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molecular oncology

Guoxiong Li, Min Huang, Yingqian Cai, Yuantao Yang, Xinlin Sun, Yiquan Ke
The prognosis for human glioma, a malignant tumor of the central nervous system, is poor due to its rapid growth, genetic heterogeneity, and inadequate understanding of its underlying molecular mechanisms. Circular RNAs composed of exonic sequences, represent an understudied form of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) that was discovered more than a decade ago, function as microRNA sponges. We aimed to assess the relationship between circ-U2AF1 (CircRNA ID: hsa_circ_0061868) and hsa-mir-7-5p and examine their effects on proliferation, apoptosis, and the metastatic phenotype of glioma cells regulated by neuro-oncological ventral antigen 2 (NOVA2)...
October 20, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Kiyohisa Kamimura, Masanori Nakajo, Tomohide Yoneyama, Koji Takumi, Yuichi Kumagae, Yoshihiko Fukukura, Takashi Yoshiura
Amide proton transfer (APT) imaging is an emerging molecular magnetic resonance imaging technique based on chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST). APT imaging has shown promise in oncologic imaging, especially in the imaging of brain tumors. This review article illustrates the theory of CEST/APT imaging and describes the clinical utility, pitfalls, and potential for future development of APT imaging.
October 19, 2018: Japanese Journal of Radiology
Emma J Jordan, James Spicer, Debashis Sarker
Background: Grade 3 and 4 adverse events (AEs) during cycle 1 are traditionally used for dose escalation decisions in Phase I oncology trials. With molecularly targeted agents (MTAs), assessment of lower grade AEs and those in later cycles is considered increasingly relevant. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of AEs in patients enrolled onto relevant phase I trials of MTAs and cytotoxic combinations (CCs) at our UK centre between 2006 and 2016. All AEs in the first six cycles deemed at least 'possibly related' were recorded...
September 21, 2018: Oncotarget
J M Rosa-Rosa, T Caniego-Casas, S Leskela, G Muñoz, F Del Castillo, P Garrido, J Palacios
Background: Personalised medicine is nowadays a major objective in oncology. Molecular characterization of tumours through NGS offers the possibility to find possible therapeutic targets in a time- and cost-effective way. However, the low quality and complexity of FFPE DNA samples bring a series of disadvantages for massive parallel sequencing techniques compared to high-quality DNA samples (from blood cells, cell cultures, etc.). Results: We performed several experiments to understand the behaviour of FFPE DNA samples during the construction of SureSelectQXT libraries...
2018: Biological Procedures Online
Eugene I Hwang, Marcel Kool, Peter C Burger, David Capper, Lukas Chavez, Sebastian Brabetz, Chris Williams-Hughes, Catherine Billups, Linda Heier, Alok Jaju, Jeff Michalski, Yimei Li, Sarah Leary, Tianni Zhou, Andreas von Deimling, David T W Jones, Maryam Fouladi, Ian F Pollack, Amar Gajjar, Roger J Packer, Stefan M Pfister, James M Olson
PURPOSE: Children with histologically diagnosed high-risk medulloblastoma, supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the CNS (CNS-PNET), and pineoblastoma (PBL) have had poor survival despite intensive treatment. We included these patients in this Children's Oncology Group trial. Molecular profiling later revealed tumor heterogeneity that was not detectable at protocol inception. Enrollment of patients with CNS-PNET/PBL was subsequently discontinued, and outcomes for this part of the study are reported here...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Habib Zaidi, Abass Alavi, Issam El Naqa
Quantitative image analysis has deep roots in the usage of positron emission tomography (PET) in clinical and research settings to address a wide variety of diseases. It has been extensively employed to assess molecular and physiological biomarkers in vivo in healthy and disease states, in oncology, cardiology, neurology, and psychiatry. Quantitative PET allows relating the time-varying activity concentration in tissues/organs of interest and the basic functional parameters governing the biological processes being studied...
November 2018: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
Tatyana Milman, Codrin Iacob, Simeon Lauer, Michael D Feldman, Paul J L Zhang
Neoplasms arising in accessory lacrimal glands are rare. We describe a 33-year-old man with adenocarcinoma arising in the left lower eyelid accessory lacrimal gland. Microscopic evaluation demonstrated an infiltrative neoplasm composed of mildly to moderately pleomorphic cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm and focal intracytoplasmic vacuoles, arranged predominantly in ductules. Foci of luminal and intracytoplasmic eosinophilic secretory material and occasional mucin were noted. An in situ component was identified in the gland of Wolfring...
