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Inflammatory response

Shai Shoham, Michal Linial, Marta Weinstock
Effect of age and ladostigil treatment (1 mg/kg/day), given for 6 months to 16 month old rats, was investigated on microglial morphology in brain regions associated with control of spatial learning. This was assessed in the Morris water maze (MWM). Microglial morphology was assessed with diaminobenzidine and fluorescent staining with Iba1 and CD11b in these brain regions. Aging did not change the number of microglia in the parietal cortex (PC) or hippocampal CA1 region (CA1-HC), but decreased microglial process tips in the CA1-HC, increased the area fraction stained by CD11b and number of bulbs on processes in PC and CA1-HC and thickness of microglial processes in corpus callosum (CC) and fornix (Fx)...
October 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
Madiha Khalid, Sobia Manzoor, Hassam Ahmad, Arun Asif, Tariq Ali Bangash, Amer Latif, Shahla Jaleel
The basic idea behind this study was to discover the association and prevalence of purinoceptors in hepatitis C virus (HCV) and non-HCV hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Immunohistochemistry was performed to study the expression of P2X4 and P2X7 receptors on ex-planted liver tissue samples that were collected from HCC patients. Antibodies specific for the P2X4 and P2X7 receptors were used to target the specific receptors and secondary antibody was used with 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) detection system to visualize the color change in case of any positive expression There was a substantial increase in P2X4 receptor expression in HCV induced HCC as compared to non-HCV HCC...
October 20, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
Marco Antonio Yamazaki-Nakashimada, Luisa Berenise Gámez-González, Chiharu Murata, Takafumi Honda, Kumi Yasukawa, Hiromichi Hamada
Previous studies have suggested an association of IgG levels (before and after IVIG infusion) with clinical outcomes in Kawasaki disease. A retrospective analysis was performed that included 418 patients with KD admitted to Tokyo Women's Medical University Yachiyo Medical Center to evaluate pre- and post-IVIG IgG levels and its relation to outcomes. All patients received an initial IVIG infusion and aspirin; IgG levels were measured in 350 patients before IVIG (pre-IVIG IgG levels) and in 373 patients 48 h after starting IVIG infusion (post-IVIG IgG levels)...
October 20, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
Fernando Bessone, María Valeria Razori, Marcelo G Roma
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a main hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. It represents a wide spectrum of histopathological abnormalities ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with or without fibrosis and, eventually, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. While hepatic simple steatosis seems to be a rather benign manifestation of hepatic triglyceride accumulation, the buildup of highly toxic free fatty acids associated with insulin resistance-induced massive free fatty acid mobilization from adipose tissue and the increased de novo hepatic fatty acid synthesis from glucose acts as the "first hit" for NAFLD development...
October 20, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Yuki Sekido, Yoshiaki Yasumizu, Junichi Nishimura, Hisako Kayama, Hiroshi Matsuno, Takayuki Ogino, Norikatsu Miyoshi, Hidekazu Takahashi, Naotsugu Haraguchi, Taishi Hata, Chu Matsuda, Yuichiro Doki, Masaki Mori, Kiyoshi Takeda, Naganari Ohkura, Shimon Sakaguchi, Tsunekazu Mizushima
BACKGROUND/AIMS: There is a heterogeneous subset innate myeloid cells, such as macrophages and dendritic cells, in the human intestinal lamina propria. Several studies have demonstrated that these cells contribute to the maintenance of gut homeostasis through the induction of inflammatory responses and tolerance via cell type-specific mechanisms; whereas, disrupted innate immune responses are implicated in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD). However, the detailed mechanisms by which each innate myeloid subset regulates gut homeostasis and inflammation largely remain unknown...
October 19, 2018: Digestion
Wei Xu, Emily N Vebrosky, Kevin L Armbrust
Exposure to sunlight and certain pesticides can induce phototoxic responses. Long- and short-term exposure to the photoactivated pesticides can cause a variety of skin diseases. However, assessment of pesticide phototoxicity on human skin is difficult. In the present study, human skin keratinocytes were cultured in several forms: monolayer cell sheet, three-dimensional culture, and keratinocyte-fibroblast co-culture. A common fungicide, dicloran (DC, 2,6‑dichloro‑4‑nitroaniline), was irradiated with simulated sunlight for 2 (DC-PD-2h) and 4 (DC-PD-4h) hours...
