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Colorectal Cancer Metastasis

Iddrisu B Yabasin, Jaceline G P Sanches, Mohammed M Ibrahim, Jin Huidan, Walana Williams, Zhi-Li Lu, Qingping Wen
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is reported to be the third and fourth, most diagnosed and cause of cancer associated deaths respectively. In 2012 for instance, about 1.4 million new cases were reported, and approximately 700,000 deaths recorded. Survival from CRC is dependent on the stage at which it is diagnosed coupled with appropriate surgical and medical intervention. Cisatracurium is widely used for skeletal muscle relaxation during abdominal surgeries, including bowel and colon surgeries. Recent studies reported that cisatracurium inhibits progression of human cancer cells, however, the mechanisms leading to the inhibition are yet to be completely understood...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
L Wang, J Cai, Q Y Qin
Peritoneal metastasis is the second leading cause of death of colorectal cancer patients. Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) combined with hyperthermia intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is the primary method to treat peritoneal metastasis of colorectal cancer, though there remain some controversies. We reviewed current studies of colorectal peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) and CRS+ HIPEC, and discussed some issues with regard to the scoring system for peritoneal metastasis, selection criteria for CRS+ HIPEC treatment, and the new drug application for colorectal PC...
August 1, 2018: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
Abdulkader M Albasri, Mohammed A Elkablawy, Akbar S Hussainy, Hala M Yousif, Ahmed S Alhujaily
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) over-expression in colorectal cancer (CRC) and its role in carcinogenesis and prognosis. METHODS: It was a retrospective study. Archival samples were obtained from Pathology Department at King Fahad Hospital, Madinah, Saudi Arabia, over 11 years' period (January 2006 to December 2017). Samples were analyzed using immunohistochemistry for COX-2 and Ki67 over-expression in 324 CRC patients, 40 cases of colorectal adenomas and 20 cases of normal colonic mucosa...
August 2018: Saudi Medical Journal
Shunsuke Itai, Shinji Yamada, Mika K Kaneko, Masato Sano, Takuro Nakamura, Miyuki Yanaka, Saori Handa, Kayo Hisamatsu, Yoshimi Nakamura, Yoshikazu Furusawa, Masato Fukui, Tomokazu Ohishi, Manabu Kawada, Hiroyuki Harada, Yukinari Kato
Oral cancers constitute approximately 2% of all cancers, with the most common histological type being oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), representing 90% of oral cancers. Although diagnostic technologies and therapeutic techniques have progressed, the survival rate of patients with OSCC is still 60%, whereas the incidence rate has increased. Podocalyxin (PODXL) is a highly glycosylated type I transmembrane protein that is detected in normal tissues such as heart, breast, and pancreas as well as in many cancers, including lung, renal, breast, colorectal, and oral cancers...
September 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Oluwaseun Adebayo Bamodu, Ching-Kuo Yang, Wei-Hong Cheng, David T W Tzeng, Kuang-Tai Kuo, Chun-Chih Huang, Li Deng, Michael Hsiao, Wei-Hwa Lee, Chi-Tai Yeh
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a leading cause of cancer-related morbidity and mortality in both sexes globally. This is not unconnected with the heterogeneity and plasticity of CRC stem cells (CRC-SCs) which stealthily exploit the niche-related and (epi)genetic factors to facilitate metastasis, chemoresistance, tumor recurrence, and disease progression. Despite the accumulating evidence of the role of dysregulated microRNAs in malignancies, the therapeutic efficacy of pharmacological-targeting of CRC-SC-associated microRNAs is relatively under-explored...
August 10, 2018: Cancers
Xiaoqian Jing, Haoxuan Wu, Xi Cheng, Xianze Chen, Yaqi Zhang, Minmin Shi, Tao Zhang, Xiongjun Wang, Ren Zhao
OBJECTIVES: Colorectal cancer (CRC), one of the most aggressive gastrointestinal malignancies, is a frequently diagnosed life-threatening cancer worldwide. Most CRC patients have poor prognosis mainly because of frequent metastasis and recurrence. Thus, it is crucial to find out some new biomarkers and to show deeper insights into the mechanisms of CRC. MLLT10, Myeloid/lymphoid or mixed-lineage leukemia translocated to 10, also known as AF10, a recurrent MLL partner. In this study, we found that MLLT10 promotes CRC tumor invasion and metastasis both in vitro and in vivo...
August 13, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
Rui Zheng, Quanbo Liu, Tianxu Wang, Lili Wang, Yong Zhang
Background: FAM98A, a novel protein, is expressed in ovarian and colorectal cancer tissues. However, the association between FAM98A expression and the clinicopathological characteristics of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains undetermined. Materials and methods: The FAM98A expression pattern was determined in NSCLC samples and corresponding adjacent normal lung tissues using immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting. The association of FAM98A expression with clinicopathological characteristics was measured in 131 NSCLC samples...
