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Missing Metastasis

Kun Zhao, Zhe Wang, Thilo Hackert, Claudia Pitzer, Margot Zöller
BACKGROUND: The tetraspanins Tspan8 and CD151 promote metastasis, exosomes (Exo) being suggested to be important in the crosstalk between tumor and host. The contribution of Tspan8 and CD151 to host versus tumor-derived exosome (TEX) activities being not defined, we approached the questions using 3-methylcholanthrene-induced (MCA) tumors from wt, Tspan8ko, CD151ko and Tspan8/CD151 (db)ko mice, implanted into tetraspanin-competent and deficient hosts. METHODS: Tumor growth and dissemination, hematopoiesis and angiogenesis were surveyed in wild type (wt), Tspan8ko, CD151ko and dbko mice bearing tetraspanin-competent and -deficient MCA tumors...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
Haitao Sun, Jianjun Zhou, Kai Liu, Tingting Shen, Xingxing Wang, Xiaolin Wang
PURPOSES: Predictive factors of lymph node metastasis (LNM) in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) are not well established. We sought to identify the value of MR imaging features in preoperatively predicting the lymph node metastasis of pNETs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we enrolled 108 consecutive patients with pNETs between January 2009 and June 2018. MR morphologic features and quantitative data were evaluated. Predictors of LNM were evaluated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models...
December 11, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Alexander S Brown, Pratap Meera, Banu Altindag, Ravi Chopra, Emma M Perkins, Sharan Paul, Daniel R Scoles, Eric Tarapore, Jessica Magri, Haoran Huang, Mandy Jackson, Vikram G Shakkottai, Thomas S Otis, Stefan M Pulst, Scott X Atwood, Anthony E Oro
The genetically heterogeneous spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are caused by Purkinje neuron dysfunction and degeneration, but their underlying pathological mechanisms remain elusive. The Src family of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases (SFK) are essential for nervous system homeostasis and are increasingly implicated in degenerative disease. Here we reveal that the SFK suppressor Missing-in-metastasis (MTSS1) is an ataxia locus that links multiple SCAs. MTSS1 loss results in increased SFK activity, reduced Purkinje neuron arborization, and low basal firing rates, followed by cell death...
December 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Peng Zhao, Bo Chen, Lushen Li, Hao Wu, Yan Li, Baxter Shaneen, Xi Zhan, Ning Gu
BACKGROUND: Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been widely used in biomedical applications. Proper control of the duration of MNPs in circulation promises to improve further their applications, in particularly drug delivery. It is known that the uptake of tissue-associated MNPs is mainly carried out by macrophages. Yet, the molecular mechanism to control MNPs internalization in macrophages remains to be elusive. Missing-in-metastasis (MIM) is a scaffolding protein that is highly expressed in macrophages and regulates receptor-mediated endocytosis...
December 6, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. General subjects
Mattia Riefolo, Elisa Porcellini, Emi Dika, Elisabetta Broseghini, Manuela Ferracin
The incidence of cutaneous melanoma (CM) has increased in the past few decades. The biology of melanoma is characterized by a complex interaction between genetic, environmental and phenotypic factors. A greater understanding of the molecular mechanisms that promote melanoma cell growth and dissemination is crucial to improve diagnosis, prognostication, and treatment of CM. Both small and long non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been identified to play a role in melanoma biology; microRNA and long ncRNA expression is altered in transformed melanocytes and this in turn has functional effects on cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, metastasis, and immune response...
November 30, 2018: Molecular Oncology
Fatima Valdes-Mora, Kristina Handler, Andrew M K Law, Robert Salomon, Samantha R Oakes, Christopher J Ormandy, David Gallego-Ortega
Cancer is a heterogeneous and complex disease. Tumors are formed by cancer cells and a myriad of non-cancerous cell types that together with the extracellular matrix form the tumor microenvironment. These cancer-associated cells and components contribute to shape the progression of cancer and are deeply involved in patient outcome. The immune system is an essential part of the tumor microenvironment, and induction of cancer immunotolerance is a necessary step involved in tumor formation and growth. Immune mechanisms are intimately associated with cancer progression, invasion, and metastasis; as well as to tumor dormancy and modulation of sensitivity to drug therapy...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Yiyu Dong, Roozbeh Eskandari, Chelsea Ray, Kristin L Granlund, Lidia Dos Santos-Cunha, Vesselin Z Miloushev, Sui Seng Tee, Sangmoo Jeong, Omer Aras, Ying-Bei Chen, Emily H Cheng, James J Hsieh, Kayvan R Keshari
The ever-changing tumor-microenvironment constantly challenges individual cancer cells to balance supply and demand, presenting tumor vulnerabilities and therapeutic opportunities. Everolimus and temsirolimus are inhibitors of mTOR (mTORi) approved for treating metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). However, treatment outcome varies greatly among patients. Accordingly, administration of mTORi in mRCC is diminishing, which could potentially result in missing timely delivery of effective treatment for select patients...
