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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30103286/association-between-dopamine-receptor-gene-polymorphisms-and-effects-of-risperidone-treatment-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
Lingyue Ma, Xiaodan Zhang, Qian Xiang, Shuang Zhou, Nan Zhao, Qiufen Xie, Xia Zhao, Ying Zhou, Yimin Cui
BACKGROUND: The effect of risperidone treatment in patients with schizophrenia varies according to the dopamine receptor genes. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between genes of the dopamine receptors (D1, D2, and D3) and the effect of risperidone treatment. METHODS: Three electronic databases (PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library) were searched for relevant cohort or case-control studies published before 9 May 2018. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed for qualitative and quantitative assessment of the relationship between the dopamine receptors D1, D2 and D3 (DRD1, 2 and 3) and the effect of risperidone treatment...
August 13, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30103283/trophic-factors-for-parkinson-s-disease-where-are-we-and-where-do-we-go-from-here
#2
Gesine Paul, Aideen M Sullivan
Perhaps the most important unmet clinical need in Parkinson's disease (PD) is the development of a therapy that can slow or halt disease progression. Extensive pre-clinical research has provided evidence for the neurorestorative properties of several growth factors, yet only a few have been evaluated in clinical studies. Attempts to achieve neuroprotection by addressing cell-autonomous mechanisms and targeting dopaminergic neurons have been disappointing. Four different trophic factors have so far entered clinical trials in PD: glial cell line-derived growth factor, its close structural and functional analog neurturin, platelet-derived growth factor and cerebral dopaminergic neurotrophic factor...
August 13, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30103276/language-matters-a-uk-perspective
#3
REVIEW
C E Lloyd, A Wilson, R I G Holt, C Whicher, P Kar
AIM: To review the existing evidence regarding the use of language in clinical encounters. BACKGROUND: Awareness of the importance of language in clinical encounters is mostly lacking or located within broader discussions on communication. METHODS: A scoping study was conducted to review existing research that could increase our understanding of the role language plays as well as identify gaps in knowledge and inform the development of a position statement on language in diabetes care...
August 13, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30103275/quercetin-in-food-possible-mechanisms-of-its-effect-on-memory
#4
REVIEW
Fatemeh Babaei, Mohammadreza Mirzababaei, Marjan Nassiri-Asl
Quercetin (3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone) is found in vegetables and fruits. It is one of the major flavonoids that is part of human diets. Quercetin has several pharmacological effects in the nervous system as a neuroprotective agent. In this review, we summarize the research on quercetin and its role in memory in both animals and humans. Articles were chosen from the Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science databases. In this review, we describe and summarize the importance of quercetin's presence in the body, particularly in the brain; its kinetics, including its absorption, metabolism, distribution, and excretion; its behavioral effects; and some of the possible mechanisms of action of quercetin on memory in different animal models...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30103270/genomic-screening-of-fabry-disease-in-young-stroke-patients-the-taiwan-experience-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#5
Tsong-Hai Lee, Jen-Tsung Yang, Jiann-Der Lee, Ku-Chou Chang, Tsung-I Peng, Ting-Yu Chang, Kuo-Lun Huang, Chi-Hung Liu, Shan-Jin Ryu, Alessandro P Burlina
BACKGROUND: Fabry disease is a X-linked disease, and enzyme-based screening methods are not suitable for female patients. METHODS: Totally, 1,000 young stroke patients (18-55 y/o, 661 with ischemic stroke and 339 with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage) were recruited. Sequenom iPLEX assay was used to detect 26 Fabry related mutation genes. The frequency of Fabry disease in young stroke was reviewed and compared between Asian and non-Asian countries. RESULTS: Two male patients with ischemic stroke were found to have genetic mutation of IVS4+919G>A...
August 13, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30103260/dedifferentiation-transdifferentiation-and-cell-fusion-in-vivo-reprogramming-strategies-for-regenerative-medicine
#6
REVIEW
Martina Pesaresi, Ruben Sebastian-Perez, Maria Pia Cosma
Regenerative capacities vary enormously across the animal kingdom. In contrast to most cold-blooded vertebrates, mammals, including humans, have very limited regenerative capacity when it comes to repairing damaged or degenerating tissues. Here, we review the main mechanisms of tissue regeneration, underlying the importance of cell dedifferentiation and reprogramming. We discuss the significance of cell fate and identity changes in the context of regenerative medicine, with a particular focus on strategies aiming at the promotion of the body's self-repairing mechanisms...
