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Inflammatory response

Thilo Hotfiel, Jürgen Freiwald, Matthias Wilhelm Hoppe, Christoph Lutter, Raimund Forst, Casper Grim, Wilhelm Bloch, Moritz Hüttel, Rafael Heiss
Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is a type of ultrastructural muscle injury. The manifestation of DOMS is caused by eccentric or unfamiliar forms of exercise. Clinical signs include reduced force capacities, increased painful restriction of movement, stiffness, swelling, and dysfunction of adjacent joints. Although DOMS is considered a mild type of injury, it is one of the most common reasons for compromised sportive performance. In the past few decades, many hypotheses have been developed to explain the aetiology of DOMS...
December 2018: Sportverletzung Sportschaden: Organ der Gesellschaft Für Orthopädisch-Traumatologische Sportmedizin
Xun Li, Zhanwen Lin, Lei Wang, Qin Liu, Zhi Cao, Zhujuan Huang, Mingtian Zhong, Shuxian Peng, Yingheng Zhang, Yong Li, Xiaodong Ma
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Our previous study demonstrated that a deficiency of microRNA 21 (miR-21) protects mice from acute pancreatitis, yet the underlying molecular networks associated with miR-21 in pancreatitis and pancreatitis-associated lung injury remain unexplored. METHODS: We used next generation sequencing to analyze gene expression profiles of pancreatic tissues from wild-type (WT) and miR-21 knockout (KO) mice treated with caerulein by using a 1-day treatment protocol...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Pragya Singh, Li Lun Hu, Hsiao-Wen Zan, Tseung-Yuen Tseng
We successfully demonstrated a simple and low-cost nitric oxide (NO) gas sensor to deliver parts-per-billion (ppb) regime detection at room temperature operation. A vertical-channel ZnO nanorods resistor is fabricated by putting silver nanowire electrode onto the hydrothermal ZnO nanorods film. With suitable process condition, the nanorods film exhibits a uniform morphology to enable the formation of gas-permeable nanowire top electrode while also the nanorods provide good surface-to-volume ratio to deliver strong reaction with NO gas...
December 11, 2018: Nanotechnology
Eun-Yi Ko, Soo-Jin Heo, Su-Hyeon Cho, WonWoo Lee, Seo-Young Kim, Hye-Won Yang, Ginnae Ahn, Seon-Heui Cha, Seung-Hae Kwon, Myeong Seon Jeong, Kang Pa Lee, You-Jin Jeon, Kil-Nam Kim
The anti-inflammatory effects of 3‑bromo‑5‑(ethoxymethyl)‑1,2‑benzenediol (BEMB) from Polysiphonia morrowii were evaluated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 cells and zebrafish embryo. BEMB showed anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the production of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells and zebrafish embryo without cytotoxicity. Moreover, BEMB suppressed the protein and mRNA expression levels of nuclear factor (NF)-κB (p65 and inhibitor of NF-κB [IκB]-A) in RAW264...
December 8, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Hongmei Li, Guochun Ou, Yonglong He, Long Ren, Xiaohong Yang, Mei Zeng
TAK1 is closely associated with the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. In the present study, we aimed to explore the relationship between TAK1 and gout as well as the effects of resveratrol on TAK1 activity and MSU crystal-induced inflammation. The expression levels of total TAK1 and phosphorylated TAK1 in gout patients were detected by western blotting. The influence of resveratrol on TAK1 activity and MSU crystal-induced inflammation was investigated in THP-1 cell and murine models of gout. The results showed that TAK1 and p-TAK1 were highly expressed in gouty arthritis patients...
December 7, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Ved Prakash Dwivedi, Debapriya Bhattacharya, Mona Singh, Ashima Bhaskar, Santosh Kumar, Parveen Sobia, Luc Van Kaer, Gobardhan Das
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The emergence of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) strains has severely hampered global efforts towards tuberculosis (TB) eradication. The internationally accepted therapy "Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS)" is lengthy, and incorporates risks for the generation of drug-resistant M.tb variants. Multiple and extremely drug-resistant (MDR and XDR) variants of TB are now widespread throughout the globe, and totally drug-resistant (TDR) strains have appeared...
December 8, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Paulraj Kanmani, Hojun Kim
Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) respond to intruders and their cellular molecules by displaying inflammatory state that can be abrogated by probiotics. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial activity of probiotic strains have yet to be elucidated. This study was conducted to investigate whether probiotic strains have immunoregulatory effects in IECs, and how they respond to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vitro. Caco2 cells were stimulated with LABs and followed by LPS. The expression of different cytokines that involved in toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling was analyzed...