September 2018: Ocular Oncology and Pathology
Stephen G Bowden, Seunggu Jude Han
Neurosurgeons have played an essential role in glioma management and research for over a century. While the past twenty years have played witness to many exciting developments in glioma biology, diagnosis, and classification, relatively few novel, effective treatment strategies have been introduced. The role of neurosurgery in glioma management has been clarified, with a large body of evidence in support of maximal safe resection. However, neurosurgeons have also played a critical role in translational research during this period...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Alessandra Pannunzio, Mauro Coluccia
Prostaglandins and thromboxane are lipid signaling molecules deriving from arachidonic acid by the action of the cyclooxygenase isoenzymes COX-1 and COX-2. The role of cyclooxygenases (particularly COX-2) and prostaglandins (particularly PGE₂) in cancer-related inflammation has been extensively investigated. In contrast, COX-1 has received less attention, although its expression increases in several human cancers and a pathogenetic role emerges from experimental models. COX-1 and COX-2 isoforms seem to operate in a coordinate manner in cancer pathophysiology, especially in the tumorigenesis process...
October 11, 2018: Pharmaceuticals
Nikki Tirada, Mireille Aujero, Gauri Khorjekar, Stephanie Richards, Jasleen Chopra, Sergio Dromi, Olga Ioffe
An understanding of prognostic factors in breast cancer is imperative for guiding patient care. Increased tumor size and more advanced nodal status are established independent prognostic factors of poor outcomes and are incorporated into the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNM (primary tumor, regional lymph node, distant metastasis) staging system. However, other factors including imaging findings, histologic evaluation results, and molecular findings can have a direct effect on a patient's prognosis, including risk of recurrence and relative survival...
October 12, 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Andy Wai Kan Yeung, Amr El-Demerdash, Ioana Berindan-Neagoe, Atanas G Atanasov, Yuh-Shan Ho
Although numerous bibliometric studies have examined various aspects of cancer research, the landscape of scientific studies focusing on natural products in cancer research has not been characterized. Using the Web of Science Core Collection online database, we identify and analyze scientific articles on natural products in cancer-related research. English is the language of publication for 99% of articles. In general, annual citation count of an article increases quickly after publication, reaches a plateau in the second year, stays in this plateau for 10 yr, and then begins to fall...
2018: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Eleni Gigi, Vasileios I Lagopoulos, Eleni Bekiari
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) chronic infection induces liver fibrosis and cirrhosis but is also responsible for a significant portion of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurrence. Since it was recognized as a causative factor of chronic hepatitis, there have been multiple efforts towards viral eradication, leading to the first-generation HCV treatment that was based on interferon (IFN)-α and its analogs, mainly PEGylated interferon-α (PEG IFNα). Sustained virological response (SVR), defined as the absence of detectable RNA of HCV in blood serum for at least 24 wk after discontinuing the treatment, was accepted as a marker of viral clearance and was achieved in approximately one-half of patients treated with PEG IFNα regimens...
September 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
Gordan M Vujanić, Manfred Gessler, Ariadne H A G Ooms, Paola Collini, Aurore Coulomb-l'Hermine, Ellen D'Hooghe, Ronald R de Krijger, Daniela Perotti, Kathy Pritchard-Jones, Christian Vokuhl, Marry M van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Norbert Graf
On the basis of the results of previous national and international trials and studies, the Renal Tumour Study Group of the International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP-RTSG) has developed a new study protocol for paediatric renal tumours: the UMBRELLA SIOP-RTSG 2016 protocol (the UMBRELLA protocol). Currently, the overall outcomes of patients with Wilms tumour are excellent, but subgroups with poor prognosis and increased relapse rates still exist. The identification of these subgroups is of utmost importance to improve treatment stratification, which might lead to reduction of the direct and late effects of chemotherapy...
