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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30075875/hospital-emergency-treatment-of-convulsive-status-epilepticus-comparison-of-pathways-from-ten-pediatric-research-centers
#1
Alejandra Vasquez, Marina Gaínza-Lein, Iván Sánchez Fernández, Nicholas S Abend, Anne Anderson, J Nicholas Brenton, Jessica L Carpenter, Kevin Chapman, Justice Clark, William D Gaillard, Tracy Glauser, Joshua Goldstein, Howard P Goodkin, Yi-Chen Lai, Tobias Loddenkemper, Tiffani L McDonough, Mohamad A Mikati, Anuranjita Nayak, Eric Payne, James Riviello, Dmitry Tchapyjnikov, Alexis A Topjian, Mark S Wainwright, Robert C Tasker
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate and compare the status epilepticus treatment pathways used by pediatric status epilepticus research group (pSERG) hospitals in the United States and the American Epilepsy Society (AES) status epilepticus guideline. METHODS: We undertook a descriptive analysis of recommended timing, dosing, and medication choices in 10 pSERG hospitals' status epilepticus treatment pathways. RESULTS: One pathway matched the timeline in the AES guideline; nine pathways described more rapid timings...
July 11, 2018: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30075724/developing-e-cigarette-friendly-smoking-cessation-services-in-england-staff-perspectives
#2
Hannah Farrimond, Charles Abraham
BACKGROUND: Public health leadership in England has taken a distinctive international stance by identifying the potential public health benefit of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation. This includes the development of a ground-breaking set of national guidelines for developing e-cigarette friendly stop smoking services. However, little is known about the views of staff engaged within these services and whether or how such services are becoming e-cigarette friendly. This study aimed to investigate the uptake and usage of e-cigarette guidance, from the perspective of those enacting tobacco cessation interventions 'on the ground'...
August 3, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30059353/a-qualitative-systems-thinking-approach-to-study-self-management-in-women-with-migraine
#3
Deanna R Befus, Kristen Hassmiller Lich, Shawn M Kneipp, Janet P Bettger, Remy R Coeytaux, Janice C Humphreys
BACKGROUND: A dearth of effective and affordable treatment options has rendered nonpharmacological self-management a crucial part of living with migraine-a debilitating neurobiological condition without cure that disproportionately disables vulnerable women. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to describe the development and use of a systems thinking, problem-structuring data collection approach that was applied to the study of migraine self-management with women in diverse social locations...
July 27, 2018: Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30044895/solidarity-and-the-problem-of-structural-injustice-in-healthcare
#4
Carol C Gould
The concept of solidarity has recently come to prominence in the healthcare literature, addressing the motivation for taking seriously the shared vulnerabilities and medical needs of compatriots and for acting to help them meet these needs. In a recent book, Prainsack and Buyx take solidarity as a commitment to bear costs to assist others regarded as similar, with implications for governing health databases, personalized medicine, and organ donation. More broadly, solidarity has been understood normatively to call for 'standing with' or assisting fellow community members and possibly also distant others in regard to their needs, whether for its own sake or in order to realize the demands of justice...
July 25, 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29963609/research-into-finding-a-stable-prognosis-parameter-for-the-detection-of-students-in-need-of-guidance-realization-of-equal-opportunities-through-a-diversity-oriented-study-guidance
#5
Yassin Karay, Houda Hallal, Christoph Stosch
Objective: The internationalization of teaching and studying as well as increasing numbers of students with increasingly heterogeneous educational biographies and lifestyles require universities to develop awareness of this diversity and the need for adequate diversity management. For some diversity criteria at least it has been proven that they can influence the individual study success of students. The Dean's Office of the Medical Faculty of the University of Cologne has empirically determined a stable prognosis parameter for study progression on the basis of selected criteria in order to enable early detection of students in need of guidance...
2018: GMS Journal for Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29934825/medicaid-enrollment-among-prison-inmates-in-a-non-expansion-state-exploring-predisposing-enabling-and-need-factors-related-to-enrollment-pre-incarceration-and-post-release
#6
Catherine A Grodensky, David L Rosen, Colleen M Blue, Anna R Miller, Steve Bradley-Bull, Wizdom A Powell, Marisa E Domino, Carol E Golin, David A Wohl
Prison inmates suffer from a heavy burden of physical and mental health problems and have considerable need for healthcare and coverage after prison release. The Affordable Care Act may have increased Medicaid access for some of those who need coverage in Medicaid expansion states, but inmates in non-expansion states still have high need for Medicaid coverage and face unique barriers to enrollment. We sought to explore barriers and facilitators to Medicaid enrollment among prison inmates in a non-expansion state...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907112/a-systematic-review-of-stakeholder-views-of-selection-methods-for-medical-schools-admission
#7
M E Kelly, F Patterson, S O'Flynn, J Mulligan, A W Murphy
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this paper is to systematically review the literature with respect to stakeholder views of selection methods for medical school admissions. METHODS: An electronic search of nine databases was conducted between January 2000-July 2014. Two reviewers independently assessed all titles (n = 1017) and retained abstracts (n = 233) for relevance. Methodological quality of quantitative papers was assessed using the MERSQI instrument. The overall quality of evidence in this field was low...
