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Article Review

Parminder Singh
Vitamin D is essential for the maintenance of calcium and phosphorus homeostasis, skeletal growth and various other metabolic processes. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in India is 50-90% in various studies. Factors such as low sunlight exposure, age-related decrease in cutaneous synthesis, and low dietary intake of vitamin D contribute to the high prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy which has emerged as a highly pervasive condition. Bone diseases such as rickets in children, osteomalacia and osteoporosis in adults are related with vitamin D insufficiency...
January 2018: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
C Plengwitthaya, K Dhanuthai, S Chantarangsu, C Ratisoontorn
AIM: To determine the prevalence of cholesterol crystals in periapical biopsies, and evaluate the correlation between cholesterol crystals in periapical biopsies and age, gender, location of the periapical lesion, pathologic diagnosis, and lesion size. METHODOLOGY: The biopsy report database (Faculty of Dentistry, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand) during 2005-2014 were reviewed. The prevalence of cholesterol crystals in the periapical lesions of root filled teeth was determined...
October 19, 2018: International Endodontic Journal
Jennifer Petkovic, Stephanie L Duench, Vivian Welch, Tamara Rader, Alison Jennings, Alan J Forster, Peter Tugwell
BACKGROUND: Health systems are recommended to capture routine patient sociodemographic data as a key step in providing equitable person-centred care. However, collection of this information has the potential to cause harm, especially for vulnerable or potentially disadvantaged patients. OBJECTIVE: To identify harms perceived or experienced by patients, their families, or health-care providers from collection of sociodemographic information during routine health-care visits and to identify best practices for when, by whom and how to collect this information...
October 19, 2018: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
Cynthia Kramer, Moshe Israeli, Arend Mulder, Ilias Doxiadis, Geert Haasnoot, Sebastiaan Heidt, Frans Claas
Recent data suggest that HLA epitope matching is beneficial for the prevention of de novo donor specific antibody (DSA) formation after transplantation. In this review, different approaches to predict the immunogenicity of an HLA mismatch will be discussed. The parameters used in these models are often called epitopes but the actual antibody epitope is far more complex. Exact knowledge of the antibody epitope is crucial if epitope matching is also used as a tool to select compatible donors for (highly) sensitized patients...
October 19, 2018: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
Takushi Fujimoto, Kenji Inaba, Hiroshi Kadokura
Formation of a disulfide bond is a critical step in the folding of numerous secretory and membrane proteins and catalyzed in vivo. A variety of mechanisms and protein structures have evolved to catalyze oxidative protein folding. Those enzymes that directly interact with a folding protein to accelerate its oxidative folding are mostly thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases that belong to the thioredoxin superfamily. The enzymes of this class often use a CXXC active-site motif embedded in their thioredoxin-like fold to promote formation, isomerization, and reduction of a disulfide bond in their target proteins...
October 19, 2018: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Yu Gao, Honglei Zhao, Peng Wang, Jun Wang, Lili Zou
The suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS3) is well-known as a feedback inhibitor of the Janus kinases-signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (JAK/STAT3) signaling pathway, which mediates the signal transduction of many cytokines, growth factors and hormones during many cellular processes. The critical role of SOCS3 is manifested by its binding to both the JAK kinase and the cytokine receptor, which can result in the inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation. STAT3 triggers variety of genes expression in response to cytokine (IL-6 family, IL-10) and growth factor stimulation, and thus plays a critical role in many cellular biological processes involved in anti/pro-inflammatory responses, cell growth and cell death...
October 19, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Taylor C Harris, Rijk de Rooij, Ellen Kuhl
Cerebral atrophy in response to traumatic brain injury is a well-documented phenomenon in both primary investigations and review articles. Recent atrophy studies focus on exploring the region-specific patterns of cerebral atrophy; yet, there is no study that analyzes and synthesizes the emerging atrophy patterns in a single comprehensive review. Here we attempt to fill this gap in our current knowledge by integrating the current literature into a cohesive theory of preferential brain tissue loss and by identifying common risk factors for accelerated atrophy progression...
October 17, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
S Nuvvula, M Bandi, S K Mallineni
AIM: To evaluate the available evidence on the efficacy of ferric sulphate (FS) compared to other pulpotomy medicaments in primary molars. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted through five databases (PubMed, Ovid® , EBSCOhost, Cochrane Library and ProQuest) and only those papers which met the inclusion criteria were accepted. The quality of the studies used for systematic review was rated by two independent researchers based on Fuks and Papagiannoulis (Eur Arch Paediatr Dent 7:64-71, 2006) criteria and graded as A (38-42), B1 (32-37), B2 (25-31), C (≤ 24)...
October 19, 2018: European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry: Official Journal of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry
Neeraj Purohit, Nicholas Hancock, Asif Saifuddin
The patellofemoral joint is a complex joint requiring contributions from both bone and soft tissue for its stability. Pathology of the patellofemoral joint manifests as instability or anterior knee pain. Careful clinical and imaging assessment is important for managing these patients with cross-sectional imaging being a vital component in pre-surgical planning. Operative treatment can involve soft tissue procedures, bony procedures or both. The purpose of part 2 of this two-part article is to review the post-operative imaging findings of the knee extensor mechanism...
October 20, 2018: Skeletal Radiology
Emma D Deeks
Doravirine is a new non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) developed by Merck & Co for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. The drug is approved in the USA both as a single-agent tablet (Pifeltro™) and as a fixed-dose combination tablet with the nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors lamivudine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Delstrigo™). Each formulation is indicated in the USA for treating HIV-1 infection in adults with no prior antiretroviral treatment, has received a positive opinion in the EU for treating HIV-1 infection in adults without resistance to NNRTIs or (in the case of the fixed-dose combination tablet) lamivudine or tenofovir, and is also under regulatory review for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in Canada...
