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Accelerated aging

Anna Marseglia, Laura Fratiglioni, Grégoria Kalpouzos, Rui Wang, Lars Bäckman, Weili Xu
INTRODUCTION: The impact of prediabetes and diabetes on cognitive decline and the potential underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated whether prediabetes and diabetes accelerate cognitive decline and brain aging, and the initial pathological changes linked to microvascular processes. METHODS: Nine-year longitudinal data from the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care-Kungsholmen (n = 2746, age ≥60 years) and the magnetic resonance imaging subsample (n = 455) were used...
August 13, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Andras Bilkei-Gorzo, Onder Albayram, Frank Ativie, Safak Chasan, Till Zimmer, Karsten Bach, Andreas Zimmer
Astrocytes, key regulators of brain homeostasis, interact with neighboring glial cells, neurons and the vasculature through complex processes involving different signaling pathways. It is not entirely clear how these interactions change in the ageing brain and which factors influence astrocyte ageing. Here, we investigate the role of endocannabinoid signaling, because it is an important modulator of neuron and astrocyte functions, as well as brain ageing. We demonstrate that mice with a specific deletion of CB1 receptors on GABAergic neurons (GABA-Cnr1-/- mice), which show a phenotype of accelerated brain ageing, affects age-related changes in the morphology of astrocytes in the hippocampus...
2018: PloS One
David Elias Kayabu, James Samwel Ngocho, Blandina Theophil Mmbaga
BACKGROUND: Linkage to care and treatment is an important part of efforts to accelerate HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support. It offers an opportunity for PLHIV to receive information and services in a timely manner. Clients who present late for HIV care and treatment may miss out on timely initiation of prophylaxis and ART, which may accelerate disease progression and lead to an increased rate of HIV transmission within the community. The objective of this study was to determine the factors influencing effective linkages of newly diagnosed PLHIV from the point of testing to entry in care and treatment centres (CTCs) in Tanga Region, Tanzania...
2018: PloS One
Miguel A Muñoz-Lorente, Paula Martínez, Águeda Tejera, Kurt Whittemore, Ana Carolina Moisés-Silva, Fàtima Bosch, Maria A Blasco
Short and dysfunctional telomeres are sufficient to induce a persistent DNA damage response at chromosome ends, which leads to the induction of senescence and/or apoptosis and to various age-related conditions, including a group of diseases known as "telomere syndromes", which are provoked by extremely short telomeres owing to germline mutations in telomere genes. This opens the possibility of using telomerase activation as a potential therapeutic strategy to rescue short telomeres both in telomere syndromes and in age-related diseases, in this manner maintaining tissue homeostasis and ameliorating these diseases...
August 2018: PLoS Genetics
Angelika B Mennecke, Julie Rösch, Burkhard S Kasper, Manuel A Schmidt, Frederik B Laun, Karl Rössler, Roland Coras, Hajo M Hamer, Arnd Dörfler
This study aims to investigate the diffusion metrics of left versus right temporal lobe epilepsy in a well-defined subgroup of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) because of unilateral hippocampal sclerosis while taking into account interhemispheric differences. Eighteen patients with TLE [nine left temporal lobe epilepsy (LTLE) and nine right temporal lobe epilepsy (RTLE)] and a norm group of 36 nonepileptic individuals were scanned with a multiband accelerated diffusion tensor imaging protocol at 3T...
August 15, 2018: Neuroreport
Jairo Vazquez-Guerrero, Xavi Reche, Francesc Cos, David Casamichana, Jaime Sampaio
Vazquez-Guerrero, J, Reche, X, Cos, F, Casamichana, D, and Sampaio, J. Changes in external load when modifying rules of 5-on- 5 scrimmage situations in elite basketball. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Constraining tasks are very frequent during the team sports training process; however, most of the effects of these coaching decisions are unknown, which leads to less controlled performing environments, with less chances to promote improvements. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of modifying rules of 5-a-side scrimmage on the physical performance of professional basketball players...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Jiaqi Li, Yuzhi Zhou, Guanhua Du, Xuemei Qin, Li Gao
Background Aging is a complex process accompanied with the decline of the different physiological functions. Numerous differentially expressed genes (DEGs) have been found in the aging brain of senescence-accelerated mouse P8 (SAMP8), however, it was challenging to screen out the crucial ones. Objective This study aimed to explore the crucial genes and pathways in aging brain of SAMP8 mice, which would be beneficial for understanding the pathogenesis of brain aging. Method Firstly, 430 genes that are differentially expressed in SAMP8 mice versus SAMR1 mice were obtained from 9 gene expression studies, and gene-gene network was constructed...
