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Inflammatory response

Ruiru Li, Haobo Lin, Yujin Ye, Youjun Xiao, Siqi Xu, Jingnan Wang, Cuicui Wang, Yaoyao Zou, Maohua Shi, Liuqin Liang, Hanshi Xu
OBJECTIVE: Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is an antimalarial drug that is widely used in the treatment of some autoimmune diseases. In the present study, we explore the role of HCQ in regulating endothelial inflammation and its underlying mechanism. METHODS: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were isolated from fresh umbilical cords. Protein expression was measured by Western blot or immunofluorescence staining. Endothelial adhesion ability was determined by leukocyte-endothelial monolayer adhesion assay...
August 15, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Qingyun Yang, Peng Wang, Su Wang, Yashuo Wang, Shuoqi Feng, Shicui Zhang, Hongyan Li
C-type lectins (CTLs) have a diverse range of functions including cell-cell adhesion, immune response to pathogens and apoptosis. Asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR), also known as hepatic lectin, a member of CTLs, was the first animal lectin identified, yet information regarding it remains rather limited in teleost. In this study, we identified a putative protein in zebrafish, named as the zebrafish hepatic lectin (Zhl). The zhl encoded a typical Ca2+ -dependent carbohydrate-binding protein, and was mainly expressed in the liver in a tissue specific fashion...
August 15, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Maryam Kherad Pezhouh, James Adam Miller, Rajni Sharma, David Borzik, Ogechukwu Eze, Kevin Waters, Maria A Westerhoff, Alyssa M Parian, Mark G Lazarev, Lysandra Voltaggio
A potential role for viral infections has been implicated in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) unresponsive to medical treatment. It is well known that Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) infection can elicit a brisk mononuclear response in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study was to further evaluate the role of EBV in patients with refractory IBD and compare them to non-refractory IBD cases. Surgically resected colonic specimens from 67 patients with refractory IBD (62 with ulcerative colitis, 3 patients with Crohn's disease and 2 patients with indeterminate colitis) were retrieved...
August 15, 2018: Human Pathology
Yihua Cai, Feng Xue, Chen Quan, Minye Qu, Na Liu, Yuan Zhang, Chris Fleming, Xiaoling Hu, Huang-Ge Zhang, Ralph Weichselbaum, Yang-Xin Fu, David Tieri, Eric C Rouchka, Jie Zheng, Jun Yan
IL-1 signaling pathway has been shown to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of chronic, autoinflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis. However, the exact cellular and molecular mechanisms have not been fully understood. Here, we show that IL-1β is significantly elevated in psoriatic lesional skin and imiquimod (IMQ)-treated mouse skin. In addition, IL-1R signaling appears to correlate with psoriasis disease progression and treatment response. IL-1 signaling in both dermal γδ T cells and other cells such as keratinocytes is essential to an IMQ-induced skin inflammation...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Wojciech Pietka, Denis Khnykin, Vibeke Bertelsen, Astrid Haaskjold Lossius, Tor Espen Stav-Noraas, Johanna Hol Fosse, Hilde Kanli Galtung, Guttorm Haraldsen, Olav Sundnes
While inflammation has traditionally been considered a response to either exogenous pathogen-associated signals or endogenous signals of cell damage, other perturbations of homeostasis, generally referred to as stress, may also induce inflammation. The relationship between stress and inflammation is, however, not well defined. Here we describe a mechanism of interleukin-33 (IL-33) induction driven by hypoosmotic stress in human keratinocytes, and also reveal interesting differences when comparing responsiveness of other inflammatory mediators...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Wan-Chien Cheng, Fahd Saleh, Belkais Abuaisha Karim, Francis J Hughes, Leonie S Taams
Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by the colonisation of teeth by the bacterial plaque biofilm and the resultant host immune responses in adjacent periodontal tissues. Disease severity can vary dramatically between patients with periodontitis, with some subjects displaying inflammation without bony destruction (gingivitis), whilst others experience chronic progressive or rapidly aggressive gingival connective tissue damage and bone loss. To determine whether peripheral immune dysregulation is associated with periodontitis, we performed extensive analysis of immune cell subsets in peripheral blood from patients with chronic or aggressive periodontitis vs...
August 18, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Supriya Bhardwaj, Alka Bhatia, M Sendhil Kumaran, Davinder Parsad
Cytokines regulate immune response, inflammation and play an important role in depigmentation process of an autoimmune disease, vitiligo. We sought to determine how inflammatory cytokines influence the progression of vitiligo, and based on that, develop a logical therapeutic intervention using primary melanocyte culture. Melanocytes were cultured and exposed to IL-17A, IL-1β, IFN-γ, and TGF-β for 4 days. Melanocytes proliferation, tyrosinase assay, and melanin content were measured. Real-Time PCR used to analyze mRNA expression of genes specific for melanocytes growth and pigmentation...