October 19, 2018: Drugs
D Latz, E Schiffner, J Schneppendahl, B H Thalmann, P Jungbluth, J Grassmann, J Windolf, S V Gehrmann
OBJECTIVE: Driving a motor vehicle is one of the most important aspects of personal mobility in our society. However, there is a lack of evidence regarding driving fitness after orthopedic or trauma surgery-related diseases. Aim of this systematic review was to support the treating physician to determine the individual driving fitness in patients with musculosceletal disorders. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A systematic analysis was performed using the PubMed database...
October 19, 2018: Der Unfallchirurg
Nadezda Abramova, Julie Hubbard, Joan Schertz, Emilia Richter
INTRODUCTION: Recombinant human luteinizing hormone (r-hLH) is used in a fixed-ratio combination with recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone (r-hFSH) for the stimulation of follicular development. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article was to conduct a review of safety data to evaluate the risks of r-hFSH/r-hLH treatment. METHODS: Data were retrieved from the Global Safety Database (Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany) including reports from healthcare professionals, patients, health authorities, clinical trials, non-interventional studies, and the literature...
October 19, 2018: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
Ekaterina Noykhovich, Sangeeta Mookherji, Amira Roess
According to the WHO, half of the 10.4 million incident cases of TB in 2016 came from five countries where 20-50% of the urban population live in slums. Crowded living conditions and limited access to healthcare further contribute to the burden of TB in urban slums. This article aims to assess the odds of the burden of TB in urban slums through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Four electronic databases were searched for studies published between 1993 and 2017, with TB defined as at least one sputum smear-positive...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
Johannes Sperzel, Christian Hamm, Andreas Hain
Nanostim™ (St. Jude Medical Inc., Saint Paul, MN, USA; now Abbott Medical Inc. Abbott Park, IL, USA) was the first self-contained intracardiac pacemaker to be implanted in a human patient. A total of 1423 Nanostim devices were implanted worldwide between 2013 and 2016 and three clinical trials were initiated. Although the device was recalled in 2016 owing to rare but serious battery failures, the concept of leadless pacing has gained widespread acceptance and is expanding beyond the initial single-chamber devices to dual-chamber systems, biventricular pacing, and combinations with defibrillators...
October 19, 2018: Herzschrittmachertherapie & Elektrophysiologie
D Hirjak, K M Kubera, S Bienentreu, P A Thomann, R C Wolf
The treatment of schizophrenic psychoses with antipsychotic drugs (AP) is often associated with an increased risk of delayed occurrence of antipsychotic-associated movement disorders. Persistence and chronicity of such symptoms are very frequent. The risk of developing tardive dyskinesia (TD) is associated with the pharmacological effect profile of a particular AP, with treatment duration and age. This systematic review article summarizes the current study situation on prevalence, risk factors, prevention and treatment options and instruments for early prediction of TD in schizophrenic psychoses...
October 19, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
Maria Adrover-Rigo, Maria-Dolores Fraga-Fuentes, Francesc Puigventos-Latorre, Iciar Martinez-Lopez
PURPOSE: To summarize literature specific to therapeutic interchange (TI) focusing on methodological approaches in order to develop a list of steps that healthcare facilities can consult when developing pharmacotherapeutic interchange guidelines (PTIGs) in hospitals and primary care centers. METHODS: A search was conducted in PreMEDLINE, Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library up to and including December 2015. PRISMA guidelines were used. The inclusion criteria were articles published on TI: methodology, implementation, guidelines, and position statements of scientific societies...
October 19, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Kiyohisa Kamimura, Masanori Nakajo, Tomohide Yoneyama, Koji Takumi, Yuichi Kumagae, Yoshihiko Fukukura, Takashi Yoshiura
Amide proton transfer (APT) imaging is an emerging molecular magnetic resonance imaging technique based on chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST). APT imaging has shown promise in oncologic imaging, especially in the imaging of brain tumors. This review article illustrates the theory of CEST/APT imaging and describes the clinical utility, pitfalls, and potential for future development of APT imaging.
October 19, 2018: Japanese Journal of Radiology
H Fu, Q Chen
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) treatment has emerged as an important adjunct therapy for heart failure. However, the use of MSC to treat heart failure has not been well established. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of MSC treatment for heart failure. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the influence of MSC treatment on cardiac function in heart failure were included in this analysis...
October 19, 2018: Herz
E Roca-Millan, B González-Navarro, M-M Sabater-Recolons, A Marí-Roig, E Jané-Salas, J López-López
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is the main cause of mortality in developed countries. It is a chronic and systemic inflammatory disease with a multifactorial etiology. Periodontal disease is one of the many factors that contribute to its development. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effects of periodontal treatment on cardiovascular risk parameters in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. METHODS: A systematic research was conducted in the Pubmed/Medline databases for clinical trials published up to and including the year 2017...
October 20, 2018: Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal
J Borrás-Ferreres, A Sánchez-Torres, C Gay-Escoda
BACKGROUND: Bifid mandibular condyle (BMC) constitutes an extremely rare disorder characterized by a duplication of the head of the mandibular condyle. Its prevalence ranges from 0.31% to 1.82% in the published literature. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to describe the main etiological, clinical and radiological characteristics of patients with BMCs and the existent treatment options. The secondary objective was to simultaneously include the characteristics of two new cases of BMC...
October 20, 2018: Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal
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