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Type-2 diabetes

Shizuka Kaneko, Youhei Ueda, Yumiko Tahara
BACKGROUND: Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocols are multimodal perioperative care pathways designed to achieve early recovery after surgical procedures by maintaining preoperative organ function and reducing profound stress responses following surgery [Wilmore and Kehlet: BMJ 2001; 322(7284): 473-6]. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAgs), such as liraglutide, have recently been widely used as antidiabetic agents in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) because they maintain blood glucose at an ideal level throughout the day, including during postprandial periods, thereby improving hypoglycemia and body weight more than insulin therapies...
December 11, 2018: European Surgical Research. Europäische Chirurgische Forschung. Recherches Chirurgicales Européennes
Stephanie C Rigters, Marc P van der Schroeff, Grigorios Papageorgiou, Robert J Baatenburg de Jong, André Goedegebure
We quantified changes in the auditory acuity of 675 aging adults (mean age 71.1 years, 52.0% female, mean follow-up 4.4 years ± 0.2) of an ongoing cohort study with a pure-tone audiogram and a speech-in-noise test. Generalized estimating equation models were used to study the association between hearing loss and the progression with age, sex, education, cognition, BMI, blood pressure, having type 2 diabetes mellitus, cholesterol ratio, smoking and alcohol consumption. The mean progression of hearing loss was 0...
December 11, 2018: Audiology & Neuro-otology
Julia Langhardt, Gesine Flehmig, Nora Klöting, Stefanie Lehmann, Thomas Ebert, Matthias Kern, Michael R Schön, Daniel Gärtner, Tobias Lohmann, Miriam Dressler, Mathias Fasshauer, Peter Kovacs, Michael Stumvoll, Arne Dietrich, Matthias Blüher
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Altered expression and circulating levels of glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3) have been observed in obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) across species. Here, we investigate whether GPX3 serum concentrations and adipose tissue (AT) GPX3 mRNA expression are related to obesity and weight loss. METHODS: GPX3 serum concentration was measured in 630 individuals, including a subgroup (n = 293) for which omental and subcutaneous (SC) GPX3 mRNA expression has been analyzed...
December 11, 2018: Obesity Facts
Paweł Mochalski, Eva Diem, Karl Unterkofler, Axel Mündlein, Heinz Drexel, Chris A Mayhew, Andreas Leiherer
Breath analysis offers a non-invasive and rapid diagnostic method for detecting various volatile organic compounds that could be indicators for different diseases, particularly metabolic disorders including type 2 diabetes mellitus. The development of type 2 diabetes mellitus is closely linked to metabolic dysfunction of adipose tissue and adipocytes. However, the VOC profile of human adipocytes has not yet been investigated. Gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection and head-space needle trap extraction (two-bed Carbopack X/Carboxen 1000 needle traps) were applied to profile VOCs produced and metabolised by human Simpson Golabi Behmel Syndrome adipocytes...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Adeline Jacquet, Damien Barbeau, Josiane Arnaud, Samer Hijazi, Florence Hazane-Puch, Frédéric Lamarche, Charline Quiclet, Karine Couturier, Eric Fontaine, Jean-Marc Moulis, Christine Demeilliers
Cadmium (Cd) is a metal which may participate in the development of type II diabetes even if Cd exposure levels are mild. However, experimental studies focusing on daily environmentally relevant doses are scarce, particularly for glucose metabolism of the offspring of chronically exposed mothers. The aim is to measure the impact of maternal low level Cd exposure on glucose and lipid metabolism of offspring. Female rats were exposed to 0, 50 or 500 μ .d-1 of CdCl2 , 21 days before mating and during 21 days of gestation and 21 days of lactation...
November 26, 2018: Chemosphere
Eleni N Tsakiri, Sentiljana Gumeni, Kalliopi K Iliaki, Dimitra Benaki, Konstantinos Vougas, Gerasimos P Sykiotis, Vassilis G Gorgoulis, Emmanuel Mikros, Luca Scorrano, Ioannis P Trougakos
Metazoans viability depends on their ability to regulate metabolic processes and also to respond to harmful challenges by mounting anti-stress responses; these adaptations were fundamental forces during evolution. Central to anti-stress responses are a number of short-lived transcription factors that by functioning as stress sensors mobilize genomic responses aiming to eliminate stressors. We show here that increased expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) in Drosophila activated cytoprotective modules and enhanced stress tolerance...
