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glenoid morphology

Dave R Shukla, Richard J McLaughlin, Julia Lee, Robert H Cofield, John W Sperling, Joaquin Sánchez-Sotelo
BACKGROUND: The Walch classification was introduced to classify glenoid morphology in primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis. A modified Walch classification was recently proposed, with 2 additional categories, B3 (monoconcave glenoid with posterior bone loss leading to retroversion > 15° or subluxation > 70%) and D (excessive anterior subluxation), as well as a more precise definition of subtypes A2 and C. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intraobserver and interobserver agreement of the modified Walch classification system using both plain radiographs and computed tomography (CT)...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Dipit Sahu, Jairam Jagiasi
BACKGROUND: Our objective was to study the anatomic and intraoperative coracoid measurements with an aim to closely replicate the Latarjet-Walch technique and find the similarities and dissimilarities in our population. METHODS: In the cadaveric study, 20 shoulders in 10 fresh cadavers were dissected, and the coracoid length, width, and thickness were measured. In the intraoperative study, 10 patients underwent the classic Latarjet procedure according to the Walch technique...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Maximilian Haas, Fabian Plachel, Guido Wierer, Philipp Heuberer, Thomas Hoffelner, Eva Schulz, Werner Anderl, Philipp Moroder
BACKGROUND: Instability arthropathy (IA) is a major long-term concern in patients with anterior shoulder instability. This study investigated the association of glenoid morphology with the development of IA. METHODS: The study included 118 patients with unilateral anterior shoulder instability and available bilateral computed tomography scans. Instability-specific information was obtained from all patients. The glenoid morphology of the affected shoulder was compared with the nonaffected contralateral side resembling the constitutional preinjury glenoid shape...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
David J Green, Habiba Chirchir, Emma Mbua, John W K Harris, David R Braun, Nicole L Griffin, Brian G Richmond
KNM-ER 47000A is a new 1.52 Ma hominin scapular fossil belonging to an associated partial skeleton from the Koobi Fora Formation, Kenya (FwJj14E, Area 1A). This fossil effectively doubles the record of Early Pleistocene scapulae from East Africa, with KNM-WT 15000 (early African Homo erectus) preserving the only other known scapula to date. KNM-ER 47000A consists of a complete glenoid cavity preserving a portion of the scapular spine and neck, the proximal half of the acromion, and a majority of the axillary border...
December 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
Seulgi Han, Sang Min Shin, Yong-Seok Choi, Ki Beom Kim, Tetsutaro Yamaguchi, Koutaro Maki, Chooryung J Chung, Yong-Il Kim
OBJECTIVE: To examine the morphologic similarities and differences in mandibular condyle and glenoid fossa between the deviated and non-deviated sides in patients with facial asymmetry using statistical analysis. METHODS: One hundred eighty-four patients (95 men, 89 women; mean age, 22.30 ± 3.87 years) with facial asymmetry were examined with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Shape analysis was performed to compare the shapes and sizes of the condyle and fossa between the deviated and non-deviated sides in the frontal and lateral aspects...
August 25, 2018: Oral Radiology
Jason C Ho, Michael H Amini, Vahid Entezari, Bong Jae Jun, Bashar Alolabi, Eric T Ricchetti, Joseph P Iannotti
BACKGROUND: The primary objectives of this study were to evaluate the ability of a posteriorly stepped augmented glenoid component, used in patients with primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis with B2 or B3 glenoid morphology, to correct preoperative retroversion and humeral head subluxation and to identify factors associated with radiographic radiolucency and patient-reported clinical outcomes. METHODS: We identified 71 shoulders with B2 or B3 glenoid morphology that underwent anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty with use of a posteriorly stepped augmented glenoid component and with a preoperative 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) scan and a minimum of 2 years of clinical and radiographic follow-up...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Maria Grazia Piancino, Michele Tepedino, Francesco Cavarra, Ennio Bramanti, Giuseppina Laganà, Claudio Chimenti, Stefano Cirillo
OBJECTIVE: To compare morphologic findings in MRI and skeletal divergence of a group of patients with temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD) subdivided into condylar symmetric and asymmetric. METHODS: Fifty-nine adults (26.7 years old) with TMD were retrospectively recruited. Condylar height symmetry was evaluated by orthopantomography (Habets's method) and used to divide patients into Symmetric and Asymmetric groups; skeletal divergence was assessed on lateral cephalograms...
