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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30340847/forecasting-life-expectancy-years-of-life-lost-and-all-cause-and-cause-specific-mortality-for-250-causes-of-death-reference-and-alternative-scenarios-for-2016-40-for-195-countries-and-territories
#1
Kyle J Foreman, Neal Marquez, Andrew Dolgert, Kai Fukutaki, Nancy Fullman, Madeline McGaughey, Martin A Pletcher, Amanda E Smith, Kendrick Tang, Chun-Wei Yuan, Jonathan C Brown, Joseph Friedman, Jiawei He, Kyle R Heuton, Mollie Holmberg, Disha J Patel, Patrick Reidy, Austin Carter, Kelly Cercy, Abigail Chapin, Dirk Douwes-Schultz, Tahvi Frank, Falko Goettsch, Patrick Y Liu, Vishnu Nandakumar, Marissa B Reitsma, Vince Reuter, Nafis Sadat, Reed J D Sorensen, Vinay Srinivasan, Rachel L Updike, Hunter York, Alan D Lopez, Rafael Lozano, Stephen S Lim, Ali H Mokdad, Stein Emil Vollset, Christopher J L Murray
BACKGROUND: Understanding potential trajectories in health and drivers of health is crucial to guiding long-term investments and policy implementation. Past work on forecasting has provided an incomplete landscape of future health scenarios, highlighting a need for a more robust modelling platform from which policy options and potential health trajectories can be assessed. This study provides a novel approach to modelling life expectancy, all-cause mortality and cause of death forecasts -and alternative future scenarios-for 250 causes of death from 2016 to 2040 in 195 countries and territories...
October 16, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30340462/pre-kidney-transplant-lower-extremity-impairment-and-transplant-length-of-stay-a-time-to-discharge-analysis-of-a-prospective-cohort-study
#2
Anthony J Nastasi, Tyler S Bryant, Jimmy T Le, Jennifer Schrack, Hao Ying, Christine E Haugen, Marlís González Fernández, Dorry L Segev, Mara A McAdams-DeMarco
BACKGROUND: Few objective tests can be performed at admission for kidney transplantation [KT] to discern risk of increased length of stay [LOS], which is important for patient counseling and is associated with increased costs and mortality. The short physical performance battery [SPPB] is an easily administered, potentially modifiable, 3-part test of lower extremity function. SPPB score is associated with longer hospital LOS in older adults, and may provide similar utility in KT recipients given that ESRD is a disease of accelerated aging...
October 19, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30340343/early-senescence-and-leukocyte-telomere-shortening-in-schizophrenia-a-role-for-cytomegalovirus-infection
#3
REVIEW
Corona Solana, Diana Pereira, Raquel Tarazona
Schizophrenia is a severe, chronic mental disorder characterized by delusions and hallucinations. Several evidences support the link of schizophrenia with accelerated telomeres shortening and accelerated aging. Thus, schizophrenia patients show higher mortality compared to age-matched healthy donors. The etiology of schizophrenia is multifactorial, involving genetic and environmental factors. Telomere erosion has been shown to be accelerated by different factors including environmental factors such as cigarette smoking and chronic alcohol consumption or by psychosocial stress such as childhood maltreatment...
October 18, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30340130/age-values-farming-objectives-past-management-decisions-and-future-intentions-in-new-zealand-agriculture
#4
Philip Brown, Adam Daigneault, Joshua Dawson
Governments such as New Zealand's seek to raise the value of agricultural exports while concurrently protecting the natural environment. Therefore, farmers are encouraged to increase production while reducing environmental impacts. In this paper, we analyse the relationship between age and farmer values, farming objectives, past management decisions, and future intentions, all of which may impact the environment. Using multivariate regression that controls for gender, education, industry, and region, we find that older farmers are more risk averse, less willing to experiment, less likely to be influenced by social expectations, and more focused on financial performance...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30340129/smartphone-technology-can-measure-postural-stability-and-discriminate-fall-risk-in-older-adults
#5
Katherine L Hsieh, Kathleen L Roach, Douglas A Wajda, Jacob J Sosnoff
BACKGROUND: Falls are the leading cause of injury related death in older adults. Impaired postural stability is a predictor of falls but is seldom objectively assessed in clinical or home settings. Embedded accelerometers within smartphones offer potential to objectively measure postural stability. The purpose of this study was to determine if a smartphone embedded accelerometer can measure static postural stability and distinguish older adults at high levels of fall risk. METHODS: Thirty older adults (age: 65...