June 15, 2018: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689085/determining-the-scope-of-attacks-on-health-in-four-governorates-of-syria-in-2016-results-of-a-field-surveillance-program
#8
Rohini J Haar, Casey B Risko, Sonal Singh, Diana Rayes, Ahmad Albaik, Mohammed Alnajar, Mazen Kewara, Emily Clouse, Elise Baker, Leonard S Rubenstein
BACKGROUND: Violent attacks on and interferences with hospitals, ambulances, health workers, and patients during conflict destroy vital health services during a time when they are most needed and undermine the long-term capacity of the health system. In Syria, such attacks have been frequent and intense and represent grave violations of the Geneva Conventions, but the number reported has varied considerably. A systematic mechanism to document these attacks could assist in designing more protection strategies and play a critical role in influencing policy, promoting justice, and addressing the health needs of the population...
April 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680329/dual-diagnosis-of-mental-illness-and-substance-use-disorder-and-injury-in-adults-recently-released-from-prison-a-prospective-cohort-study
#9
Jesse T Young, Ed Heffernan, Rohan Borschmann, James R P Ogloff, Matthew J Spittal, Fiona G Kouyoumdjian, David B Preen, Amanda Butler, Lisa Brophy, Julia Crilly, Stuart A Kinner
BACKGROUND: People with mental illness and substance use disorder are over-represented in prisons. Injury-related mortality is elevated in people released from prison, and both mental illness and substance use disorder are risk factors for injury. Effective care coordination during the transition between criminal justice and community service providers improves health outcomes for people released from prison. However, the health outcomes and support needs of people with dual diagnosis (co-occurring mental illness and substance use disorder) released from prison are poorly understood...
May 2018: Lancet. Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627964/evaluating-concurrent-validity-of-criminal-justice-and-clinical-assessments-among-women-on-probation
#10
Camila D Odio, Megan Carroll, Susan Glass, Ashley Bauman, Faye S Taxman, Jaimie P Meyer
BACKGROUND: Women in the criminal justice (CJ) system experience complex and comorbid medical, psychiatric, and substance use disorders, which often contribute to CJ involvement. To identify intersections between CJ and health needs, we calculated Spearman r correlations between concurrent CJ and clinical assessments from women on probation in Connecticut who were enrolled in a clinical trial. We examined longitudinal trends in CJ risk scores over 9 years of observation (2005-2014), modeling time to probation recidivism with shared gamma frailty models and comparing contiguous time points by Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank tests...
April 7, 2018: Health & Justice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620674/i-am-an-african-american-distinguishing-between-african-american-and-african-applicants-in-medical-school-admissions-matters
#11
Reginald F Baugh
Ignoring the diverse and rich cultures and histories of Africa and the African diaspora by applying the term African American to anyone of sub-Saharan African ancestry in medical school admissions does a disservice to applicants, medical schools, and the communities they serve. To determine how applicants can contribute to a diverse educational environment, admissions decisions must go beyond racial and ethnic self-reporting and recognize the diversity applicants bring to their medical school. Using a holistic approach, institutions can fairly evaluate applicants and strategically fill their incoming classes...
April 3, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543653/nonantiretroviral-polypharmacy-and-adverse-health-outcomes-among-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-individuals
#12
Amy C Justice, Kirsha S Gordon, Melissa Skanderson, Eva Jennifer Edelman, Kathleen M Akgün, Cynthia L Gibert, Vincent Lo Re, David Rimland, Julie A Womack, Christina M Wyatt, Janet P Tate
BACKGROUND: HIV-positive individuals (HIV+) on antiretrovirals commonly take enough other medications to cross a threshold for polypharmacy but little is known about associated outcomes. We asked whether non-antiretroviral polypharmacy is associated with hospitalization and mortality and whether associations differ by HIV status. METHODS: Data on HIV+ and uninfected individuals in the US Veterans Affairs Healthcare System were analyzed. Eligible HIV+ were on antiretrovirals with suppressed HIV-1 RNA and uninfected individuals received at least one medication...
March 27, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510842/the-violence-epidemic-in-the-african-american-community-a-call-by-the-national-medical-association-for-comprehensive-reform
#13
Eva Frazer, Roger A Mitchell, LaQuandra S Nesbitt, Mallory Williams, Edith P Mitchell, Richard Allen Williams, Doris Browne
While much progress has occurred since the civil rights act of 1964, minorities have continued to suffer disparate and discriminatory access to economic opportunities, education, housing, health care and criminal justice. The latest challenge faced by the physicians and public health providers who serve the African American community is the detrimental, and seemingly insurmountable, causes and effects of violence in impoverished communities of color. According to statistics from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), the number one killer of black males ages 10-35 is homicide, indicating a higher rate of violence than any other group...