October 11, 2018: Nature Reviews. Urology
Alexios N Matralis, Dimitrios Xanthopoulos, Geneviève Huot, Stéphane Lopes-Paciencia, Charles Cole, Hugo de Vries, Gerardo Ferbeyre, Youla S Tsantrizos
Lamin A contributes to the structure of nuclei in all mammalian cells and plays an important role in cell division and migration. Mature lamin A is derived from a farnesylated precursor protein, known as prelamin A, which undergoes post-translational cleavage catalyzed by the zinc metalloprotease STE24 (ZPMSTE24). Accumulation of farnesylated prelamin A in the nuclear envelope compromises cell division, impairs mitosis and induces an increased expression of inflammatory gene products. ZMPSTE24 has been proposed as a potential therapeutic target in oncology...
October 4, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Jahanafrooz Zohreh, Motamed Nasrin, Rinner Beate, Mokhtarzadeh Ahad, Baradaran Behzad
Silibinin is a natural plant polyphenol with high antioxidant and anticancer properties, which causes broad-spectrum efficacy against cancer, including cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in most cancer cell types. Silibinin, by modulating the apoptosis, cell cycle progression and autophagic pathways in various cellular and molecular routs might be used to design more effective anticancer strategies. Silibinin also regulates aberrant miRNAs expression linked to many aspects of cell biology in cancer. Maybe the most interesting aspect of silibinin is its ability to trigger multiple cellular signaling pathways to induce a particular biologic effect in various cell types...
October 8, 2018: Life Sciences
Kenji Ikeda
Transcatheter arterial therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have developed during last decade. Fine powder formulation of cisplatin and new platinum agent miriplatin became standard medicines in addition to anthracyclines on transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) in Japan. Recent prospective and retrospective studies supported the usefulness of platinum agents as a chemotherapeutic at the time of varied TACE therapy. Although balloon-occluded TACE is an effective manner of therapy for localized HCC and drug-eluting microspheres seemed to show a higher response rate in certain HCCs, definite advantages of those procedures still remained uncertain...
October 11, 2018: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
Takahiro Maeda
In January 2015, President Obama announced his plan to launch the Precision Medicine Initiative. While precision medicine originally refers to a medical model wherein treatments are tailored to individual patients based on their lifestyle, genetic background, and other molecular and physiological test results, genomics-based oncology is most advanced in terms of clinical implementation. Herein, I discuss the benefit of cancer genome sequencing in the field of hematology/oncology and the associated technical and sociomedical challenges...
2018: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
M Schanz, S Schricker, F Pfister, M D Alscher, M Kimmel
Cancer patients often exhibit preexisting renal impairment and are simultaneously at risk for developing further kidney injury due to direct or indirect complications of oncological therapies. The nature of kidney injury is highly dependent on the therapy regimen used, and the spectrum of possible kidney stressors has widened as a result of the development of new therapeutic modalities such as molecular therapy or immunotherapy. Indirect renal complications are often due to volume depletion or other therapy-related side effects...
September 2018: Drugs of Today
John A Martignetti, Deep Pandya, Nimesh Nagarsheth, Ying Chen, Olga Camacho, Shannon Tomita, Michael Brodman, Charles Ascher-Walsh, Valentin Kolev, Samantha Cohen, Timothy Harkins, Eric Schadt, Boris Reva, Robert Sebra, Peter Dottino
Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy in industrialized countries and both its incidence and associated mortality are increasing. The "liquid biopsy" is becoming an important transformative precision oncology tool but barriers intrinsic to blood sampling have limited its use in early cancer detection. We hypothesized that using a more targeted sample for analysis, namely, a uterine lavage, should provide a more sensitive and specific diagnostic test for endometrial cancer. Using a custom 12-gene endometrial cancer panel, molecular analysis of uterine lavage fluid from an asymptomatic 67-year-old female without histopathologic evidence of pre-malignant lesions or cancer in her uterine tissue, revealed two oncogenic PTEN mutations...
October 9, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
Z J Li, P Zhang, W Zhang, Z Zhang, X M Wang, C H Xiao
Objective: To explore the oncological safety of immediate breast reconstruction after nipple-areola complex(NAC) sparing mastectomy(NSM+ IBR) in patients with early stage breast cancer, and to analyze the prognostic factors of NSM+ IBR. Methods: From January 2004 to December 2015, the clinical data of 118 cases of stage Ⅰ-ⅡA breast cancer who had undergone NSM+ IBR in Tianjin Tumor Hospital were collected, comparing with 75 cases of Ⅰ-ⅡA breast cancer patients who had undergone immediate breast reconstruction after modified radical mastectomy (MRM+ IBR) at the same period...
September 23, 2018: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
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