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Type-2 diabetes

Bernard Cortet, Stéphanie Lucas, Isabelle Legroux-Gerot, Guillaume Penel, Christophe Chauveau, Julien Paccou
Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus are associated with bone disorders, albeit via different mechanisms. Early studies in patients with type 1 diabetes suggested a 10-fold increase in the hip fracture risk compared to nondiabetic controls. Metaanalyses published more recently indicate a somewhat smaller risk increase, with odds ratios of 6 to 7. Diminished bone mineral density is among the contributors to the increased fracture risk. Both types of diabetes are associated with decreased bone strength related to low bone turnover...
August 8, 2018: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
Ming Wu, Weixia Han, Shan Song, Yunxia Du, Chao Liu, Nan Chen, Haijiang Wu, Yonghong Shi, Huijun Duan
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Activation of the nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome has been reported in diabetic kidney, yet the potential role of NLRP3 inflammasome in DN is not well known. In this study, we explored the role of NLRP3 inflammasome on inflammation and fibrosis in diabetic kidney using NLRP3 knockout mice. Renal expression of NLRP3, caspase-1 p10, interleukin-18 (IL-18) and cleaved IL-1β was increased in diabetic wild-type (WT) mice at 24 weeks...
August 8, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Irem Dogan Turacli, Tuba Candar, Emine Berrin Yuksel, Sebnem Kalay, Ali Kemal Oguz, Selda Demirtas
Metformin is used to reduce hyperglycemia that induces energetic stress and leads to reduction in gluconeogenesis. Also, metformin inhibits complex I in oxidative phosphorylation, thereby decreasing cellular ATP levels. Activation of AMPK by the reduced ATP levels can induce inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and activate p53-mediated DNA repair. DNA polymerase-β and XRCC1 function to repair DNA damages in the BER (base excision repair) system. In type 2 diabetes patients, metformin can enhance AMPK activation therefore suppress oxidative stress...
August 8, 2018: Biochimie
D Vázquez-Justes, J Sanahuja, J Diez, E Rubinat, R Begué, C Salas, C Vicandi, M I Gil, F Purroy, D Mauricio
OBJECTIVE: To study the frequency and management of incidental findings in nonenhanced brain MRI of a middle-aged population of type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the results of 289 brain MRI obtained from subjects between 40-75 years recruited from a previous study. Incidental findings were classified into three categories: 1) Vascular findings; 2) neoplastic findings; and 3) others. On the other side, we made a classification of referral findings...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
Zhenzhong Zheng, Fan Zhang, Dengpeng Gao, Yujing Wu, Hao Wu
BACKGROUND: Cardiac microvascular endothelial cells is one of the key factors in the process of diabetic cardiomyopathy, a common chronic complication of diabetes. Fibrinogen-like protein 2 (FGL2) is linked to apoptosis, angiogenesis, and inflammatory response, all of which also occur in diabetes. Thus, we investigate the role of FGL 2 and other genes in the pathology of diabetic cardiomyopathy. METHODS: In the present study, we used high-throughput microarray to profile gene expression in rat myocardial microvascular endothelial cells (MMEC) with or without silencing the fgl2 gene and in different glucose environments...
August 11, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Henny-Kristine Korsmo-Haugen, Kjetil Gundro Brurberg, Jim Mann, Anne-Marie Aas
AIMS: This systematic review and meta-analysis compares the effects of low carbohydrate diets (LCDs) on body weight, glycaemic control, lipid profile and blood pressure with those observed on higher carbohydrate diets (HCDs) in adults with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, Food Science Source and SweMed+ databases were systematically searched to identify randomised controlled trials (duration ≥ 3 months) investigating the effects of a LCD compared to a HCD in the management of type 2 diabetes...
