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molecular oncology

Jason Graham Skinner, Luca Menichetti, Alessandra Flori, Anna Dost, Andreas Benjamin Schmidt, Markus Plaumann, Ferdia Aiden Gallagher, Jan-Bernd Hövener
Since reaching the clinic, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an irreplaceable radiological tool because of the macroscopic information it provides across almost all organs and soft tissues within the human body, all without the need for ionising radiation. The sensitivity of MR, however, is too low to take full advantage of the rich chemical information contained in the MR signal. Hyperpolarisation techniques have recently emerged as methods to overcome the sensitivity limitations by enhancing the MR signal by many orders of magnitude compared to the thermal equilibrium, enabling a new class of metabolic and molecular X-nuclei based MR tracers capable of reporting on metabolic processes at the cellular level...
August 17, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Elena Pallari, Grant Lewison, Chryso Th Pallari, George Samoutis, Mursheda Begum, Richard Sullivan
BACKGROUND: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading causes of disease burden and mortality at the European level and in Cyprus. This research was conducted to map the research activities of Cypriot institutions in five NCDs, namely oncology, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, mental health and respiratory conditions. METHODS: For the period 2002-2013, research in Cyprus was assessed on its biomedical outputs and compared to the rest of Europe relative to their GDP...
August 17, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
Rodrigo Pinheiro Araldi, Thalita Araujo Sant'Ana, Diego Grando Módolo, Thatiana Correa de Melo, Diva Denelle Spadacci-Morena, Rita de Cassia Stocco, Janete Maria Cerutti, Edislane Barreiros de Souza
Despite the novel diagnostic methods and therapies implemented in oncology, the number of patients that succumb by the cancer remains high globally. Currently studies point out that 20-25% of all human malignancies are related to micro-organism infections. Among these cancer-related pathogens, the human papillomavirus (HPV) has a prominent position, since the virus is responsible for about 30% of all infectious agent-related cancers. Thus, an amount of cancers could be avoided by means prophylactic and/or therapeutic measures...
July 25, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
R S Kalinin, A V Petukhov, V D Knorre, M A Maschan, A V Stepanov, A G Gabibov
Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T-cell therapy (CAR-T therapy) is one of the fastest developing areas of immuno-oncology. Over the past decade, it has revolutionized the cell therapy modality and expedited its pace of development, from optimization of the structure of chimeric antigen receptors and animal model experiments to successful clinical application. The initial designs of the CAR configuration focused on increasing T-cell activation, cytotoxicity, and persistence. However, the first attempts to treat patients with CAR T cells have demonstrated the need for increased safety and controlled activation of genetically modified T cells...
April 2018: Acta Naturae
Irina Jornist, Khitam Muhsen, Daniela Ram, Yaniv Lustig, Virginia Levy, Sara Orzitser, Roberto Azar, Merav Weil, Viki Indenbaum, Danit Sofer, Ella Mendelson, Michal Mandelboim, Musa Hindiyeh
BACKGROUND: Human parainfluenza virus 3 (hPIV-3) causes respiratory tract infection. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of hPIV-3 infection among hospitalized patients and characterize the circulating strains. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted using respiratory samples of 15,946 hospitalized patients with respiratory symptoms in 2012-2015 in Israel. All samples were subjected to q-PCR and q-RT-PCR to determine the presence of hPIV-3 and other respiratory viruses...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Sunil Badami, Sunil Upadhaya, Ravi Kanth Velagapudi, Pushyami Mikkilineni, Ranju Kunwor, Samer Al Hadidi, Ghassan Bachuwa
Background: We performed meta-analysis to gather more evidence regarding clinical-molecular subgroups associated with better overall survival (OS) in advanced melanoma treated with checkpoint inhibitors. Materials and Methods: We performed a systematic search of PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and clinical Randomized clinical trials that compared a checkpoint inhibitor (nivolumab or pembrolizumab) with investigator choice chemotherapy or ipilimumab were included in our study...
