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Type-2 diabetes

Balewgizie Sileshi Tegegne, Melkamu Merid Mengesha, Andreas A Teferra, Mamaru Ayenew Awoke, Tesfa Dejenie Habtewold
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) poses a significant risk for the development of active tuberculosis (TB) and complicates its treatment. However, there is inconclusive evidence on whether the TB-DM co-morbidity is associated with a higher risk of developing multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The aim of this meta-analysis was to summarize available evidence on the association of DM and MDR-TB and to estimate a pooled effect measure. METHODS: PubMed, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), Web of Science, World Health Organization (WHO), and Global Health Library database were searched for all studies published in English until July 2018 and that reported the association of DM and MDR-TB among TB patients...
October 15, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Ehsan Ullah, Raghvendra Mall, Reda Rawi, Naima Moustaid-Moussa, Adeel A Butt, Halima Bensmail
Following publication of the original article [1], the authors reported that one of the authors' names was processed incorrectly. In this Correction the incorrect and correct author name are shown. The original publication of this article has been corrected.
October 15, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Maryam Sina, Freya MacMillan, Tinashe Dune, Navodya Balasuriya, Nouran Khouri, Ngan Nguyen, Vasyngpong Jongvisal, Xiang Hui Lay, David Simmons
BACKGROUND: Poor diabetes management prior to conception, results in increased rates of fetal malformations and other adverse pregnancy outcomes. We describe the development of an integrated, pre-pregnancy management strategy to improve pregnancy outcomes among women of reproductive age with diabetes in a multi-ethnic district. METHODS: The strategy included (i) a narrative literature review of contraception and pre-pregnancy interventions for women with diabetes and development of a draft plan; (ii) a chart review of pregnancy outcomes (e...
October 15, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Mehmet Erdogan, Mustafa Kulaksizoglu, Asli Tetik, Soner Solmaz, Ali Sahin Kucukaslan, Zuhal Eroglu
OBJECTIVET: his study aims to evaluate the influence of eNOS G894T and VEGF C936T gene polymorphism in diabetic foot ulcers. METHOD: We studied 50 patients with diabetic foot ulcers and 57 diabetic patients without diabetic foot ulcer and as a control group of 75 healthy individuals. RESULTS: The genotype eNOS distribution did not differ between Type 2 Diabetic Patients group and Diabetic Foot Ulcer group (P>0.05). The frequency of the polymorphic T allele in Type 2 Diabetic Patients were significantly higher than the control group (42...
June 26, 2018: Foot
Susanna C Larsson, Karl Michaëlsson, Stephen Burgess
Identification of causative risk factors amenable for modification is essential for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Observational studies have identified associations between several potentially modifiable risk factors and osteoporosis. However, observational studies are susceptible to confounding, reverse causation bias, and measurement error, all of which limit their ability to provide causal estimates of the effect of exposures on outcomes, thereby reducing their ability to inform prevention and treatment strategies against bone loss and fractures...
October 12, 2018: Bone
David Scott, Aya Mousa, Negar Naderpoor, Maximilian P J de Courten, Robert Scragg, Barbora de Courten
Recent trials do not support a role for vitamin D supplementation in prevention or treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, although effects may differ in Asian populations. In this pilot secondary analysis of a placebo-controlled randomised trial of overweight or obese individuals with low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D<50 nmol/L), we examined whether vitamin D supplementation improved insulin sensitivity or body composition in participants of Asian ethnicity. Amongst 65 trial participants, 33 reported being of Asian descent (mean ± SD age 30 ± 7 years; 67% male)...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Eun Hee Kim, Hong-Kyu Kim, Sung-Jin Bae, Min Jung Lee, Jenie Yoonoo Hwang, Jaewon Choe, Chang Hee Jung, Woo Je Lee, Joong-Yeol Park
AIMS: Visceral fat accumulation is known to be an independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes. We aimed to determine the optimal cutoff values of visceral fat area (VFA) for predicting incident type 2 diabetes in Koreans. METHODS: Our study population consisted of 13,004 individuals initially free of type 2 diabetes the ages between 20 and 69 years, who underwent routine health examinations between January 2012 and December 2012 and returned for follow-up examinations between January 2016 and December 2016...
