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Quantitative measurement

Xiaoyu Huang, Xiaohong Liang, Qiaoying Zhang, Dan Wang, Jianli Liu, Lingyan Zhang, Junlin Zhou
Background Glioma is the most common neoplasm that is neuroepithelial in nature. However, Spectral computed tomography (CT) has rarely been reported to detect angiogenesis in tumors. Purpose To investigate the value of multi-parameter spectral CT for the detection of angiogenesis in C6 glioma in rats. Material and Methods Fifteen male Wistar rats were seeded with C6 glioma cells in the right basal ganglia and spectral CT-enhanced scanning was performed at days 7, 10, and 14 after the C6 glioma cells were seeded...
October 15, 2018: Acta Radiologica
Janardhana P Aithala, Suraj Kumar, Shodhan Aithal, Shashidhar M Kotian
Study Design: Prospective observational study. Purpose: To evaluate the disability domains relevant to Indian patients with low backache and propose a modified disability questionnaire for such patients. Overview of Literature: The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is a self-reported measurement tool that measures both pain and functional status and is used for evaluating disability caused by lower backache. Although ODI remains a good tool for disability assessment, from the Indian perspective questions related to weight lifting and sexual activity of ODI are questioned in some of the earlier studies...
October 16, 2018: Asian Spine Journal
David A Savitz
Epidemiologic research is intended to advance scientific understanding and is one of the possible actions in responding to an episode of industrial contamination. However, it is important to recognize that such studies are not a substitute for public health measures to identify the source of exposure, reduce or eliminate it, and take measures to prevent future events. The merits of initiating an epidemiological study that directly examines the relationship between exposure and disease in the affected population need to be carefully considered...
September 2018: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
Hsuan-Chen Wu, Shang-Ru Wu, Thomas Chung-Kuang Yang, Jen-Chang Yang
In spite of all the efforts towards deciphering the silk spinning process of spiders, the underlying mechanism is yet to be fully revealed. In this research, we designed a novel approach that allowed us to quantitatively evaluate the concentration change of silk dope during the liquid-to-solid spinning process of the orb-weaver Nephila pilipes . As a prior characterization of the optimal silking conditions, we first gauged the influence of silking-rate, ranging from 1.5 to 8.0 m/min, on dragline silk diameters and silk tensile strengths obtained from the spiders...
October 12, 2018: Materials
James Michelson, Mitchell Tarka, Shrey Kanjiya
BACKGROUND: Recent research indicates that restriction in excursion of flexor hallucis longus (FHL) contributes to hallux rigidus development. As described in the literature, clinical evaluation of FHL excursion has poor interobserver reliability. A simple, inexpensive, easily used FHL relative excursion measurement device was developed and tested. METHODS: 64 subjects were enrolled with shoe size, height, weight, BMI, and age compared. Using a footplate and series of mechanical wedges, maximum ankle dorsiflexion was measured with the great toe in 15°, 30°, and 45° of dorsiflexion...
May 19, 2018: Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Journal of the European Society of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Kerstin Ringering, Yasmine Kouhail, Yinon Yecheskel, Ishai Dror, Brian Berkowitz
Transport of indium and gallium is reported in laboratory column experiments using quartz sand as a model porous medium representative of a groundwater system. With increased use of indium and gallium in recent years, mainly in the semiconductor industry, concerns arise regarding their environmental effects. The transport and retention behavior of these two metals were quantified via batch and column experiments, and numerical modeling. The effect of natural organic matter on indium and gallium mobility was studied by addition of humic acid (HA)...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
F Echeverría, R Valenzuela, A Espinosa, A Bustamante, D Álvarez, D Gonzalez-Mañan, M Ortiz, S A Soto-Alarcon, L A Videla
High-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice show obesity with development of liver steatosis and a proinflammatory state without establishing an inflammatory reaction. The aim of this work was to assess the hypothesis that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus hydroxytyrosol (HT) supplementation prevents the inflammatory reaction through enhancement in the hepatic resolvin content in HFD-fed mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed an HFD or a control diet and supplemented with EPA (50 mg/kg/day) and HT (5 mg/kg/day) or their respective vehicles for 12 weeks...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Chunhao Wang, Ergys Subashi, Fang-Fang Yin, Zheng Chang, Jing Cai
PURPOSE: To develop a spatiotemporal-constrained sorting technique for motion-robust 4D-MRI. METHODS: This sorting method implemented two new approaches for 4D imaging: 1) an optimized sparse k-space acquisition trajectory with self-gating signal derivation, and 2) a retrospective k-space sorting for reconstruction using a novel spatiotemporal-constrained strategy to minimize breathing variation induced motion artifacts. Such sorting was regularized by a spatiotemporal index (STI)...