November 20, 2018: Cancer Research
Stephan Ellmann, Lisa Seyler, Jochen Evers, Henrik Heinen, Aline Bozec, Olaf Prante, Torsten Kuwert, Michael Uder, Tobias Bäuerle
Macrometastases in bone are preceded by bone marrow invasion of disseminated tumor cells. This study combined functional imaging parameters from FDG-PET/CT and MRI in a rat model of breast cancer bone metastases to a Model-averaged Neural Network (avNNet) for the detection of early metastatic disease and prediction of future macrometastases. Metastases were induced in 28 rats by injecting MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells into the right superficial epigastric artery, resulting in the growth of osseous metastases in the right hind leg of the animals...
November 13, 2018: Bone
Malte Rieken, Stephen A Boorjian, Luis A Kluth, Umberto Capitanio, Alberto Briganti, R Houston Thompson, Bradley C Leibovich, Laura-Maria Krabbe, Vitaly Margulis, Jay D Raman, Mikhail Regelman, Pierre I Karakiewicz, Morgan Rouprêt, Mohammad Abufaraj, Beat Foerster, Mithat Gönen, Shahrokh F Shariat
OBJECTIVES: To develop and externally validate a model that quantifies the likelihood that a pathologically node-negative patient with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (cRCC) has, indeed, no lymph node metastasis (LNM). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data from 1389 patients treated with radical nephrectomy (RN) and lymph node dissection (LND) were analyzed. For external validation, we used data from 2270 patients in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database...
November 7, 2018: World Journal of Urology
Guillaume Ploussard, Giorgio Gandaglia, Hendrik Borgmann, Pieter de Visschere, Isabel Heidegger, Alexander Kretschmer, Romain Mathieu, Cristian Surcel, Derya Tilki, Igor Tsaur, Massimo Valerio, Roderick van den Bergh, Piet Ost, Alberto Briganti
CONTEXT: Identification of early nodal recurrence after primary prostate cancer (PCa) treatment by functional imaging may guide metastasis-directed therapy such as salvage lymph node dissection (SLND). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review was to assess the oncological role and the safety of SLND in the era of modern imaging in case of exclusive nodal recurrence after primary PCa treatment with curative intent. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic literature search in the PubMed and Cochrane databases was performed up to August 2018 according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis guidelines...
October 31, 2018: European Urology
Marie-Laure Plissonnier, Katharina Herzog, Massimo Levrero, Mirjam B Zeisel
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a worldwide health problem and is one of the main causes of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Despite recent improvements, effective treatments for HCC are still missing and new tools for early detection are needed. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have emerged as important regulators of gene expression and key players in human carcinogenesis, including HCC. Aberrant expression of ncRNAs is associated with HCC metastasis, invasion, dissemination, and recurrence...
October 30, 2018: Viruses
Xiaoling Gao, Lihua Guo, Jianqiang Li, Hnin Ei Thu, Zahid Hussain
Lung cancer (LC) is the second most prevalent type of cancer and primary cause of mortality among both men and women, worldwide. The most commonly employed diagnostic modalities for LC include chest X-ray (CXR), magnetic-resonance-imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT-scan), and fused-positron-emitting-tomography-CT (PET-CT). Owing to several limitations associated with the use of conventional diagnostic tools such as radiation burden to the patient, misleading diagnosis ("missed lung cancer"), false staging and low sensitivity and resolution, contemporary diagnostic regimen needed to be employed for screening of LC...
October 22, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Xingwen Huang, Jianlin Li, Fuzheng Wang, Mingda Hao
PURPOSE: To investigate the application values of CT combined with tumor markers (TM) in the diagnosis and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: 62 HCC patients were selected as the study group and all of them had undergone hepatectomy. In addition, 40 healthy subjects composed the control group. Blood samples were collected preoperatively from the subjects of the study group, and serum alpha fetoprotein (AFP), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels were determined by radioimmunoassay...
July 2018: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
Lu Zhang, Jin Hu, A Ali Zirakzadeh, Jesper Rosvall, Mats Hedlund, Ping Sheng Hu, Robert P A Wallin, Amir Sherif, Ola Winqvist
BACKGROUND: The tumor draining lymph node concept was first described in penile cancer for staging. Immunohistochemistry and histopathology evaluations are routinely used in clinical practice to examine lymph nodes for metastasis. However, these methods are time-consuming with low diagnostic accuracy and micro-metastases might be missed. In this study, we aim to evaluate detection of metastatic cells in draining lymph nodes by flow cytometry. METHODS: To assess the sensitivity of micro-metastasis detection by FACS (Fluorescence-activated cell sorting), HeLa cells were titrated into Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and expression of pan-cytokeratin AE1/AE3 was analyzed...