2018: Journal of Oncology
S F McGee, W AlGhareeb, C H Ahmad, D Armstrong, S Babak, S Berry, J Biagi, C Booth, D Bossé, P Champion, B Colwell, N Finn, R Goel, S Gray, J Green, M Harb, A Hyde, A Jeyakumar, D Jonker, S Kanagaratnam, P Kavan, A MacMillan, A Muinuddin, N Patil, G Porter, E Powell, R Ramjeesingh, M Raza, S Rorke, M Seal, F Servidio-Italiano, J Siddiqui, J Simms, L Smithson, S Snow, E St-Hilaire, T Stuckless, A Tate, M Tehfe, M Thirlwell, E Tsvetkova, M Valdes, M Vickers, K Virik, S Welch, C Marginean, T Asmis
The annual Eastern Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference 2017 was held in St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, 28-30 September. Experts in radiation oncology, medical oncology, surgical oncology, and cancer genetics who are involved in the management of patients with gastrointestinal malignancies participated in presentations and discussion sessions for the purpose of developing the recommendations presented here. This consensus statement addresses multiple topics in the management of gastric, rectal, and colon cancer, including ■ identification and management of hereditary gastric and colorectal cancer (crc);■ palliative systemic therapy for metastatic gastric cancer;■ optimum duration of preoperative radiation in rectal cancer-that is, short- compared with long-course radiation;■ management options for peritoneal carcinomatosis in crc;■ implications of tumour location for treatment and prognosis in crc; and■ new molecular markers in crc...
August 2018: Current Oncology
Xue-Fei Zhao, Hong-Yan Wang, Xu Zhao, Huan-Chen Cheng, Wei Li, Sheng-Wei Liu, Lin Qiu, Jun Ma
OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively analyze the immunophenotyping, fusion gene and gene mutation of 30 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cases and to investigate the relationship between the analysis results and the clinical therapeutic effect and prognosis. METHODS: Thirty All phtients were collected from the First Hospital of Harbin, Institute of Hematology and Oncology Department of Pediatrics from August 2015 to June 2016. According to the classification of FAB standard, 27 cases were B system ALL, 3 cases were T system ALL...
August 2018: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
Christian Antonio Tuwahatu, Chi Chung Yeung, Yun Wah Lam, Vellaisamy Arul Lenus Roy
The development of polymeric materials as drug delivery systems has advanced from systems that rely on classical passive targeting to carriers that can sustain the precisely controlled release of payloads upon physicochemical triggers in desired microenvironment. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP), materials designed to capture specific molecules based on their molecular shape and charge distribution, are attractive candidates for fulfilling these purposes. In particular, drug-imprinted polymers coupled with active targeting mechanisms have been explored as potential drug delivery systems...
August 12, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Diamantis I Tsilimigras, Amir A Rahnemai-Azar, Ioannis Ntanasis-Stathopoulos, Maria Gavriatopoulou, Demetrios Moris, Eleftherios Spartalis, Jordan M Cloyd, Sharon M Weber, Timothy M Pawlik
INTRODUCTION: Hepatic adenomas (HAs) are a benign and relatively rare type of liver neoplasms. We review the diagnosis, evaluation, and potential therapeutic management options for patients with HA. METHODS: A comprehensive review of the English literature was performed utilizing MEDLINE/PubMed and Web of Science databases with end of search date the 30th April of 2018. In PubMed, the terms "hepatocellular," "hepatic," "liver," and "adenoma," "adenomatosis" were searched in the title and/or abstract...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
Rodrigo Toledo, Camilo Jimenez
Inactivating mutations of the succinate dehydrogenase subunit B ( SDHB ) gene and the subsequent stabilization and activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor 2-alpha (HIF2α) unit are recognized hallmarks associated with the development of metastatic pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (MPPG). Despite this discovery, the development of systemic therapies for patients with MPPG has been very slow. The rarity of the disease, the lack of preclinical animal models, and the impracticable development of large clinical trials has hindered the therapeutic progress for MPPG...
2018: F1000Research
Kevin M Sullivan, Heidi L Kenerson, Venu G Pillarisetty, Kimberly J Riehle, Raymond S Yeung
With the widespread adoption of molecular profiling in clinical oncology practice, many physicians are faced with making therapeutic decisions based upon isolated genomic alterations. For example, epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are effective in EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) while anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies are ineffective in Ras-mutant colorectal cancers. The matching of mutations with drugs aimed at their respective gene products represents the current state of "precision" oncology...
July 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
Musa AlHarbi, Nahla Ali Mobark, Latifa AlMubarak, Rasha Aljelaify, Mariam AlSaeed, Amal Almutairi, Fatmah Alqubaishi, M Emarat Hussain, Ali Abdullah O Balbaid, Amal Said Marie, Lamia AlSubaie, Saeed AlShieban, Nada alTassan, Shakti H Ramkissoon, Malak Abedalthagafi
Primary brain tumors are a leading cause of cancer-related morbidity and mortality in children. Glioblastoma (GBM) is a high-grade astrocytoma that occurs in both children and adults and is associated with a poor prognosis. Despite extensive study in recent years, the clinical management of these tumors has remained largely unchanged, consisting of surgical resection, conventional chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Although the etiology and genomic drivers in GBM are diverse, constitutional mismatch repair-deficiency (CMMRD) syndrome is a rare, recessively inherited disease with a predisposition to gliomagenesis...