October 18, 2018: Environment International
Archana Kulasingam, Anne-Mette Hvas, Erik Lerkevang Grove, Kristian Løkke Funck, Steen Dalby Kristensen
BACKGROUND: ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) involves inflammation, activation of platelets, coagulation and changes in fibrinolysis as well as remodelling of myocardial tissue after STEMI. Recently, new proximity extension assays including panels of biomarkers for cardiovascular disease have been developed. This study investigates a wide range of cardiovascular protein biomarkers in the acute phase of STEMI compared with the stable phase three months after STEMI. We hypothesized that major changes in inflammation, haemostasis, tissue remodelling, and proteolysis are prevalent...
October 12, 2018: Thrombosis Research
Junguo Ma, Xi Chen, Guangyuan Xin, Xiaoyu Li
The present study aimed to determine the chronic toxicity of 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium bromide ([C8 mim]Br) on the silver carp to further reveal the toxicological mechanisms of ionic liquids. Chronic exposure of silver carp to [C8 mim]Br at concentrations of 1.095 and 4.380 mg/L for 60 d was conducted under laboratory conditions. The results revealed that chronic exposure to [C8 mim]Br inhibited the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels while markedly increasing malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PC) levels in fish spleen, indicating that [C8 mim]Br treatment induced oxidative stress...
October 18, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Akiko Nakai, Kazuhiro Suzuki
Since the beginning of the last century, substantial evidence has suggested that various aspects of the immune system are influenced by the activity of the nervous system. However, the cellular and molecular basis for the neural control of immune responses has emerged only in the past decade. Recent studies have shown that adrenergic nerves control trafficking of immune cells through cell-type-specific mechanisms. Activation of the β2 -adrenergic receptor expressed on lymphocytes enhances signals mediated by a particular set of chemokine receptors, and consequently inhibits their exit from lymph nodes...
October 18, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Jie Jin, Hui Wang, Xiaoying Hua, Dongjian Chen, Chao Huang, Zhuo Chen
Icariin is a major active component of the traditional herb Epimedium, also known as Horny Goat Weed. It has been extensively studied throughout the past several years and is known to exert anti-oxidative, anti-neuroinflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects. It is now being considered as a potential therapeutic agent for a wide variety of disorders, ranging from neoplasm to cardiovascular disease. More recent studies have shown that icariin exhibits potential preventive and/or therapeutic effects in the nervous system...
October 18, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Danuta Nowicka, Ewelina Grywalska, Agata Surdacka, Agnieszka Grafka, Jacek Roliński
Programmed cell death receptor 1 (PD-1) is one of the major immune checkpoints. Due to the lack of reports on PD-1- and PD-L1-positive lymphocyte proportions in patients with recurrent furunculosis, we aimed to evaluate percentages of those cells in the peripheral blood and to assess their correlations with other lymphocyte subsets, and the level of cell activation measured by the expression of CD25 and CD69 molecules on T lymphocytes. We recruited 30 patients with recurrent furunculosis and 15 controls. The amount of 5 mL of peripheral blood was collected for laboratory tests...
October 18, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Ruth M Ayling, Klaartje Kok
Calprotectin is a 36kDa member of the S100 family of proteins. It is derived predominantly from neutrophils and has direct antimicrobial effects and a role within the innate immune response. Calprotectin is found in various body fluids in proportion to the degree of any existing inflammation and its concentration in feces is about six times that of plasma. Measurement of fecal calprotectin is a useful surrogate marker of gastrointestinal inflammation. It has a high negative predictive value in ruling out inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in undiagnosed, symptomatic patients and a high sensitivity for diagnosing the disease making it useful as a tool for prioritising endoscopy...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
Alan D Workman, Michael A Kohanski, Noam A Cohen
Chronic rhinosinusitis is a complex disease that exists along the inflammatory spectrum between types 1 and 2 inflammation. The classic phenotypic differentiation of chronic rhinosinusitis based on the presence or absence of inflammatory polyps remains one of the best differentiators of response to therapy. Development of biologics for the treatment of atopic disease and asthma and topical therapies for sinusitis have placed renewed emphasis on understanding the pathophysiology of polyp disease. Identification of key markers of polyposis will allow for better stratification of inflammatory polyp disease endotypes to objectively identify medical therapies and track response to treatment...
November 2018: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
Anurag Bhalla, Manali Mukherjee, Parameswaran Nair
Eosinophils are critical in asthma biology, contributing to symptoms, airflow obstruction, airway hyperresponsiveness, and remodeling. In severe asthma, in addition to local maturation in bone marrow, in situ eosinophilopoiesis plays a key role in the persistence of airway eosinophilia. Local milieu of structural, epithelial and inflammatory cells contribute by generating eosinophilopoietic cytokines in response to epithelial-derived alarmins. Another mechanism of persistent airway eosinophilia is glucocorticosteroid insensitivity, which is linked to recurrent airway infections and presence of local autoantibodies...
