waste processing based on "wet combustion" in hydrogen peroxide developed at the IBP SB RAS to produce fertilizers for higher plants is discussed. The method is relatively compact, energy efficient, productive, and eco-friendly. However, about 4-6 g/L of recalcitrant sediment containing such essential nutrients as Ca, Mg, P, Fe, Cu, Mn, and Zn precipitates after the initial process...
August 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
Jesús Morón-López, Lucía Nieto-Reyes, Jorge Senán-Salinas, Serena Molina, Rehab El-Shehawy
Increased harmful cyanobacterial blooms and drought are some negative impacts of global warming. To deal with cyanotoxin release during water treatment, and to manage the massive quantities of end-of-life membrane waste generated by desalination processes, we propose an innovative biological system developed from recycled reverse osmosis (RO) membranes to remove microcystins (MC). Our system, named the Recycled-Membrane Biofilm Reactor (R-MBfR), effectively removes microcystins, while reducing the pollution impact of RO membrane waste by prolonging their life span at the same time...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Ponnusamy Senthil Kumar, Akshaya S Nair, Ananya Ramaswamy, Anbalagan Saravanan
The present research is focused on the removal of Zn(II) ions from aqueous solution using nano zero-valent iron impregnated cashew nut shell (NZVI-CNS). The present system was investigated in batch mode operation. NZVI-CNS was prepared by the liquid-phase reduction process. The results showed that the NZVI-CNS exhibited superior adsorption capacity for the removal of Zn(II) ions. Adsorption isotherm and kinetic models were applied to explain the nature of the adsorption process. Adsorption kinetic data followed the pseudo-first order kinetic model...
August 2018: IET Nanobiotechnology
Shi-Jin Dai, You-Cai Zhao, Dong-Jie Niu, Qiang Li, Yu Chen
Molten salt has been regarded as a versatile and environmental-friendly method for the material preparation and waste destruction. In this work, molten FeCl3 was utilized for the generation of magnetic biochar (MBC) derived from simultaneous activation and magnetization of biomass. The sample characterization indicated that MBC had a rough surface with BET surface area of 404 m2/g and total pore volume of 0.35cm3/g. Highly dispersed Fe3O4 and nitrogen could be deposited on the surface, leading to an excellent magnetization property...
August 10, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Renata Alves de Toledo, U Hin Chao, Tingting Shen, Qihong Lu, Xueqing Li, Hojae Shim
This study evaluated the reutilization of waste materials (scrap tires, sewage sludge, and wood chips) to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) benzene/toluene/ethylbenzene/xylenes/trichloroethylene/cis-1,2-dichloroethylene (BTEX/TCE/cis-DCE), plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and pharmaceutically active compound carbamazepine from artificially contaminated water. Different hybrid removal processes were developed: (1) 300 mg/L BTEX + 20 mg/L TCE + 10 mg/L cis-DCE + tires + Pseudomonas sp...
August 10, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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