October 9, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30340032/carbotoxicity-noxious-effects-of-carbohydrates
#6
REVIEW
Guido Kroemer, Carlos López-Otín, Frank Madeo, Rafael de Cabo
Modern nutrition is often characterized by the excessive intake of different types of carbohydrates ranging from digestible polysaccharides to refined sugars that collectively mediate noxious effects on human health, a phenomenon that we refer to as "carbotoxicity." Epidemiological and experimental evidence combined with clinical intervention trials underscore the negative impact of excessive carbohydrate uptake, as well as the beneficial effects of reducing carbs in the diet. We discuss the molecular, cellular, and neuroendocrine mechanisms that link exaggerated carbohydrate intake to disease and accelerated aging as we outline dietary and pharmacologic strategies to combat carbotoxicity...
October 18, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30339121/achieving-the-quadruple-aim-in-healthcare-the-essential-role-of-authentic-complex-and-resilient-nurse-leaders
#7
Lianne Jeffs
Now more than ever with the increasing complexity of care needs and the aging nursing workforce, nurse executives need to embrace the opportunity to acquire and enhance their transformation leadership competencies to advance and accelerate patient safety and quality improvement in healthcare. This paper calls for nurse leaders to engage in authentic, complex and resilient leadership to meet the evolving challenges and advances in technology in healthcare amidst achieving the quadruple aim of improving the care experience, improving population health, reducing the cost of care and improving the provider experience...
June 2018: Nursing Leadership
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30338579/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms-temperament-and-the-pathway-to-cellular-senescence
#8
Samantha L Connolly, Tawni B Stoop, Mark W Logue, Esther Hana Orr, Immaculata De Vivo, Mark W Miller, Erika J Wolf
Traumatic stress is thought to be associated with shortened telomere length (TL) in leukocytes, an age-related marker of increased risk for cellular senescence, although findings thus far have been mixed. We assessed associations between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity, temperament, and TL in a sample of 453 White, non-Hispanic, middle-aged, trauma-exposed male and female veterans and civilians. Given that prior research has suggested an association between PTSD and accelerated cellular age, we also examined associations between TL and an index of accelerated cellular age derived from DNA methylation data (DNAm age)...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30337599/expression-of-the-hutchinson-gilford-progeria-mutation-leads-to-aberrant-dentin-formation
#9
Hwajung Choi, Tak-Heun Kim, Ju-Kyeong Jeong, Charlotte Strandgren, Maria Eriksson, Eui-Sic Cho
Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare accelerated senescence disease, manifesting dental abnormalities and several symptoms suggestive of premature aging. Although irregular secondary dentin formation in HGPS patients has been reported, pathological mechanisms underlying aberrant dentin formation remain undefined. In this study, we analyzed the mandibular molars of a tissue-specific mouse model that overexpresses the most common HGPS mutation (LMNA, c.1824C > T, p.G608G) in odontoblasts...
October 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30336844/recommendations-for-the-nomenclature-of-cognitive-change-associated-with-anaesthesia-and-surgery-2018
#10
REVIEW
L Evered, B Silbert, D S Knopman, D A Scott, S T DeKosky, L S Rasmussen, E S Oh, G Crosby, M Berger, R G Eckenhoff
Cognitive change affecting patients after anaesthesia and surgery has been recognised for more than 100 yr. Research into cognitive change after anaesthesia and surgery accelerated in the 1980s when multiple studies utilised detailed neuropsychological testing for assessment of cognitive change after cardiac surgery. This body of work consistently documented decline in cognitive function in elderly patients after anaesthesia and surgery, and cognitive changes have been identified up to 7.5 yr afterwards. Importantly, other studies have identified that the incidence of cognitive change is similar after non-cardiac surgery...