December 10, 2018: Aging Cell
M Evans, C E M Smart, N Paramalingam, G Smith, T W Jones, B R King, E A Davis
AIM: To quantify the insulin requirement for a high-protein meal compared with a low-protein meal, controlling for carbohydrate and fat content. METHODS: In this crossover study, young people with Type 1 diabetes were randomized to consume a high- (60 g) or low-protein meal (5 g), each containing 30 g carbohydrate and 8 g fat. A variation of the insulin clamp technique was used to determine the insulin requirements to maintain euglycaemia for the following 5 h. RESULTS: A total of 11 participants (mean ± sd age 16...
December 7, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
K I Birkeland, J Bodegard, A Norhammar, J G Kuiper, Elena Georgiado, W L Beekman-Hendriks, M Thuresson, Marc Pignot, R M C Herings, A Kooy
AIMS: Enrollment criteria vary substantially between the cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOTs) of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2is), impacting how representative a trial population is to the general type 2 diabetes (T2D) population. The aim was to evaluate the representativeness of four SGLT-2i CVOTs to a general T2D population. METHODS: T2D patients were included from Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, and Sweden. Given the available data per country, key inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined by diagnoses, procedures, and drug treatments to facilitate comparability between countries...
December 9, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
David C Klonoff, Mark L Evans, Wendy Lane, Hans-Peter Kempe, Eric Renard, J Hans DeVries, Tina Graungaard, Agon Hyseni, Theis Gondolf, Tadej Battelino
AIMS: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of fast-acting insulin aspart (faster aspart [FA]) vs insulin aspart (IAsp) in continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in participants with type 1 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Double-blind, treat-to-target, randomized, 16-week trial investigating CSII treatment with FA (n = 236) or IAsp (n = 236). All available information regardless of treatment discontinuation was used for the evaluation of effect. RESULTS: FA was non-inferior to IAsp regarding the change from baseline in HbA1c (primary endpoint)...
December 9, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
L R Madsen, T Bek, B Richelsen
AIM: Whether or not Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and the derived metabolic improvements are beneficial to diabetic retinopathy is controversial. We aimed to determine the presence and development of retinopathy in individuals with obesity and Type 2 diabetes treated by RYGB compared with non-operated controls, and to determine the role of diabetes remission. METHODS: We graded fundus photography using the Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy in 96 individuals with obesity and Type 2 diabetes treated by RYGB 6 years after surgery compared with 48 non-operated controls...
December 7, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Kebing Zhou, Pingbo Yao, Jun He, Hong Zhao
Lipid autophagy (lipophagy) is defined as a selective autophagy process in which some intracellular lipid droplets are selectively degraded by autophagic lysosomes pathway. The occurrence of lipophagy was first discovered in liver tissues. Additionally, abundant evidence indicated that the occurrence of hepatic lipophagy has been implicated in many liver diseases including fatty liver diseases, nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases, liver fibrosis, and liver cirrhosis. However, recent studies suggested that hepatic lipophagy occurs not only in liver tissue but also in other nonliver tissues and cells...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Shanshan Wu, Le Gao, Andrea Cipriani, Yi Huang, Zhirong Yang, Jun Yang, Shuqing Yu, Yuan Zhang, Sanbao Chai, Zilu Zhang, Feng Sun, Siyan Zhan
AIM: To evaluate the comparative effects of incretin-based therapies, including glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4Is), on beta-cell function and insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library and were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with duration≥4 weeks. Network meta-analysis was performed, followed by subgroup analysis and meta-regression...
December 9, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Hong Kyu Lee
Cardio-renal protective effect of Sodium Glucose Co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors is well established by three large clinical trials; Empagliflozin, Cardiovascular Outcome Events Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Patients (EMPA-REG OUTCOME), Canagliflozin Cardiovascular Assessment Study (CANVAS), and most recently Dapagliflozin Effect on Cardiovascular Events Trial 58 by the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction Study Group (DECLARE-TIMI 58). Three different SGLT2 inhibitors, empagliflozin, canagliflozin and dapagliflozin, were proven effective not only for their glucose lowering effect, but in reducing deterioration of renal function and prevented hospitalization due to heart failure...