2018: Cancer Management and Research
Yan Lin, Zhihui Liu, Yufen Qiu, Jinyan Zhang, Huini Wu, Rong Liang, Guoying Chen, Gang Qin, Yongqiang Li, Donghua Zou
BACKGROUND: Abnormalities of coagulation and fibrinolysis are frequently observed in cancer patients. Emerging data suggested that plasma D-dimer and fibrinogen levels correlated with tumor stage and prognosis in several cancer types. The aim of this study is to systematically review the prognostic value of plasma D-dimer and fibrinogen in digestive cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched major database for manuscripts reporting the effect of pretreatment plasma d-dimer or fibrinogen on survival of digestive cancer patients...
July 31, 2018: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
Xiaolin Zhong, Muhan Lü, Juyi Wan, Tiejun Zhou, Bo Qin
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate diverse cellular processes, and their anomalous expression exert an essential role in the progression of many kinds of cancers, including colorectal carcinoma (CRC). The objective of this study was to investigate the role of lncRNA kcna3 and its underlying mechanism in CRC progression. The expression of lncRNA kcna3 in human CRC tissues and the adjacent non-tumor tissues was evaluated by RT-PCR. The correlations between lncRNA kcna3 expression levels and the overall survival (OS), as well as the clinicopathological features of CRC patients were analyzed...
August 9, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Meryem Gülfem Öner, Matjaz Rokavec, Markus Kaller, Nassim Bouznad, David Horst, Thomas Kirchner, Heiko Hermeking
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Combined inactivation of the microRNA 34a gene (MIR34A, by methylation) and the TP53 gene (by mutation or deletion) is observed in 50% of colorectal tumors that progress to distant metastases. We studied mice with intestinal disruption of Mir34a and Tp53 to investigate mechanisms of colorectal carcinogenesis and identify strategies to block these processes. METHODS: Mice with disruption of Mir34a and/or Tp53 specifically in intestinal epithelial cells (Mir34aΔIEC mice, Tp53ΔIEC mice, and Mir34aΔIEC /Tp53ΔIEC mice) and controls (Mir34aFl/Fl /Tp53Fl/Fl ) were given azoxymethane to induce colorectal carcinogenesis...
August 9, 2018: Gastroenterology
Cristina Aguirre-Portolés, Jaime Feliu, Guillermo Reglero, Ana Ramírez de Molina
At the time of diagnosis, 20% of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) present with metastasis. Among individuals with primary lesions, 50% of them will develop distant tumors with time. Therefore, early diagnosis and prediction of aggressiveness is crucial for therapy design and disease prognosis. Tumoral cells must undergo significant changes in energy metabolism to meet increased structural and energetic demands for cell proliferation, and metabolic alterations are considered to be a hallmark of cancer. Here, we present ABCA1, a regulator of cholesterol transport, as a new marker for invasion and colorectal cancer survival...
August 11, 2018: Molecular Oncology
Belal A Muhammad, Sheema Almozyan, Roya Babaei-Jadidi, Emenike K Onyido, Anas Saadeddin, Seyed Hossein Kashfi, Bradley Spencer-Dene, Mohammad Ilyas, Anbarasu Lourdusamy, Axel Behrens, Abdolrahman Shams Nateri
Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays a critical role during development of both normal and malignant colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues. Phosphorylation of β-catenin protein alters its trafficking and function. Such conventional allosteric regulation usually involves a highly specialized set of molecular interactions, which may specifically turn on a particular cell phenotype. This study identifies a novel transcription modulator with an FLYWCH/Zn-finger DNA-binding domain, called "FLYWCH1". Using a modified yeast-2-hybrid based Ras-Recruitment system, it is demonstrated that FLYWCH1 directly binds to unphosphorylated (nuclear) β-catenin efficiently suppressing the transcriptional activity of Wnt/β-catenin signaling that cannot be rescued by TCF4...
August 10, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Mingyue Li, Grace Gar-Lee Yue, Stephen Kwok-Wing Tsui, Kwok-Pui Fung, Clara Bik-San Lau
BACKGROUND: Curcumin, a well-studied component in turmeric, exhibits potent antitumor effects in colorectal cancer. Previous studies showed that turmerones raised the accumulation of curcumin inside colonic cells, and curcumin present in turmeric ethanolic extract had enhanced anti-tumor activities in mice. Metastasis accounts for more than 90% colorectal cancer deaths. However, the anti-metastatic effect of turmeric extract on colorectal cancer is still unknown. METHODS: In the present study, colony formation, scratch, transwell and Western blot were used to assess colony formation, motility, migration and underlying mechanisms in vitro, respectively...
July 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Shigehiro Kojima, Tsuguo Sakamoto, Yuko Nagai, Masayuki Honda, Fumihiro Ogawa
BACKGROUND: Colorectal metastases from primary colorectal cancers are very rare, and little is known about their epidemiological aspects or the best diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Herein, we report a case of a 65-year-old woman with suspected metachronous metastasis to the rectum from primary transverse colon cancer. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient underwent a laparoscopic extended right hemicolectomy for primary transverse colon cancer. Histopathological examination showed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, and the tumor was diagnosed as stage IIA (T3, N0, M0)...