August 15, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Francesco Paradisi, Eugenio Di Stanislao, Aurora Summa, Stefano Brunelli, M Traballesi, Giuseppe Vannozzi
BACKGROUND: The observation of upper body movement is gaining interest in the gait analysis community. Recent studies involved the use of body-worn motion sensors, allowing translation of laboratory measurements to real-life settings in the context of patient monitoring and fall prevention. OBJECTIVES: It was shown that amputee persons demonstrate altered acceleration patterns due to the presence of prosthetic components, while no information is available on how accelerations propagate upwards to the head during level walking...
August 16, 2018: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
Sang Youl Rhee, Young Seol Kim
In cases of chronic hyperglycemia, advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are actively produced and accumulated in the circulating blood and various tissues. AGEs also accelerate the expression of receptors for AGEs, and they play an important role in the development of diabetic vascular complications through various mechanisms. Active interventions for glucose and related risk factors may help improve the clinical course of patients by reducing AGEs. This review summarizes recent updates on AGEs that have a significant impact on diabetic vascular complications...
May 31, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
Frederic Flament, Nasrine Bourokba, Stephanie Nouveau, Jing Li, Aude Charbonneau
BACKGROUND: The impact of a chronic outdoor urban pollution on skin aging-related facial signs is a poorly referenced topic. OBJECTIVE: To assess, through visual grading and referential photographic atlas, possible differences in some facial signs between Chinese women, of comparable ages, living in two close cities very differently exposed to urban pollution. METHODS: The faces of 2 cohorts of 204 Chinese women (2 x 102) of same age-groups (25-45 y), living in Baoding (a highly polluted city) and Dalian (a less polluted city), for at least 15 years, have been analyzed...
August 16, 2018: International Journal of Cosmetic Science
Samuel Marques, Teresa Trevisan, Carlos Maia, Andrea Breuer, Robert W Owen
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) represent a set of molecules that contribute directly to the initiation and aggravation of diseases associated with ageing. AGEs are produced by the reaction between reducing sugars (or α-dicarbonyl compounds), proteins, and amino acid residues. Previous in vitro methods using non-enzymatic procedures described in the literature require an incubation period of 1⁻3 weeks to generate AGEs. In this study, the reaction time for the formation of AGEs (48 and 3 h) was significantly reduced by adaptation of methods previously described in the literature and coupling them to the free radical generation system termed hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase assay...
August 15, 2018: Biomedicines
Ping-Chen, Qing-Song Lin, Xian-Zhong Lin
Objective The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block ameliorates visual analogue scale scores and decreases morphine requirements, but its role remains unclear. Patients of advanced age are susceptible to local anesthetic intoxication. We aimed to identify an optimal concentration that can be used in enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) without compromising analgesic efficacy. Methods In total, 120 patients aged ≥65 years undergoing laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery received general anesthesia combined with a TAP block using 0...
August 15, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
Yehua Rui, Menglian Lv, Jie Chang, Jiaying Xu, Liqiang Qin, Zhongxiao Wan
BACKGROUND: Chia seed is an ancient seed with the richest plant source of α-linolenic acid, which has been demonstrated to improve metabolic syndrome associated risk factors. Under high fat diet (HFD) condition, the senescence-accelerated mouse-prone 8 (SAMP8) mice demonstrated worsen Alzheimer's disease (AD) related pathology compared to low fat diet fed SAMP8 mice. OBJECTIVE: To explore whether chia seed supplementation might improve cognitive impairment under aging and metabolic stress via high fat diet (HFD) fed SAMP8 mice as a model...