October 17, 2018: Cranio: the Journal of Craniomandibular Practice
Mohammad Samim, Mandeep Virk, David Mai, Kamran Munawar, Joseph Zuckerman, Soterios Gyftopoulos
OBJECTIVE: A major factor that impacts the long-term outcome and complication rates of total shoulder arthroplasty is the preoperative posterior glenoid bone loss quantified by glenoid retroversion. The purpose of this study was to assess if glenoid retroversion varies significantly at different glenoid heights in Walch B2 and B3 glenoids. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with B2 and B3 glenoid types were included following retrospective review of 386 consecutive CT shoulder studies performed for arthroplasty preoperative planning...
October 17, 2018: Skeletal Radiology
Tahmineh Razi, Sedigheh Razi
BACKGROUND: Various factors such as aging, sex hormones and the distribution pattern of occlusal forces affect the morphology and osseous components of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Recognition of the effects of these factors on the anatomy of the area results in the differentiation of normal variations from abnormal cases. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the condyle and other hard components of TMJ, and age, gender and the number of remaining teeth...
July 2018: Dental and medical problems
Wunnee Chaijaroonkhanarak, Pattama Amarttayakong, Somsiri Ratanasuwan, Pornpimol Kirirat, Wanassanan Pannangrong, Jariya Umka Welbat, Parichat Prachaney, Amnart Chaichun, Surachai Sae-Jung
BACKGROUND: Variations of morphology of the glenoid cavity have been previously reported. These influence the surgical reconstruction or arthroplasty of the shoulder. This study aims to study the variation of the shape of suprascapular notch, shape of glenoid cavity, dimensions of both the scapular and the glenoid cavity, and predict the glenoid dimensions from the scapular dimension parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult-dried scapulae were collected. The shapes of each suprascapular notch and glenoid cavity were evaluated...
October 15, 2018: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
Richard Joel Friedman, David Anthony Barcel, Josef Karl Eichinger
Scapular notching is a common radiographic finding occurring after reverse total shoulder arthroplasty, and it refers to an erosive lesion of the inferior scapular neck because of the impingement of the humeral implant during adduction. The clinical importance of notching is unclear, and the optimal treatment of severe notching is unknown. The incidence and severity of scapular notching is related to prosthetic design and surgical technique. Implant design factors include size, shape, and position of the glenosphere, inclination of the humeral neck-shaft angle, implant offset, and native scapular anatomy...
September 26, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Christian J Kellenberger, Jeannine Bucheli, Silke Schroeder-Kohler, Rotraud K Saurenmann, Vera Colombo, Dominik A Ettlin
BACKGROUND: Deformation of the mandibular condyle can be associated with anterior disk displacement (ADD) or involvement of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) by juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Diagnostic differentiation is critical for proper management. OBJECTIVES: To compare morphology and inflammation between TMJs with ADD and JIA. METHODS: Retrospective assessment of contrast-enhanced TMJ MRI in 18 adolescents (15 female, mean age 15...
September 25, 2018: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
Anne R Titelbaum, Bebel Ibarra Asencios, Bronwyn E McNeil
While intraosseous cysts have been described in the paleopathological literature, it is rare to find reports concerning effects of soft tissue cysts, although they are relatively common in clinical contexts. Here we present plausible evidence of an extraosseous paralabral cyst, seen in an adult scapula from a Late Intermediate period commingled tomb (ca. AD 1200) at the northern highland site of Marcajirca, Ancash, Peru. The scapula demonstrated a smooth-sided concave depression at the spinoglenoid notch. The depression was notable for its regular appearance, with no bone deposition or destruction...
September 20, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Stephen A Parada, K Aaron Shaw, Colleen Moreland, Douglas R Adams, Mickey S Chabak, Matthew T Provencher
BACKGROUND: Distal tibial allograft glenoid augmentation has been introduced as a viable treatment approach for glenoid bone loss in conjunction with shoulder instability. No previous study, however, has assessed the morphologic variation of the distal tibia at the incisura as it relates to graft dimensions for glenoid augmentation. Increased concavity at the lateral distal tibia necessitates removal of the lateral cortex to obtain a flat surface, which may have implications for the strength of surgical fixation...