December 11, 2018: BioFactors
Tarun Saxena, Johnathan G Lyon, S Balakrishna Pai, Daniel Pare, Jessica Amero, Lohitash Karumbaiah, Sheridan L Carroll, Eric Gaupp, Ravi V Bellamkonda
Brain tumors remain a great clinical challenge, in part due to their capacity to invade into eloquent, inoperable regions of the brain. In contrast, inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) due to injuries activates microglia and astrocytes culminating in an astroglial scar that typically "walls-off" the injury site. Here, the hypothesis is tested that targeting peritumoral cells surrounding tumors to activate them via an inflammatory stimulus that recapitulates the sequelae of a traumatic CNS injury, could generate an environment that would wall-off and contain invasive tumors in the brain...
December 11, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Nancy Charo, Emilia Scharrig, María F Ferrer, Norberto San Juan, Eugenio A Carrera Silva, Mirta Schattner, Ricardo M Gómez
Leptospirosis is a global zoonosis caused by pathogenic Leptospira. Neutrophils are key cells against bacterial pathogens but can also contribute to tissue damage. Since the information regarding the role of human neutrophils in leptospirosis is scant, we comparatively analyzed the human neutrophil's response to saprophytic Leptospira biflexa serovar Patoc (Patoc) and the pathogenic Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni (LIC). Both species triggered neutrophil responses involved in migration, including the up-regulation of CD11b expression, adhesion to collagen and the release of IL-8...
December 10, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Gemma Radley, Ina Laura Pieper, Bethan R Thomas, Karl Hawkins, Catherine A Thornton
Medical devices, such as ventricular assist devices (VADs), introduce both foreign materials and artificial shear stress to the circulatory system. The effects these have on leukocytes and the immune response are not well understood. Understanding how these two elements combine to affect leukocytes may reveal why some patients are susceptible to recurrent device-related infections and provide insight into the development of pump thrombosis. Biomaterials - DLC: diamond-like carbon coated stainless steel; Sap: single-crystal sapphire; and Ti: titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) were attached to the parallel plates of a rheometer...
December 8, 2018: Artificial Organs
Xiaojing Xia, Xin Wang, Yi Zheng, Jinqing Jiang, Jianhe Hu
Pyroptosis, a type of programmed cell death mediated by gasdermin, is characterized by the swelling and rupture of cells, release of cellular contents and a strong inflammatory response, which is critical for controlling microbial infection. Pattern recognition receptors recognize the intracellular and extracellular pathogenic microbial components and stimulate the organism's inflammatory response by activating the pyroptosis signaling pathway and releasing interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-18, and other inflammatory factors to promote pathogen clearance and prevent infection...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Haoyu Wang, Renee-Tyler Tan Morales, Xin Cui, Jiongxian Huang, Weiyi Qian, Jie Tong, Weiqiang Chen
Macrophages are a predominant immune cell population that drive inflammatory responses and exhibit transitions in phenotype and function during tissue remodeling in disease and repair. Thus, engineering an immunomodulatory biomaterial has significant implications for resolving inflammation. Here, a biomimetic and photoresponsive hyaluronan (HA) hydrogel nanocomposite with tunable 3D extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion sites for dynamic macrophage immunomodulation is engineered. Photodegradative alkoxylphenacyl-based polycarbonate (APP) nanocomposites are exploited to permit user-controlled Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) adhesive peptide release and conjugation to a HA-based ECM for real-time integrin activation of macrophages encapsulated in 3D HA-APP nanocomposite hydrogels...
December 7, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Elahe Safari, Sajjad Ghorghanlu, Homayoun Ahmadi-Khiavi, Sahar Mehranfar, Ramazan Rezaei, Morteza Motallebnezhad
The immunosuppressive features of tumor lesions participate not only as one of the major players inducing cancer progression but also a big challenge for effective immunotherapy. It has been found that immunosuppression associated with chronic inflammatory factors, such as growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines is generated by stroma and tumor cells. Chronic and exhaustive secretion of these mediators triggers the generation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) demonstrating one of the key players engaged in tumor immunosuppression...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Kathleen E Stevens, Chloe L Thio, William O Osburn
Human genetic studies demonstrate a link between the 32-bp deletion that produces a nonfunctional CCR5 receptor (CCR5∆32) and enhanced recovery from acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. To investigate the role of CCR5 in immune responses to acute HBV, we intravenously infected Ccr5+/+ (WT) and Ccr5-/- (KO) mice with a replication-incompetent adenovirus containing the overlapping HBV1.3 construct (AdHBV), or vector control. At day 3 following AdHBV infection, analysis of intrahepatic leukocytes (IHL) showed KO mice had increased CD11b+ NK cells compared to WT (18...