August 13, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30103255/early-use-of-steroid-sparing-agents-in-the-inactivation-of-moderate-to-severe-active-thyroid-eye-disease-a-step-down-approach
#7
Zuzana Sipkova, Elizabeth A Insull, Joel David, Helen E Turner, Shay Keren, Jonathan H Norris
OBJECTIVES: The current first-line treatment for management of active thyroid eye disease (TED) is high-dose intravenous corticosteroids, which have the potential for serious adverse effects. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of steroid-sparing agents (SSAs) in patients with moderate-to-severe active TED, using methotrexate as first-line. METHODS: Presented is a retrospective, four-year, single-centre, consecutive case series of patients with moderate-to-severe TED treated using the Oxford protocol...
August 13, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30103082/efficacy-of-vaginal-therapies-alternative-to-vaginal-estrogens-on-sexual-function-and-orgasm-of-menopausal-women-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#8
REVIEW
Eleni Pitsouni, Themos Grigoriadis, Athanasios Douskos, Margarita Kyriakidou, Matthew E Falagas, Stavros Athanasiou
Genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM) increases the probability of female sexual dysfunction (FSD). The aim of the current study is to systematically assess data regarding sexual function and use of vaginal therapies, alternative to vaginal estrogens (VE), in menopausal women with GSM. PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane Library were searched (May-September 2017) using combination keywords: "dyspareunia and vaginal therapy", "sexual function and vaginal therapy", "orgasm and vaginal therapy", "vaginal atrophy" and "genitourinary syndrome of menopause"...
August 6, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30103044/recommendations-and-barriers-to-vaccination-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#9
REVIEW
Megha Garg, Naaima Mufti, Tara Palmore, Sarfaraz Hasni
Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) pose a unique dilemma pertaining to immunization against common pathogens. SLE patients are usually not immunized with vaccines based on the fear of either precipitating infection in this immunosuppressed patient population (with live vaccines) or aggravating autoimmunity and hence lupus flares (with any vaccines). However, elevated vulnerability to infection makes patients with SLE precisely the population that needs protection from vaccine-preventable diseases...
August 10, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102953/fatty-acid-oxidation-an-emerging-facet-of-metabolic-transformation-in-cancer
#10
Yibao Ma, Sarah M Temkin, Adam M Hawkridge, Chunqing Guo, Wei Wang, Xiang-Yang Wang, Xianjun Fang
Cancer cells undergo metabolic reprogramming such as enhanced aerobic glycolysis, mutations in the tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes, and upregulation of de novo lipid synthesis and glutaminolysis. These alterations are pivotal to the development and maintenance of the malignant phenotype of cancer cells in unfavorable tumor microenvironment or metastatic sites. Although mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO) is a primary bioenergetic source, it has not been generally recognized as part of the metabolic landscape of cancer...
August 10, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102951/angioinvasive-fungal-infections-impacting-the-skin-background-epidemiology-and-clinical-presentation-part-1
#11
REVIEW
Bridget E Shields, Misha Rosenbach, Zoe Brown-Joel, Anthony Berger, Bradley A Ford, Karolyn A Wanat
Angioinvasive fungal infections cause significant morbidity and mortality due to their propensity to invade blood vessel walls, resulting in catastrophic tissue ischemia, infarct, and necrosis. While occasionally seen in immunocompetent hosts, opportunistic fungi are emerging in immunosuppressed hosts, including patients with hematologic malignancy, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), organ transplant, and poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. The widespread use of antifungal prophylaxis has led to an "arms race" of emerging fungal resistance patterns...
August 10, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102817/trends-and-characterization-of-academic-emergency-department-patient-visits-a-five-year-review
#12
Susan M Peterson, Cathi A Harbertson, James J Scheulen, Gabor D Kelen
OBJECTIVES: To meet the unique comparative data needs of academic emergency departments, we describe the recent five-year national and regional trends for adult emergency patients' characteristics and operational parameters at academic emergency medical centers. METHODS: Data collected from the recent five-year period academic year (AY) 2012 through AY 2016 of the Academy of Administrators in Academic Emergency Medicine (AAAEM) and the Association of Academic Chairs of Emergency Medicine (AACEM) Academic Emergency Medicine Benchmarking Survey were analyzed for trends in 1) ED volumes and modes of arrival 2) triage acuity level 3) trends in ED professional fee billing and 4) disposition patterns of ED patients including admission rates and walkouts...