August 9, 2018: Surgical Case Reports
Mingzuo Jiang, Bing Xu, Xiaowei Li, Yulong Shang, Yi Chu, Weijie Wang, Di Chen, Nan Wu, Sijun Hu, Song Zhang, Mengbin Li, Kaichun Wu, Xiaoyong Yang, Jie Liang, Yongzhan Nie, Daiming Fan
Advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the deadliest cancers, and the 5-year survival rate of patients with metastasis is extremely low. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is considered essential for metastatic CRC, but the fundamental molecular basis underlying this effect remains unknown. Here, we identified that O-GlcNAcylation, a unique posttranslational modification (PTM) involved in cancer metabolic reprogramming, increased the metastatic capability of CRC. The levels of O-GlcNAcylation were increased in the metastatic CRC tissues and cell lines, which likely promoted the EMT by enhancing EZH2 protein stability and function...
August 9, 2018: Oncogene
Yifan Lian, Changsheng Yan, Hongzhi Xu, Jiebin Yang, Yang Yu, Jing Zhou, Yongguo Shi, Jianlin Ren, Guozhong Ji, Keming Wang
Emerging evidence has proven that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in human colorectal cancer (CRC) biology, although few lncRNAs have been characterized in CRC. Therefore, the functional significance of lncRNAs in the malignant progression of CRC still needs to be further explored. In this study, through analyzing TCGA RNA sequencing data and other publicly available microarray data, we found a novel lncRNA, LINC00460, whose expression was significantly upregulated in CRC tissues compared to adjacent normal tissues...
July 6, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Jingjing Jin, Zhan Zhang, Haowen Wang, Yu Zhan, Gang Li, Han Yang, Zhenghua Fei, Yunsheng Xu, Wenfeng Li
One of the major causes of death in colorectal cancer (CRC) is invasion and metastasis. Better understanding of the molecular mechanism of CRC invasion and metastasis is essential in developing effective cancer therapies. Cooperative effect of CXCR3 and CXCR4 plays a crucial role in regulating CRC invasion. In present study, we discovered that CRC cells expressing higher levels of CXCR3 and CXCR4 were more invasive. Additionally, CXCR3 formed heteromers with CXCR4 and retained CXCR4 on cell surface. CXCR3 knockdown reduced surface CXCR4 expression and partially inhibited CRC cell invasion...
August 6, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Jun Hee Lee, Chul Won Yun, Yong-Seok Han, SangMin Kim, Dongjun Jeong, Hyog Young Kwon, Hyeongjoo Kim, Moo-Jun Baek, Sang Hun Lee
Melatonin suppresses tumor development. However, the exact relationship between melatonin and cancer stem cells (CSCs) is poorly understood. This study found that melatonin inhibits colon CSCs by regulating the PrPC -Oct4 axis. In specimens from patients with colorectal cancer, the expressions of cellular prion protein (PrPC ) and Oct4 were significantly correlated with metastasis and tumor stages. Co-treatment with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and melatonin inhibited the stem cell markers Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, and ALDH1A1 by downregulating PrPC ...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Yinghao Cao, Shenghe Deng, Ke Wu, Hai Zheng, Ping Cheng, Jingxiang Zhang, Libo Chen, Shouyuan Tang, Pingfa Wang, Xiaofeng Liao, Yongkang Zhang, Gaobo Zhu, Qiaoyun Tong, Jiliang Wang, Jinbo Gao, Xiaoming Shuai, KaiXiong Tao, Guobin Wang, Jiang Li, Kailin Cai
PURPOSE: Colonic perforation is a life-threatening complication after colonic stent insertion as a bridge to surgery for acute obstruction caused by colorectal cancer. The oncological consequence of colonic perforation after emergent surgical intervention was unknown. The aim of this short communication was to investigate whether or not the perforation and emergent surgery had obviously impact on the peritoneal recurrence and long-term survival of patients. METHODS: Data of the patients who underwent colorectal stenting as a bridge to surgery in 5 years from 2012 to 2017 was collected by the Endoscopical Surgery Group of Hubei...
August 8, 2018: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
Takashi Murakami, Naoto Sakamoto, Akihito Nagahara
Sessile serrated adenoma/polyps (SSA/Ps) are early precursor lesions in the serrated neoplasia pathway, which results in colorectal carcinomas with BRAF mutations, methylation for DNA repair genes, a CpG island methylator phenotype, and high levels of microsatellite instability. Some of these lesions can rapidly become dysplastic or invasive carcinomas that exhibit high lymphatic invasion and lymph node metastasis potentials. Detecting serrated lesions, including SSA/Ps with and without dysplasia/carcinoma, is critical, but SSA/Ps can be difficult to detect, are inconsistently identified by endoscopists and pathologists, and are often incompletely resected...
August 7, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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