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Accelerated aging

Burak Gumustas, Soner Sismanoglu
Objectives: The specific objective of this in vitro study was to determine whether the current flowable resin composites can establish an effective seal in repairing noncarious amalgam margin defects. Material and Methods: A total of 30 freshly extracted caries-free human third molars were used for this investigation. Class I preparations with a standardized 160-μ marginal defect were made by condensing amalgam against a Mylar strip. Accelerated aging and corrosion protocols were then applied to simulate oral conditions...
November 2018: Journal of Conservative Dentistry: JCD
Donata Orioli, Elena Dellambra
Skin undergoes continuous renewal throughout an individual's lifetime relying on stem cell functionality. However, a decline of the skin regenerative potential occurs with age. The accumulation of senescent cells over time probably reduces tissue regeneration and contributes to skin aging. Keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts undergo senescence in response to several intrinsic or extrinsic stresses, including telomere shortening, overproduction of reactive oxygen species, diet, and sunlight exposure. Epigenetic mechanisms directly regulate skin homeostasis and regeneration, but they also mark cell senescence and the natural and pathological aging processes...
December 12, 2018: Cells
Ye Tian, Ning Ren, Zhihua Zhao, Fengshun Wu, Suresh K Sitaraman
As solder joints are being scaled down, intermetallic compounds (IMCs) are playing an increasingly critical role in the reliability of solder joints, and thereby an in-depth understanding of IMCs microstructure evolutions in micro-joints is of great significance. This study focused on coarsening behaviors of Ag₃Sn compounds in Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305) micro-joints of flip chip assemblies using thermal shock (TS) tests. The results showed that the Ag₃Sn compounds grew and rapidly coarsened into larger ones as TS cycles increased...
December 10, 2018: Materials
Elizabeth M Black, Simona Giunta
Maintenance of an intact genome is essential for cellular and organismal homeostasis. The centromere is a specialized chromosomal locus required for faithful genome inheritance at each round of cell division. Human centromeres are composed of large tandem arrays of repetitive alpha-satellite DNA, which are often sites of aberrant rearrangements that may lead to chromosome fusions and genetic abnormalities. While the centromere has an essential role in chromosome segregation during mitosis, the long and repetitive nature of the highly identical repeats has greatly hindered in-depth genetic studies, and complete annotation of all human centromeres is still lacking...
December 7, 2018: Genes
Vanessa Oschwald, Aram Prokop, Jonas Boehme, Nadja Gressler, Felicitas Harscheidt, Volker Maas, Wilhelm Bloch, Freerk T Baumann, Julia Daeggelmann
BACKGROUND: With improved survival rates in pediatric oncology, the detection of adverse side- and late-effects is gaining increased interest. This cross-sectional study investigated walking abilities and ankle dorsiflexion function in children with cancer. PATIENTS: Study participants included 16 children with various cancers (4-20 years, patient group) after completion of the intense treatment and 16 age- and gender-matched healthy peers (comparison group). METHOD: Walking speed (10-meter-walking-test, treadmill test assessing preferred transition speed), walking capacity (2-minute-walk-test), walking balance (Timed-Up-And-Go-Test), active/passive ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM) (goniometer) and ankle dorsiflexion strength (hand-held dynamometer) were comprehensively assessed...
December 13, 2018: Klinische Pädiatrie
Sarah M Bartsch, Lindsey Asti, Sarah Cox, David P Durham, Samuel Randall, Peter J Hotez, Alison P Galvani, Bruce Y Lee
Background: While the 2015-2016 Zika epidemics prompted accelerated vaccine development, decision makers need to know the potential economic value of vaccination strategies. Methods: We developed models of Honduras, Brazil, and Puerto Rico, simulated targeting different populations for Zika vaccination (women of childbearing age, school-aged children, young adults, and everyone) and then introduced various Zika outbreaks. Sensitivity analyses varied vaccine characteristics...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Trajen Head, Lisa Henn, Victor P Andreev, Edward E Herderick, Sapna K Deo, Sylvia Daunert, Pascal J Goldschmidt-Clermont
IMPORTANCE: Most individuals who die of sudden cardiac death (SCD) display very advanced lesions of atherosclerosis in their coronary arteries. Thus, we sought to identify and characterize a putative subpopulation of young individuals exhibiting accelerated coronary artery atherosclerosis. OBJECTIVE: Our analysis of the Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth (PDAY) study-which examined 2651 individuals, obtaining quantitative measurements of traditional risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD)-aimed to identify individuals with advanced coronary artery lesions, and to determine whether risk factors could account for such rapid disease progression, or not...