October 12, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Nitin Agarwal, William R Lariviere, Luke C Henry, Andrew Faramand, Jenna E Koschnitzky, Robert M Friedlander
BACKGROUND: Hydrocephalus patients experience symptoms related to hydrocephalus in an age-dependent manner. However, prevalence estimates of hydrocephalus symptoms in young and middle-aged (YMA) adult patients are rare and variable. Highlighting the importance of hydrocephalus symptom management, the persistence and intensity of headache or gait disturbance have been associated with signs of brain white matter integrity loss, including in treated YMA adult patients. Thus, it is important to ascertain which symptoms adult hydrocephalus patients report most to confirm their relative importance...
October 12, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Sean K Sethi, Shawn J Kisch, Kiarash Ghassaban, Ali Rajput, Alex Rajput, Paul S Babyn, Saifeng Liu, Peter Szkup, E Mark Haacke
BACKGROUND: Elevated brain iron has been observed in Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) within the deep gray matter. Using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and a thresholded high-iron region, we quantified iron content in the midbrain of patients with Parkinson's disease as a function of age. METHODS: We used MRI to scan 24 IPD patients at 3-Tesla. Susceptibility-weighted images were collected with the following parameters, TE: 6 and 20 ms, TR: 30 ms, FA: 15°, and resolution: 0...
October 13, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Inna A Vasil'eva, Rashid O Anarbaev, Nina A Moor, Olga I Lavrik
Base excision repair (BER) involves many enzymes acting in a coordinated fashion at the most common types of DNA damage. The coordination is facilitated by interactions between the enzymes and accessory proteins, X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 1 (XRCC1) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1). Here we use dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique to determine the hydrodynamic sizes of several BER enzymes and proteins, DNA polymerase β (Polβ), apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1), tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (TDP1), XRCC1 and PARP1, present alone or in the equimolar mixtures with each other...
October 12, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Proteins and proteomics
Ruina Dai, Ran Liu, Tao Liu, Zong Zhang, Xiang Xiao, Peipei Sun, Xiaoting Yu, Dahui Wang, Chaozhe Zhu
Interpersonal sensorimotor synchronization (interpersonal SMS) is the foundation of complex human social interaction. Previous studies primarily focused on the individual cognitive processes of interpersonal SMS. However, all individuals compose an entire interaction system with emerged holistic properties during interpersonal SMS. Therefore, we proposed the `holistic cognitive and neural processes' of interpersonal SMS and defined quantitative measurements that included Holistic Correction Gain (HCG), Holistic Timekeeper Variance (HTV) and Holistic Motor Variance (HMV) based on linear error correction model and inter-brain couplings obtained by hyperscanning technique...
October 13, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
José A Ramírez-Valiente, Julie R Etterson, Nicholas J Deacon, Jeannine Cavender-Bares
Heritable variation in polygenic (quantitative) traits is critical for adaptive evolution and is especially important in this era of rapid climate change. In this study, we examined the levels of quantitative genetic variation of populations of the tropical tree Quercus oleoides Cham. and Schlect. for a suite of traits related to resource use and drought resistance. We tested whether quantitative genetic variation differed across traits, populations and watering treatments. We also tested potential evolutionary factors that might have shaped such a pattern: selection by climate and genetic drift...
October 15, 2018: Tree Physiology
Floris R Goes, Matthias Kempe, Laurentius A Meerhoff, Koen A P M Lemmink
In professional soccer, nowadays almost every team employs tracking technology to monitor performance during trainings and matches. Over the recent years, there has been a rapid increase in both the quality and quantity of data collected in soccer resulting in large amounts of data collected by teams every single day. The sheer amount of available data provides opportunities as well as challenges to both science and practice. Traditional experimental and statistical methods used in sport science do not seem fully capable to exploit the possibilities of the large amounts of data in modern soccer...