August 11, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Kalina Rajaobelina, Courtney Dow, Francesca Romana Mancini, Laureen Dartois, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Beverley Balkau, Fabrice Bonnet, Guy Fagherazzi
BACKGROUND: Though many type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk factors have been identified, little is known on their contributions to the diabetes burden at the population level. METHODS: The study included, 72 655 French women from the E3N prospective cohort followed between 1993 and 2011. We used Cox multivariable models including the main T2D risk factors (metabolic, dietary, clinical, socio-economic and hormonal), as well as a healthy lifestyle index combining five characteristics (smoking, body mass index (BMI), alcohol consumption, fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity) to estimate hazard ratios and population attributable fractions (PAFs) for T2D...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Diabetes
Melanie Heinrich, Nicole Maison, Peter Achenbach, Robin Assfalg, Sonja Braig, Dominik Böcker, Desiree Dunstheimer, Uwe Ermer, Antonia Gavazzeni, Eva-Maria Gerstl, Sandra Hummel, Kerstin Kick, Herbert Müller, Nicole Nellen-Hellmuth, Christian Ockert, Marina Sindichakis, Stefanie Tretter, Katharina Warncke, Anette-Gabriele Ziegler, Andreas Beyerlein
AIMS: In children with presymptomatic type 1 diabetes, intermittent hyperglycemia and rising HbA1c levels are a known signal of progression towards insulin-dependency. Episodes of hypoglycemia, however, have also been reported in one published case. We investigated the prevalence of hypoglycemia and its association with disease progression in children with presymptomatic type 1 diabetes. METHODS: We compared the frequency of hypoglycemic fasting blood glucose levels (<60 mg/dl) in 48 autoantibody negative and 167 multiple beta-cell autoantibody positive children aged 2-5 years...
August 11, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
Marc Evans, Roopa Mehta, Jens Gundgaard, Barrie Chubb
BACKGROUND: Understanding which therapeutic innovations in diabetes represent the best value requires rigorous economic evaluation. Data from randomised controlled trials and observational studies indicate that insulin degludec has a hypoglycemia advantage versus insulin glargine 100 units/mL (glargine U100), the most widely prescribed basal insulin analogue in the UK. This analysis was done to more rigorously assess cost-effectiveness in a UK setting. METHODS: Data from two double-blinded, randomised, two-period crossover trials in type 1 (SWITCH 1) and type 2 (SWITCH 2) diabetes mellitus were used to assess the cost-effectiveness of degludec vs...
August 10, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
Pei-Jung Lin, Elle Pope, Fang Liz Zhou
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies suggest that the type and combination of comorbidities may impact diabetes care, but their cost implications are less clear. This study characterized how diabetes patients' health care utilization and costs may vary according to comorbidity type classified on the basis of the Piette and Kerr framework. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational study of privately insured US adults newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (n = 138,466) using the 2014-2016 Optum Clinformatics® Data Mart...
August 10, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
Yoshiaki Kubota, Takeshi Yamamoto, Shuhei Tara, Yukichi Tokita, Kenji Yodogawa, Yuki Iwasaki, Hitoshi Takano, Yayoi Tsukada, Kuniya Asai, Masaaki Miyamoto, Yasushi Miyauchi, Eitaro Kodani, Naoki Sato, Jun Tanabe, Wataru Shimizu
INTRODUCTION: Protection from lethal ventricular arrhythmias leading to sudden cardiac death is one of the most important problems after myocardial infarction. Cardiac sympathetic hyperactivity is related to poor prognosis and fatal arrhythmias and can be non-invasively assessed with heart rate variability, heart rate turbulence, T-wave alternans, late potentials, and 123 I-meta-iodobenzylguanide (123 I-MIBG) scintigraphy. Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors potentially reduce sympathetic nervous system activity that is augmented in part due to the stimulatory effect of hyperglycemia...
August 10, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
R Reale, A Tumminia, L Romeo, N La Spina, R Baratta, G Padova, L Tomaselli, L Frittitta
PURPOSE: The aim of this randomized study was to examine the efficacy of two high intensity educational programs: the conversation maps-based (CM™) education and the individual education (IE), compared to usual care (UC) in a cohort of type 2 diabetic (T2DM) patients. METHODS: Ninety T2DM outpatients (30 per group) were randomized and 79 finished the study and were analyzed. The CM™ and IE groups received four educational sessions at 0, 4, 8 and 12 weeks, while the UC group received two brief individual sessions at 0 and 12 weeks...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Émilie Proulx, Audrey Auclair, Marie-Eve Piché, Jany Harvey, Myriam Pettigrew, Laurent Biertho, Simon Marceau, Paul Poirier
INTRODUCTION: Safety of exercise training in relationship with the risk of hypoglycemia post-bariatric surgery is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and magnitude of changes in blood glucose levels during exercise training following bariatric surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-nine severely obese patients undergoing either sleeve gastrectomy (SG) (n = 16) or biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD-DS) (n = 13) were prospectively enrolled...