October 12, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Susana Cardoso, Paula I Moreira
The last decades have been marked by an increased prevalence in non-communicable diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) as well as by population aging and age-related (brain) diseases. The current notion that the brain and the body are interrelated units is gaining the attention of the scientific and medical community. Growing evidence demonstrates that there is a significant overlap in risk, comorbidity, and pathophysiological mechanisms across obesity, T2D and brain disturbances; settings that seem to be worsened when both obesity and T2D occur simultaneously, the so-called diabesity...
October 12, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Nathiya Ranganathan, Gayathri Mahalingam
Endophytic fungi, especially from mangrove plants, are rich source of secondary metabolites, which plays a major role in various pharmacological actions preferably in cancer and bacterial infections. To perceive its role in antidiabetic activity we isolated and tested the metabolites derived from a novel strain Alternaria longipes strain VITN14G obtained from mangrove plant Avicennia officinalis. The crude extract was analyzed for antidiabetic activity and subjected to column chromatography. The isolated fractions were screened in vitro for α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Nagma Zafar, Sathya S Krishnasamy, Jasmit Shah, Shesh N Rai, Daniel W Riggs, Aruni Bhatnagar, Timothy E O'Toole
Circulating angiogenic cells (CACs) of various described phenotypes participate in the regeneration of the damaged endothelium, but the abundance of these cells is highly influenced by external cues including diabetes. It is not entirely clear which CAC populations are most reflective of endothelial function nor which are impacted by diabetes. To answer these questions, we enrolled a human cohort with variable CVD risk and determined relationships between stratified levels of CACs and indices of diabetes and vascular function...
2018: PloS One
Turki J Alharbi, Ayla M Tourkmani, Osama Abdelhay, Hesham I Alkhashan, Abdulrahman K Al-Asmari, Abdulaziz M Bin Rsheed, Sarah N Abuhaimed, Najeebuddin Mohammed, Abdulrhman N AlRasheed, Nouf G AlHarbi
AIMS: To compare the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency and peripheral neuropathy between two groups of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients treated with or without metformin, and to determine factors associated with vitamin B12 deficiency therapy and dietary intake of vitamin B12. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we recruited 412 individuals with T2DM: 319 taking metformin, and 93 non-metformin users. Demographics, dietary assessment for vitamin B12 intakes, and medical history were collected...
2018: PloS One
Zydrune Polianskyte-Prause, Tuomas A Tolvanen, Sonja Lindfors, Vincent Dumont, Mervi Van, Hong Wang, Surjya N Dash, Mika Berg, Jette-Britt Naams, Laura C Hautala, Harry Nisen, Tuomas Mirtti, Per-Henrik Groop, Kristiina Wähälä, Jukka Tienari, Sanna Lehtonen
Metformin, the first-line drug to treat type 2 diabetes (T2D), inhibits mitochondrial glycerolphosphate dehydrogenase in the liver to suppress gluconeogenesis. However, the direct target and the underlying mechanisms by which metformin increases glucose uptake in peripheral tissues remain uncharacterized. Lipid phosphatase Src homology 2 domain-containing inositol-5-phosphatase 2 (SHIP2) is upregulated in diabetic rodent models and suppresses insulin signaling by reducing Akt activation, leading to insulin resistance and diminished glucose uptake...
October 15, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Xiao-Jun Chen, Xiao-Hua Gong, Jin-Ping Jie, Wei-Hui Yu, Xiong Chen, Xuan Du, Qi Zhou, Wen-Jun Wu
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) play a causative role in the complications involved with diabetes mellitus (DM). Nowadays, DM with hypothyroidism (DM-hypothyroidism) is indicative of an ascended tendency in the combined morbidity. In this study, we examine the role of the receptor (RAGE) played for AGEs in thyroid hormone (TH) secretion via the silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1)/nuclear factor erythroid-derived factor 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway. Blood samples were collected from patients with type 2 DM (T2DM)-hypothyroidism and from patients with T2DM, followed by detection of serum AGEs level...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Tatyana R Beketova, Lucy Bailey, Eric L Crowell, Emilio P Supsupin, Ore-Ofe O Adesina
A 61-year-old man with well-controlled diabetes mellitus type 2, cirrhosis from hepatitis C, alcohol abuse, and portal hypertension presented with painful vision loss and left orbital swelling. Imaging showed diffuse orbital, perineural, and pachymeningeal inflammation. He was initially diagnosed with neurosarcoidosis. However, cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed central nervous system lymphoma, and lacrimal gland biopsy showed fungal organisms consistent with mucormycosis. The authors describe a case of Mucorales infection lacking sinonasal involvement and discuss the differential diagnosis and management of patients presenting with orbital and central nervous system inflammation from this uncommon fungal infection...