August 18, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Mohammad Reza Razzaghi, Mohammad Mohsen Mazloomfard, Sheida Malekian, Zahra Razzaghi
PURPOSE: Chronic inflammation is an important factor in the etiology of prostate cancer. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) plays an important regulatory role in inflammatory responses. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential association between MIF-173 G/C polymorphism, and both biological behavior and incidence of prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Analysis of polymorphic variants for MIF was performed using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method in 128 subjects with prostate cancer and 135 controls...
August 14, 2018: Urology Journal
S Florim, A Almeida, D Rocha, P Portugal
Acute mesenteric ischaemia (AMI) is an uncommon cause of acute hospital admission with high mortality rates (50-90%) that requires early diagnosis and treatment. With the increase in average life expectancy, AMI represents one of the most threatening abdominal conditions in elderly patients. Untreated, AMI will cause mesenteric infarction, intestinal necrosis, an overwhelming inflammatory response and death. Early intervention can reverse this process leading to a full recovery, but the diagnosis of AMI is difficult...
August 17, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
Jorge L Medina, Eliza A Sebastian, Andrea B Fourcaudot, Rossella Dorati, Kai P Leung
An inflammatory response is the normal response to a burn-induced injury. The burn-associated inflammation can lead to further tissue damage as the tissue tries to repair the damage. Prolonged or excessive inflammation is associated with increased fibrosis of burn wounds and the development of hypertrophic scars. The high incidence of hypertrophic scar formation is one of the many challenges to treating deep partial-thickness burns. Prophylactic treatment to improve burn-induced hypertrophic scarring is lacking...
August 17, 2018: Inflammation
Masanobu Yamazato, Akio Ishida, Yoriko Yamazato, Takuto Nakamura, Yusuke Ohya
Bone marrow-derived cells exert anti-inflammatory actions and can migrate into the brain. However, their role in the development of neurogenic hypertension remains unclear. A hyperactive renin-angiotensin system and inflammation in the brain are mechanisms that contribute to angiotensin II-initiated neurogenic hypertension. We hypothesized that bone marrow-derived cells in the brain attenuate the overactive brain renin-angiotensin system and inflammation, thereby reducing neurogenic hypertension. We cultured plastic-adherent bone marrow-derived cells for 3 weeks...
August 17, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
David Martino, Melanie Neeland, Thanh Dang, Joanna Cobb, Justine Ellis, Alice Barnett, Mimi Tang, Peter Vuillermin, Katrina Allen, Richard Saffery
Food allergy poses a significant clinical and public health burden affecting 2-10% of infants. Using integrated DNA methylation and transcriptomic profiling, we found that polyclonal activation of naive CD4+ T cells through the T cell receptor results in poorer lymphoproliferative responses in children with immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated food allergy. Reduced expression of cell cycle-related targets of the E2F and MYC transcription factor networks, and remodeling of DNA methylation at metabolic (RPTOR, PIK3D, MAPK1, FOXO1) and inflammatory genes (IL1R, IL18RAP, CD82) underpins this suboptimal response...
August 17, 2018: Nature Communications
Frank H Robledo-Avila, Juan de Dios Ruiz-Rosado, Kenneth L Brockman, Benjamin T Kopp, Amal O Amer, Karen McCoy, Lauren O Bakaletz, Santiago Partida-Sanchez
Cystic fibrosis (CF), one of the most common human genetic diseases worldwide, is caused by a defect in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Patients with CF are highly susceptible to infections caused by opportunistic pathogens (including Burkholderia cenocepacia ), which induce excessive lung inflammation and lead to the eventual loss of pulmonary function. Abundant neutrophil recruitment into the lung is a key characteristic of bacterial infections in CF patients. In response to infection, inflammatory neutrophils release reactive oxygen species and toxic proteins, leading to aggravated lung tissue damage in patients with CF...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Bernard P Kok, Andrea Galmozzi, Nicole K Littlejohn, Verena Albert, Cristina Godio, Woojoo Kim, Sean M Kim, Jeffrey S Bland, Neile Grayson, Mingliang Fang, Wolfgang Meyerhof, Gary Siuzdak, Supriya Srinivasan, Maik Behrens, Enrique Saez
OBJECTIVES: Extracts of the hops plant have been shown to reduce weight and insulin resistance in rodents and humans, but elucidation of the mechanisms responsible for these benefits has been hindered by the use of heterogeneous hops-derived mixtures. Because hop extracts are used as flavoring agents for their bitter properties, we hypothesized that bitter taste receptors (Tas2rs) could be mediating their beneficial effects in metabolic disease. Studies have shown that exposure of cultured enteroendocrine cells to bitter tastants can stimulate release of hormones, including glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1)...