November 2018: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
Lingfeng Chen, Hongjin Chen, Pengqin Chen, Wenxin Zhang, Chao Wu, Chuchu Sun, Wu Luo, Lulu Zheng, Zhiguo Liu, Guang Liang
Myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MyD88), an essential adapter protein used by toll-like receptors (TLR), is a promising target molecule for the treatment of respiratory inflammatory diseases. Previous studies explored the activities of novel 2-amino-4-phenylthiazole analogue (6) in inflammation-induced cancer, and identified the analogue as an inhibitor of MyD88 toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) homology domain dimerization. Here, we describe the synthesis of 47 new analogues by modifying different sites on this lead compound and assessed their anti-inflammatory activities in lipopolysaccharide-induced mouse primary peritoneal macrophages (MPMs)...
October 12, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Dominik Rath, Madhumita Chatterjee, Lennart Meyer, Nina Tekath, Carolin Olma, Patrick Krumm, Constantin Adams, Oliver Borst, Karin Müller, Michal Droppa, Konstantin Nikolaou, Joachim Riethmüller, Meinrad Gawaz, Tobias Geisler
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Platelets are critically involved in tissue repair and regeneration, which depend on their inflammatory properties and survival. SDF-1 ligates to CXCR4 and CXCR7 and contributes to the regulation of platelet survival. Platelet CXCR4/CXCR7 are involved in myocardial regeneration after infarction and are associated with outcomes in patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease. This study investigates the CXCR4/CXCR7 platelet survival axis ex vivo. METHODS: 87 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) were included and analyzed for platelet surface exposure of CXCR4, CXCR7, Annexin V binding and tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester (TMRE) response...
October 6, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Pietro Scaturro, Andreas Pichlmair
One of the best-studied cellular responses to toxic signals and pathogens is programmed cell death. Over the past years, it became apparent that the specific mechanisms of cell death have tremendous influence at both cellular and organismal level, highlighting the importance of sensors and pathways involved in this decision-making process. Central signalling molecules involved in a variety of cell death pathways are reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the molecular mechanisms regulating differential responses and cellular fates to distinct ROS levels remain incompletely understood...
October 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
Louis Tsun Cheung Chow, Maria Bernadette Che Ying Chow
Myocardial damage in catecholamine cardiomyopathy, characterized by patchy myocyte necrosis commonly with contraction band appearances, interstitial fibrosis, and varying degrees of inflammatory infiltrates, has been well documented. However, coronary vascular pathology has not been recognized. Autopsy of a 43-year-old housewife who died of acute apical anteroseptal myocardial infarction revealed the incidental finding of a left adrenal pheochromocytoma. The epicardial and intramyocardial median- and small-sized coronary arteries exhibited myointimal dysplasia in the form of fibroblastic proliferation in the intima and media, resulting in thickened dysplastic vessels with marked luminal narrowing, occasionally leading to near-total occlusion...
October 11, 2018: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
Stephan Leisengang, Daniela Ott, Jolanta Murgott, Rüdiger Gerstberger, Christoph Rummel, Joachim Roth
Primary cultures of rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) consist of neurons, satellite glial cells and a moderate number of macrophages. Measurements of increased intracellular calcium [Ca2+ ]i induced by stimuli, have revealed that about 70% of DRG neurons are capsaicin-responsive nociceptors, while 10% responded to cooling and or menthol (putative cold-sensors). Cultivation of DRG in the presence of a moderate dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1µg/ml) enhanced capsaicin-induced Ca2+ -signals. We therefore investigated further properties of DRG primary cultures stimulated with 10µg/ml LPS for a short period...
October 17, 2018: Neuroscience
Restituto Tocmo, Kirk Parkin
The Allium vegetable-derived metabolite, S-alk(en)ylmercaptocysteine (CySSR), has been reported to modulate oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. However, the underlying mechanisms of action and structure-activity relationships are not completely understood. We investigated the mechanistic basis of the protective effects of CySSR on pro-inflammatory responses involving redox/oxidative stress induced by E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) using RAW 264.7 cells. CySSR (R = allyl, "A" or 1-propenyl, "Pe") pre-treatments conferred concentration-dependent reductions in cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6), NO production and iNOS (inducible nitric synthase) overexpression, and attenuated oxidant production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264...
October 17, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
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