October 9, 2018: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Jens Bohlken, Louis Jacob, Karel Kostev
BACKGROUND: There is a conflicting literature on the association between the use of antihyperglycemic drugs and dementia risk. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this case-control study was to analyze the association between the use of antihyperglycemic drugs and dementia risk in patients followed in general practices in Germany. METHODS: This study included patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who had received a first dementia diagnosis in 972 general practices in Germany between January 2013 and December 2017 (index date)...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Eliane C Jorge, Edson N Jorge, Mayra Botelho, Joyce G Farat, Gianni Virgili, Regina El Dib
BACKGROUND: Diabetic macular oedema (DMO) is a complication of diabetic retinopathy and one of the most common causes of visual impairment in people with diabetes. Clinically significant macular oedema (CSMO) is the most severe form of DMO. Intravitreal antiangiogenic therapy is now the standard treatment for DMO involving the centre of the macula, but laser photocoagulation is still used in milder or non-central DMO. OBJECTIVES: To access the efficacy and safety of laser photocoagulation as monotherapy in the treatment of diabetic macular oedema...
October 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Guangxia Chen, Chenxiao Yu, Zhicheng Tang, Shiyu Liu, Fangmei An, Junjia Zhu, Qianqian Wu, Jianping Cao, Qiang Zhan, Shuyu Zhang
Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignant tumor types worldwide, with a high morbidity and associated mortality. The interaction between gastric cancer cells and their microenvironment has a significant role in their maintenance and progression. Gastric tumor‑associated fibroblasts (TAFs) are among the major regulators of the gastric cancer microenvironment. Metformin, a classical anti‑diabetic drug, is known to prevent cancer progression. However, the effect of metformin on gastric TAFs and TAF‑associated cancer progression has remained to be elucidated...
October 11, 2018: Oncology Reports
Yi Hou, Xuemei Cao, Xiangnan Hu, Xinyu Li, Xiaoqin Shi, Hongying Wang, Chuan Peng, Jiayu Li, Jibin Li, Qifu Li, Chaodong Wu, Xiaoqiu Xiao
Traditional thiazolidinediones (TZDs), such as rosiglitazone, are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) potent agonists that can be used to treat type 2 diabetes but carry unwanted effects, including increased risk for fracture. The present work aimed to compare the insulin-sensitizing efficacies and bone-loss side effects of CMHX008, a novel TZDs-like PPARγ partial agonist, with those of rosiglitazone. A TR-FRET PPARγ competitive binding assay was used to compare the binding affinity between CMHX008 and rosiglitazone...
September 2018: Genes & Diseases
Shiqin Peng, Ping Wei, Qun Lu, Rui Liu, Yue Ding, Jiuliang Zhang
The effects of propolis on blood glucose regulation and the alleviation of various complications caused by diabetes have been widely studied. The main source of propolis in the northern temperate zone is poplar buds. However, there is limited research on the antidiabetic activity of poplar buds. In order to evaluate the effect of poplar buds on type-2 diabetes, crude extract and 50% fraction of poplar buds were used to feed streptozotocin-induced type-2 diabetic mice. The results showed that 50% fraction could increase insulin sensitivity and reduce insulin resistance, as well as decrease the levels of fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and glycosylated serum proteins in diabetic mice...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
Calvin Tsui, Pouneh Dokouhaki, Bhanu Prasad
We present a 77-year-old Caucasian woman who presented with nephrotic-range proteinuria, microhematuria, renal impairment, and extremely elevated blood pressure. She had a long history of well-controlled type 2 diabetes. Renal biopsy revealed fibrillary deposits in the mesangium and glomerular basement membrane consistent with fibrillary glomerulopathy (FGN), with crescentic changes and thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). We could not identify any radiological, clinical, or laboratory evidence of autoimmune disorders, lymphoproliferative disorders, and malignancy...
May 2018: Case Reports in Nephrology and Dialysis
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