October 5, 2018: BMC Urology
Florian Bochen, Benedikt Balensiefer, Sandrina Körner, Jörg Thomas Bittenbring, Frank Neumann, Armand Koch, Klaus Bumm, Anke Marx, Silke Wemmert, Georgios Papaspyrou, David Zuschlag, Jan Philipp Kühn, Basel Al Kadah, Bernhard Schick, Maximilian Linxweiler
Vitamin D deficiency is frequently observed in human cancer patients and a prognostic relevance could be shown for some entities. Additionally, it is known that vitamin D can stimulate the patients' antitumor immunity. However, valid epidemiological data for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients are sparse and functional studies on a possible connection between vitamin D and the patients' immune system are missing. 25-OH vitamin D serum levels were analyzed in 231 HNSCC patients and 232 healthy controls and correlated with clinical data and patient survival...
2018: Oncoimmunology
Michael A Garcia, Mekhail Anwar, Yao Yu, Sai Duriseti, Bryce Merritt, Jean Nakamura, Christopher Hess, Philip V Theodosopoulos, Michael McDermott, Penny K Sneed, Steve E Braunstein
PURPOSE: A previous analysis showed that brain metastases that are treated with frameless stereotactic radiation surgery (SRS) and planned with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) >14 days before SRS had worse local control (LC). To evaluate if worse LC may be due to unaccounted interval metastasis growth and radiosurgical marginal miss, we quantified growth before SRS on preradiosurgical imaging. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We reviewed data from patients who were treated with fixed-frame SRS for brain metastases at our institution between 2010 and 2013 and had pretreatment diagnostic brain MRI and SRS-planning MRI scans available...
November 2018: Practical Radiation Oncology
S Agostinelli, S Garelli, M Gusinu, M Zeverino, F Cavagnetto, F Pupillo, A Bellini, G Taccini
PURPOSE: This paper analyzes Tomotherapy-based intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery (HTSRS) of brain metastasis targeting two end-points: 1) evaluation of dose homogeneity, conformity and gradient scores for single and multiple lesions and 2) assay of dosimetric criticality of completion of HTSRS procedures. METHODS: 42 treatment plans of 33 patients (53 brain lesions) treated with HTSRS were analyzed. Dose to healthy brain, homogeneity, conformity and gradient indexes were evaluated for each lesion...
August 2018: Physica Medica: PM
Cristian P Moiola, Carlos Lopez-Gil, Silvia Cabrera, Angel Garcia, Tom Van Nyen, Daniela Annibali, Tina Fonnes, August Vidal, Alberto Villanueva, Xavier Matias-Guiu, Camilla Krakstad, Frédéric Amant, Antonio Gil-Moreno, Eva Colas
Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common malignancy of the genital tract among women in developed countries. Recently, a molecular classification of EC has been performed providing a system that, in conjunction with histological observations, reliably improves EC classification and enhances patient management. Patient-derived xenograft models (PDX) represent nowadays a promising tool for translational research, since they closely resemble patient tumour features and retain molecular and histological features...
August 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Victoria M L Cohen, Efthymia Pavlidou, Joanna DaCosta, Amit K Arora, Teressa Szyszko, Mandeep S Sagoo, Peter Szlosarek
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to report the results of staging primary uveal melanoma with whole-body (18) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and abdominal ultrasound. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2012, patients with uveal melanoma over 4 mm in thickness were staged with FDG PET/CT and abdominal ultrasound. RESULTS: Over 2 years, 108 patients with medium-to-large melanoma underwent dual imaging...
April 2018: Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology
Thabo Lengana, Ismaheel O Lawal, Tebatso G Boshomane, Gbenga O Popoola, Kgomotso M G Mokoala, Evelyn Moshokoa, Alex Maes, Neo P Mokgoro, Christophe Van de Wiele, Mariza Vorster, Mike M Sathekge
PURPOSE: 68 Ga ligands targeting prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) are rapidly emerging as a significant step forward in the management of prostate cancer. PSMA is a type II transmembrane protein with high expression in prostate carcinoma cells. We prospectively evaluated the use of 68 Ga-PSMA positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in patients with prostate cancer and compared the results to those for technetium-99m (99m Tc)-10-metacyloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (MDP) bone scintigraphy (BS)...
July 21, 2018: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
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