February 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480767/child-incarceration-and-long-term-adult-health-outcomes-a-longitudinal-study
#14
Elizabeth S Barnert, Laura S Abrams, Lello Tesema, Rebecca Dudovitz, Bergen B Nelson, Tumaini Coker, Eraka Bath, Christopher Biely, Ning Li, Paul J Chung
Purpose Although incarceration may have life-long negative health effects, little is known about associations between child incarceration and subsequent adult health outcomes. The paper aims to discuss this issue. Design/methodology/approach The authors analyzed data from 14,689 adult participants in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) to compare adult health outcomes among those first incarcerated between 7 and 13 years of age (child incarceration); first incarcerated at>or=14 years of age; and never incarcerated...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Prisoner Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415846/associations-between-pharmacotherapy-for-opioid-dependence-and-clinical-and-criminal-justice-outcomes-among-adults-with-co-occurring-serious-mental-illness
#15
Allison G Robertson, Michele M Easter, Hsiu-Ju Lin, Linda K Frisman, Jeffrey W Swanson, Marvin S Swartz
Adults suffering from a serious mental illness (SMI) and a substance use disorder are at especially high risk for poor clinical outcomes and also arrest and incarceration. Pharmacotherapies for treating opioid dependence could be a particularly important mode of treatment for opioid-dependent adults with SMI to lower their risk for overdose, high-cost hospitalizations, repeated emergency department visits, and incarceration, given relapse rates are very high following detoxification in the absence of one of the three FDA-approved pharmacotherapies...
March 2018: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396985/extended-release-injectable-naltrexone-for-opioid-use-disorder-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Brantley P Jarvis, August F Holtyn, Shrinidhi Subramaniam, D Andrew Tompkins, Emmanuel A Oga, George E Bigelow, Kenneth Silverman
AIMS: To review systematically the published literature on extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX, Vivitrol® ), marketed as a once-per-month injection product to treat opioid use disorder. We addressed the following questions: (1) how successful is induction on XR-NTX; (2) what are adherence rates to XR-NTX; and (3) does XR-NTX decrease opioid use? Factors associated with these outcomes as well as overdose rates were examined. METHODS: We searched PubMed and used Google Scholar for forward citation searches of peer-reviewed papers from January 2006 to June 2017...
July 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394343/looking-behind-the-bars-emerging-health-issues-for-people-in-prison
#17
S Stürup-Toft, E J O'Moore, E H Plugge
Introduction: There are more than 10 million people imprisoned worldwide. These individuals experience a higher burden of communicable and non-communicable disease, mental health and substance misuse problems than the general population and often come from marginalized and underserved groups in the community. Prisons offer an important opportunity for tackling health problems in a way that can deliver benefits to the individual and to the community. This paper focuses specifically on emerging health issues for prisons across the world...
March 1, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369161/non-antiretroviral-polypharmacy-and-adverse-health-outcomes-among-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-individuals
#18
Amy C Justice, Kirsha Gordon, Melissa Skanderson, E Jennifer Edelman, Kathleen M Akgun, Cynthia L Gibert, Vincent Lo Re, David Rimland, Julie A Womack, Christina M Wyatt, Janet P Tate
BACKGROUND: HIV positive individuals (HIV+) on antiretrovirals (ARV) commonly take enough other medications to cross a threshold for polypharmacy but little is known about associated outcomes. We asked whether non-ARV polypharmacy is associated with hospitalization and mortality and whether associations differ by HIV status. METHODS: Data on HIV+ and uninfected individuals in the US Veterans Affairs Healthcare System were analyzed. Eligible HIV+ were on ARVs with suppressed HIV-1 RNA and uninfected individuals received at least one medication...
January 23, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368998/a-paradigm-for-understanding-trust-and-mistrust-in-medical-research-the-community-voices-study
#19
M Smirnoff, I Wilets, D F Ragin, R Adams, J Holohan, R Rhodes, G Winkel, E M Ricci, C Clesca, L D Richardson
BACKGROUND: To promote justice in research practice and rectify health disparities, greater diversity in research participation is needed. Lack of trust in medical research is one of the most significant obstacles to research participation. Multiple variables have been identified as factors associated with research participant trust/mistrust. A conceptual model that provides meaningful insight into the interplay of factors impacting trust may promote more ethical research practice and provide an enhanced, actionable understanding of participant mistrust...
January 2018: AJOB Empirical Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199926/-from-defensive-paranoia-to-%C3%A2-openness-to-outside-scrutiny-prison-medical-officers-in-england-and-wales-1979-86
#20
Nicholas Duvall
This article examines how a branch of medicine based within the criminal justice system responded to a society which by the 1970s and 1980s was increasingly critical of the prison system and medical authority. The Prison Medical Service, responsible for the health care of prisoners in England and Wales, was criticised by prison campaigners and doctors alike for being unethical, isolated, secretive, and beholden to the interests of the Home Office rather than those of their patients. While prison doctors responded defensively to criticisms in the 1970s and 1980s, comparing their own standards of practice favourably with those found in the NHS, and arguing that doctors from outside would struggle to cope in the prison environment, by 1985 their attitudes had changed...
January 2018: Medical History
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