August 13, 2018: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102811/analgesic-and-anti-inflammatory-drugs-in-sports-implications-for-exercise-performance-and-training-adaptations
#13
REVIEW
Tommy R Lundberg, Glyn Howatson
Over-the-counter analgesics, such as anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and paracetamol, are widely consumed by athletes worldwide to increase pain tolerance, or dampen pain and reduce inflammation from injuries. Given that these drugs also can modulate tissue protein turnover, it is important to scrutinize the implications of acute and chronic use of these drugs in relation to exercise performance and the development of long-term training adaptations. In this review we aim to provide an overview of the studies investigating the effects of analgesic drugs on exercise performance and training adaptations relevant for athletic development...
August 13, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102784/resilience-of-critical-infrastructures-review-and-analysis-of-current-approaches
#14
Corinne Curt, Jean-Marc Tacnet
In crisis situations, systems, organizations, and people must react and deal with events that are inherently unpredictable before they occur: vital societal functions and thus infrastructures must be restored or adapted as quickly as possible. This capacity refers to resilience. Progress concerning its conceptualization has been made but it remains difficult to assess and apply in practice. The results of this article stem from a literature review allowing the analysis of current advances in the development of proposals to improve the management of infrastructure resilience...
August 13, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102776/hepatitis-c-virus-manipulates-humans-as-its-favorite-host-for-long-term-relationship
#15
REVIEW
Ratna B Ray, Ranjit Ray
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection associated liver disease is a global health problem. HCV often causes silent disease, and eventually progresses to end stage liver disease. HCV infects hepatocytes, however initial manifestation of liver disease is mostly displayed in hepatic stellate cells causing fibrosis/cirrhosis, and believed to be occurring from inflammation in the liver. It is still unclear why HCV is not spontaneously cleared from infected liver in the majority of individuals and develops chronic infection with progressive liver disease...
August 13, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102761/regulation-of-melanopsin-signalling-key-interactions-of-the-non-visual-photopigment
#16
Anna Stachurska, Tadeusz Sarna
Melanopsin is a G protein-coupled receptor with a peak sensitivity in the blue part of the spectrum, which plays a key role in non-visual light-mediated signalling. Recently its importance in forming visual pathway as well as its role in blood vessels photorelaxation was also revealed. Melanopsin was discovered in 1998 in Xenopus leavis. Since then the melanopsin presence was demonstrated across the species. The existence of two melanopsin genes (opn4m and opn4x) as well as melanopsin isoforms resulting from alternative splicing contribute to the variety in melanopsin-regulated processes...
August 13, 2018: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102757/evaluation-and-management-of-psychiatric-emergencies-in-children
#17
Cecilia P Margret, Robert Hilt
Mental illness among children and adolescents is an increasing burden, projected to become one of the world's leading disabilities in near future. A dearth of specialized services and personnel to provide optimal care affects the disease burden, prevalence, health care services, and health care costs. The increasing demand weighs down on generalized systems of care such as emergency department (ED) services, in which the lack of specific training, personnel, and specialized protocols tends to prolong length of stay, recidivism, and suboptimal care...
August 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102752/music-and-brain-development
#18
Sabrina Fernandez
When I was young, I remember my parents used to play the Beatles song "Here Comes the Sun" in the morning on the old record player. My mother helped hire the first band director at my middle school, and my father played opera in the car on my way to elementary school. I dabbled with different instruments, and played trumpet (cornet actually), flute, piccolo, oboe, English horn, and Ukulele. I also sang in several choirs and still sing today. What did all this musical influence do to my developing brain? This article reviews some of the existing evidence about music and brain development, to make a case for exposing children to music at an early age and supporting school music programs...
August 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102641/cognitive-behavioral-treatment-of-avoidant-restrictive-food-intake-disorder
#19
Jennifer J Thomas, Olivia B Wons, Kamryn T Eddy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) was added to the psychiatric nomenclature in 2013, but little is known about its optimal treatment. The purpose of this article is to review the recent literature on ARFID treatment and highlight a novel cognitive-behavioral approach, currently under study. RECENT FINDINGS: The current evidence base for ARFID treatment relies primarily on case reports, case series, and retrospective chart reviews, with only a handful of randomized controlled trials in young children...
August 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102639/manipulating-the-microcirculation-in-sepsis-the-impact-of-vasoactive-medications-on-microcirculatory-blood-flow-a-systematic-review
#20
Elizabeth K Potter, Luke Hodgson, Ben Creagh-Brown, Lui G Forni
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is life-threatening organ dysfunction due to a dysregulated host response to infection. Disturbed microvascular blood flow is associated with excess mortality and is a potential future target for interventions. This review addresses the evidence for pharmacological manipulation of the microcirculation in sepsis assessed by techniques that evaluate the sublingual microvasculature. METHODS: Systematic review using a published protocol. Eligibility criteria were studies of septic patients published from Jan 2000 - February 2018...
August 10, 2018: Shock
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