August 14, 2018: Nutrients
Stephanie J Wilson, Alex Woody, Avelina C Padin, Jue Lin, William B Malarkey, Janice K Kiecolt-Glaser
Background: Lonely people's heightened risks for chronic health conditions and early mortality may emerge in part through cellular aging. Lonelier people have more severe sympathetic responses to acute stress, increasing their risk for herpesvirus reactivation, a possible path to shorter telomeres. Parasympathetic function may modulate this risk. Purpose: The current study aimed to examine the associations among loneliness, herpesvirus reactivation, and telomere length, with parasympathetic activity as a moderator, in healthy middle-aged and older adults...
August 13, 2018: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
Danilo Henrique Trevisan de Carvalho, Shaun Scholes, Jair Licio Ferreira Santos, Cesar de Oliveira, Tiago da Silva Alexandre
Background: Cross-sectional evidence has shown an association between abdominal obesity and lower muscle strength in older adults. However, no longitudinal findings have confirmed this association. In addition, the impact of abdominal fat on the reduction in muscle strength is not yet fully understood. Methods: We investigated the longitudinal associations between abdominal obesity and handgrip strength in 5,181 older adults from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) over eight years of follow-up...
August 10, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Man-Kit Lei, Steven R H Beach, Ronald L Simons
The present study extends prior research on the link between neighborhood disadvantage and chronic illness by testing an integrated model in which neighborhood characteristics exert effects on health conditions through accelerated cardiometabolic aging. Hypotheses were tested using a sample of 408 African Americans from the Family and Community Health Study. Using four waves of data spanning young adulthood (ages 18-29), we first found durable effects of neighborhood disadvantage on accelerated cardiometabolic aging and chronic illness...
August 14, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Bo-Hong Kan, Jian-Chun Yu, Lan Zhao, Jie Zhao, Zhen Li, Yan-Rong Suo, Jing-Xian Han
Acupuncture can improve the cognitive state of Alzheimer's disease, but its mechanism is not clear. Dendritic atrophy and synaptic loss in Alzheimer's disease brain are positively correlated with cognitive damage. Therefore, we speculated that the effect of acupuncture on improving cognitive function may be associated with reduced dendritic damage in the brain. Acupuncture at Qihai (CV6), Zhongwan (CV12), Danzhong (CV17), bilateral Zusanli (ST36), and bilateral Xuehai (SP10) acupoints was performed once a day (1-day rest after 6-day treatment) for 14 consecutive days...
August 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Runting Zhong, Pei-Luen Patrick Rau, Xinghui Yan
AIM: Smart bracelets are popular today. Based on their built-in motion sensors, they can serve as a cost-effective method of gait assessment in home-based care. Few studies have applied smart bracelets in the gait assessment of older Chinese adults. The present study aimed to: (i) establish reference gait parameters of older Chinese adults using smart bracelets under single and dual task; and (ii) explore the differences in gait parameters among non-frail and pre-frail Chinese older adults...
August 14, 2018: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
Vera Moniz-Pereira, Thomas M Kepple, Silvia Cabral, Filipa João, António P Veloso
Falls are a serious problem faced by the elderly. Older adults report mostly to fall while performing locomotor activities, especially the ones requiring stair negotiation. During these tasks, older adults, when compared with young adults, seem to redistribute their lower limb joint moments. This may indicate that older adults use a different strategy to accelerate the body upward during these tasks. The purposes of this study were to quantify the contributions of each lower limb joint moment to vertically accelerate the center of mass during stair ascent and descent, in a sample of community-dwelling older adults, and to verify if those contributions were correlated with age and functional fitness level...
August 4, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Gabriela Gomez, Lori L Beason-Held, Murat Bilgel, Yang An, Dean Wong, Stephanie Studenski, Luigi Ferrucci, Susan M Resnick
BACKGROUND: Recent studies show links between metabolic syndrome and Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology. Understanding the link between vascular-related health conditions and dementia will help target at risk populations and inform clinical strategies for early detection and prevention of AD. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether metabolic syndrome is associated with global cerebral amyloid-β (Aβ) positivity and longitudinal Aβ accumulation. METHODS: Prospective study of 165 participants who underwent (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) PET neuroimaging to measure Aβ, from June 2005 to May 2016...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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