August 13, 2018: Oncologist
Murat Araz, Ismail Beypinar, Sinan Kazan, Fatih Inci, Mesut Celiker, Mukremin Uysal
PURPOSE: Breast cancer classifies to 4 major subgroups according to immunohistochemistry staining features as Luminal A, Luminal B, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 overexpression, and Triple Negative. Cancer Antigen15-3 (CA15-3) is used as a tumor marker in breast cancer while its value in early stage and in breast cancer subgroups is still controversial. In this study, we aimed to investigate that whether it is or not differences of the serum preoperative CA15-3 levels in early breast cancer subgroups...
August 4, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Suha Rizik, Fahed Hakim, Lea Bentur, Nira Arad-Cohen, Imad Kassis
BACKGROUND: Immunocompromised children are at high risk of rapid deterioration and of developing life-threatening pulmonary infections. Etiologies in this setting are diverse, including those that are infectious and noninfectious, and many etiologies may coexist. Accurate diagnosis is required for the rational use of medications. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) can identify infectious causes in this population. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to evaluate diagnostic rate, safety, and changes in treatment following FOB with BAL, when applied with advanced laboratory diagnostic techniques...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Huan-Hsin Tseng, Yi Luo, Randall K Ten Haken, Issam El Naqa
With the continuous increase in radiotherapy patient-specific data from multimodality imaging and biotechnology molecular sources, knowledge-based response-adapted radiotherapy (KBR-ART) is emerging as a vital area for radiation oncology personalized treatment. In KBR-ART, planned dose distributions can be modified based on observed cues in patients' clinical, geometric, and physiological parameters. In this paper, we present current developments in the field of adaptive radiotherapy (ART), the progression toward KBR-ART, and examine several applications of static and dynamic machine learning approaches for realizing the KBR-ART framework potentials in maximizing tumor control and minimizing side effects with respect to individual radiotherapy patients...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Erlinda M Gordon, Joshua R Ravicz, Seiya Liu, Sant P Chawla, Frederick L Hall
Basic research in genetics, biochemistry and cell biology has identified the executive enzymes and protein kinase activities that regulate the cell division cycle of all eukaryotic organisms, thereby elucidating the importance of site-specific protein phosphorylation events that govern cell cycle progression. Research in cancer genomics and virology has provided meaningful links to mammalian checkpoint control elements with the characterization of growth-promoting proto-oncogenes encoding c-Myc, Mdm2, cyclins A, D1 and G1, and opposing tumor suppressor proteins, such as p53, pRb, p16INK4A and p21WAF1 , which are commonly dysregulated in cancer...
August 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Walter Alexander
We review key findings in the areas of prostate cancer, non-small-cell lung cancer, breast cancer, esophageal cancer, pancreatic cancer, leukemias, metastatic colon cancer, and one session on molecular profiling guidance of therapy.
August 2018: P & T: a Peer-reviewed Journal for Formulary Management
Jun Li, Mingxing Qiu, Yu An, Jianlin Huang, Chunyu Gong
Although important progresses have been made in the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer (BCa), the overall survival for patients with advanced BCa remains poor. It is necessary to uncover the molecular mechanism underlying the initiation and progression of bladder cancer. According to previous reports, mircoRNAs (miRNAs) can regulate tumorigenesis by targeting their downstream mRNAs. This study aims to explore and analyze a novel miRNA-mRNA axis which can regulate the progression of bladder cancer. Based on the microarray analysis, 182 mRNAs were found to be upregulated in BCa tissues...
August 9, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Benjamin J DiPardo, Paul Winograd, Colin M Court, James S Tomlinson
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a highly lethal disease, in part because of early metastasis, late diagnosis, and limited treatment options. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are cancer cells that have achieved the metastatic step of intravasation, and are thus a unique source of biomarkers with potential applications in the staging, prognostication, and treatment of PC. Areas covered: This review describes the use of CTCs in PC, including isolation methods, the significance of CTC enumeration, and studies examining phenotypic and molecular characteristics of CTCs...
August 11, 2018: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
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