August 10, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Jing-Xin Liu, Lin Zhu, Pei-Jun Li, Ning Li, Yan-Bing Xu
AIMS: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to quantify the effect of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on glycemic control and cardiorespiratory fitness compared with moderate-intensity training (MICT) and no training at all in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: Relevant articles were sourced from PubMed, Embase, the Web of Science, EBSCO, and the Cochrane Library. Randomized-controlled trials were included based upon the following criteria: participants were clinically diagnosed with T2D, outcomes that included glycemic control (e...
July 30, 2018: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
Fiona H McLean, Christine Grant, Amanda C Morris, Graham W Horgan, Alex J Polanski, Kevin Allan, Fiona M Campbell, Rosamund F Langston, Lynda M Williams
Alzheimer's disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality with no cure and only limited treatment available. Obesity and type 2 diabetes are positively associated with the development of premature cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease, linking diet with these conditions. Here we demonstrate that in mice episodic memory, together with spatial and contextual associative memory, is compromised after only one day of high-fat diet. However, object memory remains intact. This shows not only a more rapid effect than previously reported but also that more complex memories are at higher risk of being compromised by a high-fat diet...
August 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Marzieh Zeinvand-Lorestani, Heibatullah Kalantari, Mohammad Javad Khodayar, Ali Teimoori, Najmaldin Saki, Akram Ahangarpour, Fakher Rahim, Soheila Alboghobeish
The key features of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) caused by high fat diet (HFD) in combination with arsenic (As) exposure (pronounced glucose intolerance despite a significant decrease in insulin resistance) are different from those expected for T2DM. Autophagy has been considered as a possible link between insulin resistance and obesity. Therefore in this study, we utilized autophagy gene expression profiling via real-time RT-PCR array analysis in livers of NMRI mice exposed to an environmentally relevant and minimally cytotoxic concentration of arsenite (50 ppm) in drinking water while being fed with a HFD for 20 weeks...
August 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sridhara Sastry Yaddanapudi, Maria Carissa Pineda, David W Boorman, Richard E Bryne, Krista Lim Hing, Sunil Sharma
INTRODUCTION: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a well-known risk factor for stroke. This is attributed to multiple mechanisms such as endothelial dysfunction, atrial fibrillation, hypertension, and comorbid obesity. STOP questionnaire alone is unreliable to diagnose OSA and in-hospital sleep study is costly and can be technically challenging. We used high-resolution pulse oximetry (HRPO) to test the feasibility of screening for OSA and predicting outcome. METHODS: Data from 115 stroke patients who underwent HRPO was collected including Oxygen desaturation index (ODI) <4%, pulse rate, arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2 ), and time spent at SaO2 saturation <88%...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Julius Ho, Karen Bachman-Carter, Shelley Thorkelson, Kristi Anderson, Jennifer Jaggi, Chris Brown, Katrina Nelson, Cameron Curley, Caroline King, Sid Atwood, Sonya Shin
BACKGROUND: Native American communities experience greater burden of diabetes than the general population, including high rates of Type 2 diabetes among women of childbearing age. Diabetes in pregnancy is associated with risks to both the mother and offspring, and glycemic control surrounding the pregnancy period is of vital importance. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted at a major Navajo Area Indian Health Service (IHS) hospital, tracking women with pre-existing diabetes who became pregnant between 2010 and 2012...
August 10, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Eirini Dimakakou, Helinor J Johnston, George Streftaris, John W Cherrie
It has been hypothesised that environmental air pollution, especially airborne particles, is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and neurodegenerative conditions. However, epidemiological evidence is inconsistent and has not been previously evaluated as part of a systematic review. Our objectives were to carry out a systematic review of the epidemiological evidence on the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and T2DM and neurodegenerative diseases in adults and to identify if workplace exposures to particles are associated with an increased risk of T2DM and neurodegenerative diseases...
August 9, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Julia Ruhe, Christoph Waldeyer, Francisco Ojeda, Alev Altay, Renate B Schnabel, Sarina Schäfer, Karl J Lackner, Stefan Blankenberg, Tanja Zeller, Mahir Karakas
Intrinsic iron release is discussed to have favorable effects in coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic relevance of intrinsic iron release in patients with CAD. Intrinsic iron release was based on a definition including hepcidin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR). In a cohort of 811 patients with angiographically documented CAD levels of hepcidin and sTfR were measured at baseline. Systemic body iron release was defined as low levels of hepcidin (<24 ng/mL) and high levels of sTfR (≥2 mg/L)...
August 9, 2018: Biomolecules
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