November 13, 2018: American Heart Journal
Thomas Hentrich, Zinah Wassouf, Olaf Riess, Julia M Schulze-Hentrich
Synucleinopathies like Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies originate from a complex and still largely enigmatic interplay of genetic predisposition, age, and environmental factors. While progressively declining motor functions hallmark late-life symptoms, first signs of the disease often surface already decades earlier during midlife. To better understand early disease stages with respect to the genetic, temporal, and environmental dimension, we interrogated hippocampal transcriptome data obtained during midlife for a mouse model overexpressing human SNCA , a pivotal gene in synucleinopathies, under different environments...
December 13, 2018: Aging
Jacobo Sellares, Kristen L Veraldi, Katelynn J Thiel, Nayra Cárdenes, Diana Alvarez, Frank Schneider, Joseph M Pilewski, Mauricio Rojas, Carol A Feghali-Bostwick
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) pathogenesis has been postulated to involve a variety of mechanisms associated with the aging process, including loss of protein homeostasis (proteostasis). Heat shock proteins (Hsp) are cellular chaperones that serve a number of vital maintenance and repair functions, including the regulation of proteostasis. Previously published data have implicated Hsp70 in the development of pulmonary fibrosis in animal models. We sought to identify alterations in Hsp70 expression in IPF lung...
December 13, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Hiroya Iida, Tomoharu Shimizu, Hiromitsu Maehira, Naomi Kitamura, Haruki Mori, Toru Miyake, Sachiko Kaida, Masaji Tani
Recently, accelerometers measuring physical activity level have been available to the public. In the present study, it was examined whether the accelerometer could evaluate postoperative outcomes for 12 patients subjected to hepatic resection from August-November 2016. The association was evaluated between the changing pattern of activity level until the postoperative day (POD) 7 and the occurrence of postoperative complications. The median age of patients was 79 years (range, 58-85). Postoperative complications were identified in 6 patients...
December 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
A Furdová, J Juhas, M Šramka, G Králik
INTRODUCTION: Malignant melanoma of the ciliary body (corpus ciliare) represents 10 to 15 percent of tumors of the uveal tract. The aim of the work is to evaluate the effectiveness of stereotactic radiosurgery performed on LINAC linear accelerator and the occurrence of postoperative complications. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of patients with ciliary body melanoma treated with stereotactic radiosurgery on linear accelerator in the period 1/2011 to 12/2016 in Slovakia...
2018: Ceská a Slovenská Oftalmologie
Hermina Harnagea
Accelerated ageing of the population results in an ever-increasing number of functionally dependent elderly persons. Even healthy older people experience self-care deficits due to decreased mobility, endurance and sensory loss. Residents in long-term care centres depend on caregivers for the majority of their activities of daily living.Dental services for functionally dependent seniors generally remain inadequate. Several factors may explain this situation, including the absence of government guidelines and the lack of initial and continuing training of both dental and non-dental personnel...
May 2018: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
Valeria Romeo, Mario Covello, Elena Salvatore, Chiara Anna Parente, Domenico Abbenante, Roberto Biselli, Mattia Ciriello, Pasquale Musolino, Marco Salvatore, Alessandro Cangiano
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional, retrospective, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging study, performed during cadets' selection procedures of the Italian Air Force Academy. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of spinal MR imaging findings in asymptomatic young adults (18-22 yrs) candidate to Air Force Flight. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Spinal MR imaging findings are frequently detected in asymptomatic subjects. Literature prevalence data come from studies that analyze different patient populations, in a wide age range and in different spinal tracts...