October 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Ivan H Wong, John Paul King, Gordon Boyd, Michael Mitchell, Catherine Coady
BACKGROUND: The Latarjet procedure for autograft transposition of the coracoid to the anterior rim of the glenoid remains the most common procedure for reconstruction of the glenoid after shoulder instability. The anatomic glenoid reconstruction using distal tibial allograft has gained popularity and is suggested to better match the normal glenoid size and shape. However, concerns about decreased healing and increased resorption arise when an allograft bone is used. PURPOSE: To use radiological findings to evaluate the arthroscopic reconstruction of the glenoid with respect to the size, shape, healing, and resorption of coracoid autograft versus distal tibial allograft...
September 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Michael R Karns, R Tyler Epperson, Sean Baran, Mattias B Nielsen, Nicholas B Taylor, Robert T Burks
PURPOSE: In this cadaveric study, we aim to define the basic anatomy of the anterior glenoid with attention to the relationships of calcified cartilage, capsulolabral complex, and osseous morphology of the anterior glenoid. METHODS: Seventeen cadaveric glenoid specimens (14 male, 3 female, mean age 53.9 ± 10) were imaged with micro-computed tomography (CT) and embedded in poly-methyl-methacrylate. Specimens were included for final analysis only if the entire glenoid articular cartilage, labrum, capsule, and biceps insertion were pristine and without evidence of injury, degeneration, or damage during the preparation process...
August 2018: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
R Paul, N Knowles, J Chaoui, M-O Gauci, L Ferreira, G Walch, G S Athwal
Aims: The Walch Type C dysplastic glenoid is characterized by excessive retroversion. This anatomical study describes its morphology. Patients and Methods: A total of 29 shoulders with a dysplastic glenoid were analyzed. CT was used to measure retroversion, inclination, height, width, radius-of-curvature, surface area, depth, subluxation of the humeral head and the Goutallier classification of fatty infiltration. The severity of dysplasia and deficiency of the posterior rim of the glenoid were recorded...
August 2018: Bone & Joint Journal
Silvan Beeler, Anita Hasler, Tobias Götschi, Dominik C Meyer, Christian Gerber
BACKGROUND: The pathomechanisms of eccentric osteoarthritis of the shoulder remain unclear. Although there is increasing evidence of bony differences between shoulders with rotator cuff tears and osteoarthritis, analogous differences have not been identified for primary concentric and eccentric osteoarthritis. This study examined the shape and orientation of the acromial roof as a potential risk factor for the development of posterior glenoid wear. METHODS: We analyzed computed tomography images of 105 shoulders with primary osteoarthritis...
December 2018: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Bo Nasmyth Loy, Melissa Zimel, Ashok Laxman Gowda, Trevor Richard Tooley, Tristan Maerz, James Bicos, Joseph Guettler
Background: The underlying cause of glenohumeral arthritis is poorly understood. Glenohumeral arthrosis patterns have been classified and described, and differential contact stresses within the joint have been implicated as a cause of joint degeneration, but the intrinsic cause of degeneration patterns in the glenohumeral joint (GHJ) remains largely unknown. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to assess morphological and mechanical differences in articular cartilage (AC) and subchondral bone (SCB) of the glenoid and humeral head in matched cadaveric specimens...
July 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Michał Tomasz Podgórski, Łukasz Olewnik, Piotr Grzelak, Michał Polguj, Mirosław Topol
The rotator cable is a semicircular thickening of the glenohumeral joint capsule. It travels between tubercles of the humerus and interweaves with the supra- and infraspinatus muscle tendons. The rotator cable anchors these tendons to the tubercles, playing the role of a suspension bridge. However, little is known about the modifications of this cable that result from pathologies to the rotator cuff tendons. Thus, we aim to compare the morphology of the normal rotator cable with cables in specimens with rotator cuff injuries...
July 10, 2018: Anatomical Science International
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