September 21, 2018: Big Data
Anhad B S Sidhu, Sarah M Rosanowski, Alexandra M Davis, James F Griffith, Paul Robinson
OBJECTIVE: To quantitate the iatrogenic injury associated with deep plantar metatarsal fasciotomy performed with Metzenbaum scissors compared with a Y-shaped fasciotome. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental ex vivo surgical study. STUDY POPULATION: Cadaveric hind limbs (n = 20) from 10 sound thoroughbred racehorses. METHODS: A plantar metatarsal fasciotomy was performed, extending from the proximal extent of the deep metatarsal fascia, distally...
October 15, 2018: Veterinary Surgery: VS
Ye Guan, Shiyuan Wang, Minjun Jin, Haotian Xu, Qiong Yang
Real-time measurement of oscillations at the single-cell level is important to uncover the mechanisms of biological clocks. Although bulk extracts prepared from Xenopus laevis eggs have been powerful in dissecting biochemical networks underlying the cell-cycle progression, their ensemble average measurement typically leads to a damped oscillation, despite each individual oscillator being sustained. This is due to the difficulty of perfect synchronization among individual oscillators in noisy biological systems...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Andrey Tokarev, Matthew Creegan, Michael A Eller, Mario Roederer, Diane L Bolton
Single-cell analysis is an important tool for dissecting heterogeneous populations of cells. The identification and isolation of rare cells can be difficult. To overcome this challenge, a methodology combining indexed flow cytometry and high-throughput multiplexed quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was developed. The objective was to identify and characterize simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected cells present within rhesus macaques. Through quantitation of surface protein by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and mRNA by qPCR, virus-infected cells are identified by viral gene expression, which is combined with host gene and protein measurements to create a multidimensional profile...
September 25, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Clara C Cousins, Michael L Alosco, Henry C Cousins, Alicia Chua, Eric G Steinberg, Kimberly R Chapman, Hanaan Bing-Canar, Yorghos Tripodis, Paul A Knepper, Robert A Stern, Louis R Pasquale
BACKGROUND: Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is highly comorbid with Alzheimer's disease (AD), yet its role is not entirely understood. Nailfold video capillaroscopy (NVC) is a noninvasive method of live imaging the capillaries near the fingernail's cuticle and may help to describe further vascular contributions to AD. OBJECTIVE: To examine finger nailfold capillary morphology using NVC in subjects with AD dementia, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and normal cognition (NC)...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Hui-Xiong Xu, Kun Yan, Bo-Ji Liu, Wen-Ying Liu, Li-Na Tang, Qi Zhou, Jin-Yu Wu, En-Sheng Xue, Bin Shen, Qing Tang, Qin Chen, Hong-Yuan Xue, Ying-Jia Li, Jun Guo, Bin Wang, Fang Li, Chun-Yang Yan, Quan-Shui Li, Yan-Qing Wang, Wei Zhang, Chang-Jun Wu, Wen-Hui Yu, Su-Jin Zhou
Ultrasound elastography has been introduced into clinical practice for a decade and arisen continuous increasing attention worldwide. Shear wave elastography (SWE) is a further extension of ultrasound elastography on the basis of strain elastography, providing a two-dimensional distribution map of tissue stiffness and quantitative measurement of the tissue stiffness in Young's modulus (kPa) and/or shear wave speed (m/s). The Society of Ultrasound in Medicine, Chinese Medical Association (CMA) has recently released a series of guidelines for the use of SWE, including the technique and principle of SWE, and use of SWE in liver fibrosis, breast, thyroid, and musculoskeletal system...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Neuromuscular Diseases
Cheng Li, Xiao Miao, Yan Lou, Zhengyang Lu, Binay Kumar Adhikari, Yangwei Wang, Quan Liu, Jian Sun, Yonggang Wang
AIM: Diabetic cardiomyopathy is an independent cardiac injury that can develop in diabetic individuals. Our previous study showed that C66, a curcumin analogue, protects against diabetes-induced cardiac damage. The present study sought to reveal the underlying mechanisms of C66-mediated cardioprotection. METHODS: An experimental diabetic model was established using JNK2-/- and wild-type (WT) mice. C66 (5 mg/kg) was administered orally every other day for 3 months...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
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