November 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30336178/susceptibility-of-the-cerebral-cortex-to-spreading-depolarization-in-neurological-disease-states-the-impact-of-aging
#11
REVIEW
Péter Hertelendy, Dániel P Varga, Ákos Menyhárt, Ferenc Bari, Eszter Farkas
Secondary injury following acute brain insults significantly contributes to poorer neurological outcome. The spontaneous, recurrent occurrence of spreading depolarization events (SD) has been recognized as a potent secondary injury mechanism in subarachnoid hemorrhage, malignant ischemic stroke and traumatic brain injury. In addition, SD is the underlying mechanism of the aura symptoms of migraineurs. The susceptibility of the nervous tissue to SD is subject to the metabolic status of the tissue, the ionic composition of the extracellular space, and the functional status of ion pumps, voltage-gated and other cation channels, glutamate receptors and excitatory amino acid transporters...
October 15, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30334742/automated-assessment-of-movement-impairment-in-huntington-s-disease
#12
M Bennasar, Y A Hicks, S P Clinch, P Jones, C Holt, A Rosser, M Busse
Quantitative assessment of movement impairment in Huntington's disease (HD) is essential to monitoring of disease progression. This paper aimed to develop and validate a novel low cost, objective automated system for the evaluation of upper limb movement impairment in HD in order to eliminate the inconsistency of the assessor and offer a more sensitive, continuous assessment scale. Patients with genetically confirmed HD and healthy controls were recruited to this observational study. Demographic data, including age (years), gender, and unified HD rating scale total motor score (UHDRS-TMS), were recorded...
October 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30334165/incidence-and-predictors-of-prolonged-postoperative-ileus-after-colorectal-surgery-in-the-context-of-an-enhanced-recovery-pathway
#13
Mohsen Alhashemi, Julio F Fiore, Nadia Safa, Mohammed Al Mahroos, Juan Mata, Nicolò Pecorelli, Gabriele Baldini, Nandini Dendukuri, Barry L Stein, A Sender Liberman, Patrick Charlebois, Franco Carli, Liane S Feldman
BACKGROUND: Prolonged postoperative ileus (PPOI) is common after colorectal surgery but has not been widely studied in the context of enhanced recovery pathways (ERPs) that include interventions aimed to accelerate gastrointestinal recovery. The aim of this study is to estimate the incidence and predictors of PPOI in the context of an ERP for colorectal surgery. METHODS: We analyzed data from an institutional colorectal surgery ERP registry. Incidence of PPOI was estimated according to a definition adapted from Vather (intolerance of solid food and absence of flatus or bowel movement for ≥ 4 days) and compared to other definitions in the literature...
October 17, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30333719/-bdnf-val66met-polymorphism-and-gamma-band-disruption-in-resting-state-brain-functional-connectivity-a-magnetoencephalography-study-in-cognitively-intact-older-females
#14
Inmaculada C Rodríguez-Rojo, Pablo Cuesta, María Eugenia López, Jaisalmer de Frutos-Lucas, Ricardo Bruña, Ernesto Pereda, Ana Barabash, Pedro Montejo, Mercedes Montenegro-Peña, Alberto Marcos, Ramón López-Higes, Alberto Fernández, Fernando Maestú
The pathophysiological processes undermining brain functioning decades before the onset of the clinical symptoms associated with dementia are still not well understood. Several heritability studies have reported that the Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor ( BDNF ) Val66Met genetic polymorphism could contribute to the acceleration of cognitive decline in aging. This mutation may affect brain functional connectivity (FC), especially in those who are carriers of the BDNF Met allele. The aim of this work was to explore the influence of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism in whole brain eyes-closed, resting-state magnetoencephalography (MEG) FC in a sample of 36 cognitively intact (CI) older females...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30328713/associations-of-the-infancy-body-mass-index-peak-with-anthropometry-and-cardiometabolic-risk-in-mexican-adolescents
#15
Wei Perng, Jonggyu Baek, Christina W Zhou, Alejandra Cantoral, Maria Martha Tellez-Rojo, Peter X K Song, Karen E Peterson
BACKGROUND: Early-life growth dynamics are associated with future health. Little is known regarding timing and magnitude of the infancy body mass index (BMI) peak with adiposity and metabolic biomarkers during adolescence. AIM: To examine associations of the infancy BMI peak with anthropometry and cardiometabolic risk during peripuberty. METHODS: Among 163 ELEMENT participants, this study estimated age and magnitude of the infancy BMI peak from eight anthropometric measurements from birth-36 months using Newton's Growth Models, an acceleration-based process model...