December 8, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
Cornelia Bratengeier, Astrid D Bakker, Anna Fahlgren
Mechanical instability of bone implants stimulate osteoclast differentiation and peri-implant bone loss, leading to prosthetic loosening. It is unclear which cells at the periprosthetic interface transduce mechanical signals into a biochemical response, and subsequently facilitate bone loss. We hypothesized that mechanical overloading of hematopoietic bone marrow progenitor cells, which are located near to the inserted bone implants, stimulates the release of osteoclast-inducing soluble factors. Using a novel in vitro model to apply mechanical overloading, we found that hematopoietic progenitor cells released adenosine triphosphate (ATP) after only 2 min of mechanical loading...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Behzad Elahi, Ruple S Laughlin, William J Litchy, Margherita Milone, Teerin Liewluck
INTRODUCTION: Decremental responses in repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS) have been reported in a few hereditary myopathies. We examined the frequency of decrement in a cohort of myopathy patients. METHODS: We reviewed all patients referred for myopathy who underwent RNS between January 2007 and May 2017. We included patients with decrement (>10%) and either a pathological or molecular diagnosis of myopathy. RESULTS: Among 157 patients with myopathies, 4 patients had decrement (2 hydroxychloroquine-associated vacuolar myopathy, 1 centronuclear myopathy, and 1 distal myopathy)...
December 7, 2018: Muscle & Nerve
Carolina Cabral-Santos, Edson Alves de Lima Junior, Isabela Maia da Cruz Fernandes, Rafael Zambelli Pinto, José César Rosa-Neto, Nicolette Charllote Bishop, Fábio Santos Lira
PURPOSE: Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is a cytokine that plays a critical role with potent anti-inflammatory properties when produced during exercise, limiting host immune response to pathogens and preventing tissue damage. The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the response of IL-10 after acute exercise session in healthy adults. METHODS: Databases of Ovid Medline (1978-2016), CINAHL (1998-2016), EMBASE (2003-2016), SportDiscus (1990-2016), and Web of Science library (1990-2016) were carefully screened...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
David J Orlicky, Andrew E Libby, Elise S Bales, Rachel H McMahan, Jenifer Monks, Francisco G La Rosa, James L McManaman
KEY POINTS: Wild type mice as well as mice with hepatocyte-specific or whole-body deletions of perilipin-2 (Plin2) were used to define hepatocyte and extra-hepatocyte effects of altered cellular lipid storage on obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathophysiology in a western-diet (WD) model of these disorders. Extra-hepatocyte actions of Plin2 are responsible for obesity, adipose inflammation, and glucose clearance abnormalities in WD-fed mice. Hepatocyte and extra-hepatic actions of Plin2 mediate fatty liver formation in WD-fed mice through distinct mechanisms...
December 8, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Habib Haybar, Hadi Rezaeeyan, Mohammad Shahjahani, Reza Shirzad, Najmaldin Saki
T-bet is a major transcription factor increasing inflammatory responses in the immune system. Recently, it has been shown that this factor leads to inflammation in cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this study, we examine the dual role of T-bet in inducing and suppressing inflammatory reactions as well as angiogenesis induction due to inflammatory cytokines in CVD. Relevant literature was identified by a Pubmed search (1992-2018) of English-language papers using the terms "T-bet," "Cardiovascular disease," "Immune response," and "Angiogenesis...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Joshua C Sciurba, Richard L Gieseck, Nikhil Jiwrajka, Sandra D White, Erik P Karmele, Jamie Redes, Kevin M Vannella, Neil C Henderson, Thomas A Wynn, Kevin M Hart
Fibroproliferative diseases affect a significant proportion of the world's population. Despite this, core mechanisms driving organ fibrosis of diverse etiologies remain ill defined. Recent studies suggest that integrin-alpha V serves as a master driver of fibrosis in multiple organs. Although diverse mechanisms contribute to the progression of fibrosis, TGF-β and IL-13 have emerged as central mediators of fibrosis during type 1/type 17, and type 2 polarized inflammatory responses, respectively. To investigate if integrin-alpha V interactions or signaling is critical to the development of type 2 fibrosis, we analyzed fibroblast-specific integrin-alpha V knockout mice in three type 2-driven inflammatory disease models...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Pathology
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