December 9, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Qing Zhao, Xin Wang, Qiaosheng Hu, Ridong Zhang, Yong Yin
OBJECTIVES: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contributed to the development and progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), while TLR4 is reported to mediate the LPS-induced inflammation in macrophages. However, the potential molecular mechanisms for TLR4-mediated macrophages activation in T2D have not yet to be fully clarified. METHODS: Type 2 diabetes models in C57BL/6J mice were generated by a combination administration of streptozotocin (STZ) and a high-fat diet (HFD)...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Nitesh D Kuhadiya, Ben Prohaska, Husam Ghanim, Paresh Dandona
OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that addition of GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) to insulin in c-peptide positive patients with T1D will result in a reduction in hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) with reduced insulin requirements and a rise in c-peptide concentrations. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of 11 normal weight patients with T1D consecutively treated with GLP-1RA in addition to insulin. Paired t tests were used to compare the changes in HbA1c, insulin doses, body weight, body mass index, and C-peptide concentrations prior to and 12 ± 1 week after GLP-1RA therapy...
December 9, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Hideka Inoue, Katsutaro Morino, Satoshi Ugi, Sachiko Tanaka-Mizuno, Keiko Fuse, Itsuko Miyazawa, Keiko Kondo, Daisuke Sato, Natsuko Ohashi, Shogo Ida, Osamu Sekine, Masahiro Yoshimura, Kiyoshi Murata, Katsuyuki Miura, Hisatomi Arima, Hiroshi Maegawa
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: SGLT2 inhibitors reduce body weight (BW) by creating a negative energy balance. Previous reports have suggested that this BW reduction is mainly loss of body fat and that ~20% of the reduction is lean mass. However, the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on BW and body composition remain unclear. We examined these effects in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with insulin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this open-label, randomized controlled trial, 49 overweight patients (BMI ≥23 kg/m2 ) with inadequate glycemic control (HbA1c >7...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
M L Eckstein, D M Williams, L K O'Neil, J Hayes, J W Stephens, R M Bracken
In the UK the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) advocates intensive lifestyle programmes that attain the levels of daily physical activity set out by the Chief Medical Officer as a first-line strategy for improving the health of people at risk of developing diabetes or reducing the risk of development of Type 2 diabetes. For people with Type 2 diabetes, lifestyle measures complement pharmacological treatments that include both oral and injectable therapies. In line with this, NICE guidelines also support intensification of efforts to improve patient lifestyle along with these glucose-lowering therapies...
December 7, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Estela Lorza-Gil, Jane C de Souza, Marta García-Arévalo, Jean F Vettorazzi, Ana Carolina Marques, Alessandro G Salerno, Jose Roberto Trigo, Helena C F Oliveira
New onset of diabetes is associated with the use of statins. We have recently demonstrated that pravastatin-treated hypercholesterolemic LDL receptor knockout (LDLr-/- ) mice exhibit reductions in insulin secretion and increased islet cell death and oxidative stress. Here, we hypothesized that these diabetogenic effects of pravastatin could be counteracted by treatment with the antioxidant coenzyme Q 10 (CoQ 10 ), an intermediate generated in the cholesterol synthesis pathway. LDLr -/- mice were treated with pravastatin and/or CoQ 10 for 2 months...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Anna R Kahkoska, Jamie Crandell, Kimberly A Driscoll, Jessica C Kichler, Michael Seid, Elizabeth J Mayer-Davis, David M Maahs
OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence and correlates of non-severe hypoglycemia in adolescents with type 1 diabetes and suboptimal glycemic control, an understudied topic in this group. METHODS: Seven days of blinded continuous glucose monitor data were analyzed in 233 adolescents at baseline of the Flexible Lifestyle Empowering Change (FLEX) trial (13-16 years, type 1 diabetes duration >1 year, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) 8-13% [64-119 mmol]). Incidence of clinical hypoglycemia (54-69 mg/dL) and clinically serious hypoglycemia (<54 mg/dL) was defined as number of episodes ≥15 min...
December 10, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
Ido J Bontekoe, Pieter F van der Meer, Arthur J Verhoeven, Dirk de Korte
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Previously it has been shown that platelet (PLT) storage performance is consistent by donor. Differences involved metabolic activity, which might be caused by mitochondrial (dys)function, associated with age and age-related diseases like Type 2 diabetes (T2D). We aimed to test PLTs from young donors in comparison with PLTs from older donors with or without diagnosis for T2D. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen whole blood donors <30 year were selected, and single-donor platelet concentrates (sPC) were prepared from buffy coats (BC) and plasma...
December 10, 2018: Vox Sanguinis
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