October 17, 2018: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30328339/a-rare-variety-of-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia-with-mosaic-klinefelter-syndrome-a-unique-combination-presenting-with-ambiguous-genitalia-and-sexual-precocity
#16
M A Shehab, Tahseen Mahmood, M A Hasanat, Md Fariduddin, Nazmul Ahsan, Mohammad Shahnoor Hossain, Md Shahdat Hossain, Sharmin Jahan
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to the three-beta-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) enzyme deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder presenting with sexual precocity in a phenotypic male. Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is the most common sex chromosome aneuploidy presenting with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism in a male. However, only a handful of cases of mosaic KS have been described in the literature. The co-existence of mosaic KS with CAH due to 3β-HSD enzyme deficiency portrays a unique diagnostic paradox where features of gonadal androgen deficiency are masked by simultaneous adrenal androgen excess...
October 13, 2018: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326963/systematic-evaluation-of-dna-methylation-age-estimation-with-common-preprocessing-methods-and-the-infinium-methylationepic-beadchip-array
#17
Lisa M McEwen, Meaghan J Jones, David Tse Shen Lin, Rachel D Edgar, Lucas T Husquin, Julia L MacIsaac, Katia E Ramadori, Alexander M Morin, Christopher F Rider, Chris Carlsten, Lluís Quintana-Murci, Steve Horvath, Michael S Kobor
BACKGROUND: The capacity of technologies measuring DNA methylation (DNAm) is rapidly evolving, as are the options for applicable bioinformatics methods. The most commonly used DNAm microarray, the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 (450K array), has recently been replaced by the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylationEPIC (EPIC array), nearly doubling the number of targeted CpG sites. Given that a subset of 450K CpG sites is absent on the EPIC array and that several tools for both data normalization and analyses were developed on the 450K array, it is important to assess their utility when applied to EPIC array data...
October 16, 2018: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326199/neuro-protective-role-of-nanocapsulated-curcumin-against-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-oxidative-injury
#18
Abhishek Mukherjee, Sibani Sarkar, Sayantan Jana, Snehasikta Swarnakar, Nirmalendu Das
Cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (CIR) accelerates the progression of neurodegeneration by causing mitochondrial dysfunction to overproduce reactive oxygen species (ROS). Curcumin shows protective effects against CIR-induced oxidative damage. Free curcumin (FC) is effective at high doses due to its poor bioavailability. Also the blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits the passage of substances from circulation into the cerebral region. Thus, formulation of curcumin within polyethylene glycol (PEG)-ylated polylactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) nanoparticles (NC) was applied orally to aged rats to explore its role against CIR injury...
October 13, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325806/recommendations-for-the-nomenclature-of-cognitive-change-associated-with-anaesthesia-and-surgery-2018
#19
L Evered, B Silbert, D S Knopman, D A Scott, S T DeKosky, L S Rasmussen, E S Oh, G Crosby, M Berger, R G Eckenhoff
Cognitive change affecting patients after anaesthesia and surgery has been recognised for more than 100 yr. Research into cognitive change after anaesthesia and surgery accelerated in the 1980s when multiple studies utilised detailed neuropsychological testing for assessment of cognitive change after cardiac surgery. This body of work consistently documented decline in cognitive function in elderly patients after anaesthesia and surgery, and cognitive changes have been identified up to 7.5 yr afterwards. Importantly, other studies have identified that the incidence of cognitive change is similar after non-cardiac surgery...
November 2018: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325748/recommendations-for-the-nomenclature-of-cognitive-change-associated-with-anaesthesia-and-surgery-2018
#20
L Evered, B Silbert, D S Knopman, D A Scott, S T DeKosky, L S Rasmussen, E S Oh, G Crosby, M Berger, R G Eckenhoff
Cognitive change affecting patients after anaesthesia and surgery has been recognised for more than 100 yr. Research into cognitive change after anaesthesia and surgery accelerated in the 1980s when multiple studies utilised detailed neuropsychological testing for assessment of cognitive change after cardiac surgery. This body of work consistently documented decline in cognitive function in elderly patients after anaesthesia and surgery, and cognitive changes have been identified up to 7.5 yr afterwards. Importantly, other studies have identified that the incidence of cognitive change is similar after non-cardiac surgery...
October 16, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
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