December 11, 2018: Spine
Kuen-Chan Lee, Yi-Lun Chen, Chien-Chen Wang, Jen-Hsien Huang, Er-Chieh Cho
Titanium dioxide nanomaterials have good capability to prevent human cells from damage under UV irradiation. However, some studies indicated that the nanoscale of titanium dioxide could potentially cause harmful effects such as free radicals generation under UV irradiation and thereby accelerate the progress of cell aging. Fullerenes can scavenge large amounts of free radicals due to the fact that fullerenes contain enormous amount of π electrons with low lying lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO), but its adverse properties, such as the poor solubility in water, restricted the applicability...
December 12, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Bergita Ganse, Hans Degens
While many older adults are immobile and frail, others still participate in competitive sports. World records of javelin throw decrease with increasing age. It is, however, unknown 1) whether the decline is linear or, as in sprint performance, accelerates beyond the age of 69; and 2) to what extent frailty-related changes in throwing technique contribute to decreasing performance. We plotted current world records against age and assessed the performance of 27 male javelin throwers 69 years and older during three master athletics championships...
June 2018: Sports medicine international open
Sahena Haque, Sarah Skeoch, Chadi Rakieh, Helena Edlin, Yasmeen Ahmad, Pauline Ho, Rachel Gorodkin, M Yvonne Alexander, Ian N Bruce
Objectives: We aimed to describe the rate and determinants of carotid plaque progression and the onset of clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a UK SLE cohort. Methods: Female patients with SLE of white British ancestry were recruited from clinics in the North-West of England and had a baseline clinical and CVD risk assessment including measurement of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and plaque using B-mode Doppler ultrasound. Patients were followed up (>3...
2018: Lupus Science & Medicine
G Nannelli, E Terzuoli, V Giorgio, S Donnini, P Lupetti, A Giachetti, P Bernardi, M Ziche
Endothelial cells (ECs) are dynamic cells that turn from growth into senescence, the latter being associated with cellular dysfunction, altered metabolism, and age-related cardiovascular diseases. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is a mitochondrial enzyme metabolizing acetaldehyde and other toxic aldehydes, such as 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE). In conditions in which lipid peroxidation products and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are accumulated, ECs become dysfunctional and significantly contribute to the progression of vascular-dependent diseases...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
M Vailati-Riboni, R E Bucktrout, S Zhan, A Geiger, J C McCann, R M Akers, J J Loor
BACKGROUND: To reduce costs of rearing replacement heifers, researchers have focused on decreasing age at breeding and first calving. To increase returns upon initiation of lactation the focus has been on increasing mammary development prior to onset of first lactation. Enhanced plane of nutrition pre-weaning may benefit the entire replacement heifer operation by promoting mammary gland development and greater future production. METHODS: Twelve Holstein heifer calves (< 1 week old) were reared on 1 of 2 dietary treatments (n = 6/group) for 8 weeks: a control group fed a restricted milk replacer at 0...
December 11, 2018: BMC Genomics
Kaho Takigawa, Rintaro Matsuda, Ran Uchitomi, Takumi Onishi, Yukino Hatazawa, Yasutomi Kamei
We examined the effect of long-term exercise on the prevention of sarcopenia using a senescence-accelerated-prone mice (SAMP8) model. Mice were housed in a wheel cage for 25 weeks to increase voluntary exercise. At week 23, endurance running capacity was examined using a treadmill. In a treadmill running test, the wheel cage group had increased endurance running capacity, which suggests that aging-related loss of muscle function was recovered by long-term exercise. Mice were sacrificed and microarray analysis revealed that genes involved in protein synthesis and degradation were upregulated in the skeletal muscles of the wheel cage group, suggesting accelerated protein turnover...
December 12, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Eleni N Tsakiri, Sentiljana Gumeni, Kalliopi K Iliaki, Dimitra Benaki, Konstantinos Vougas, Gerasimos P Sykiotis, Vassilis G Gorgoulis, Emmanuel Mikros, Luca Scorrano, Ioannis P Trougakos
Metazoans viability depends on their ability to regulate metabolic processes and also to respond to harmful challenges by mounting anti-stress responses; these adaptations were fundamental forces during evolution. Central to anti-stress responses are a number of short-lived transcription factors that by functioning as stress sensors mobilize genomic responses aiming to eliminate stressors. We show here that increased expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) in Drosophila activated cytoprotective modules and enhanced stress tolerance...
December 10, 2018: Aging Cell
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