August 4, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Xiuling Deng, Dong Wang, Shenyuan Wang, Haisheng Wang, Huanmin Zhou
PURPOSE: This aim of this study was to investigate the key genes and pathways involved in the response to pain in goat and sheep by transcriptome sequencing. METHODS: Chronic pain was induced with the injection of the complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in sheep and goats. The animals were divided into four groups: CFA-treated sheep, control sheep, CFA-treated goat, and control goat groups (n = 3 in each group). The dorsal root ganglions of these animals were isolated and used for the construction of a cDNA library and transcriptome sequencing...
August 17, 2018: Biological Research
Sujittra Taratummarat, Naunpun Sangphech, Chau Tran Bao Vu, Tanapat Palaga, Thunnicha Ondee, Saowapha Surawut, Amornpun Sereemaspun, Patcharee Ritprajak, Asada Leelahavanichkul
BACKGROUND: Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) have several biochemical advantageous properties especially for a candidate of drug carrier. However, the non-conjugated AuNP has a higher rate of cellular uptake than the conjugated ones. Spherical AuNP in a proper size (20-30 nm) is non-toxic to mice and shows anti-inflammatory properties. We tested if the administration of AuNP, as an adjuvant to antibiotics, could attenuate bacterial sepsis in cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) mouse model with antibiotic (imipenem/cilastatin)...
August 17, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Xiaoguang Zhu, Jun Shi, Huicong Li
Oxidative stress, inflammation, and hyperglycemia are considered to play crucial roles in the pathogenesis and progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Liquiritigenin, one of the flavonoid compounds, has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperlipidemic, and anti-oxidative properties. Our study aimed to explore the effects of liquiritigenin on high glucose (HG)-induced extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation, oxidative stress and inflammatory response and delineate the underlying mechanism. In our study, glomerular mesangial cells (HBZY-1) were co-treated with various doses of liquiritigenin and HG...
July 12, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Hua Liang, Feng Xu, Tao Zhang, Jian Huang, Qingbin Guan, Hanbing Wang, Qiong Huang
Acute kidney injury induced by ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a high risk factor in the progression towards chronic kidney disease, which is featured by renal interstitial fibrosis. Interleukin (IL)-18 is produced by T cells and macrophages and has been involved in the pathophysiology of IRI. However, the role of IL-18 in IRI-induced renal fibrosis is poorly understood. In the present study, we showed that interleukin (IL)-18 was significantly up-regulated after IRI stress. Mice treated with IL-18 Bp, a natural inhibitor of IL-18, presented less severe fibrotic response in the kidneys following IRI compared with vehicle-treated mice...
July 11, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Amanda Gubert Alves Dos Santos, Lainy Leiny de Lima, Camila Alves Mota, Marcelo Biondaro Gois, Andrea Claudia Bekner Silva Fernandes, Thaís Gomes Verzignassi Silveira, Debora de Mello Gonçales Sant'Ana, Gessilda de Alcântara Nogueira de Melo
AIM: The present study compared and evaluated morphological and quantitative alterations in the ileum of hamsters infected by two L. (V.) braziliensis strains isolated from patients with different lesion aspects and treatment responses. MAIN METHODS: Hamsters were infected in the left hindpaw with a suspension of promastigotes (2 × 107 /100 μl) of two different strains of L. (V.) braziliensis. After 90 or 120 days, the animals were euthanized. Samples of the ileum and mesenteric lymph node were collected for histological examination and quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
July 28, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Lea Assed Bezerra da Silva, Amanda Silva Bertasso, Carolina Maschietto Pucinelli, Raquel Assed Bezerra da Silva, Katharina Morant Holanda de Oliveira, Manoel Damião Sousa-Neto, Alberto Consolaro
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the subcutaneous response induced by Roeko Guttaflow2 (RG), Sealapex Xpress (SX), AH Plus (AHP) sealers. METHODS: 100 BALB/c mice received implants in the subcutaneous tissue with the tested materials (10 animals per period for each evaluated sealer) and were evaluated after different experimental periods (7, 21 and 63 days), in each animal was placed a tube, the control group was an empty tube. Histological analysis evaluated semi-quantitatively the inflammatory infiltration, collagen fiber formation and tissue thickness...
July 24, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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