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Quantitative measurement

Jian Du, Gehua Zhen, Huanwen Chen, Shuming Zhang, Liming Qing, Xiuli Yang, Gabsang Lee, Hai-Quan Mao, Xiaofeng Jia
Peripheral nerve injuries often lead to incomplete recovery and contribute to significant disability to approximately 360,000 people in the USA each year. Stem cell therapy holds significant promise for peripheral nerve regeneration, but maintenance of stem cell viability and differentiation potential in vivo are still major obstacles for translation. Using a made-in-house 96-well vertical electrical stimulation (ES) platform, we investigated the effects of different stimulating pulse frequency, duration and field direction on human neural crest stem cell (NCSC) differentiation...
July 20, 2018: Biomaterials
J Ramalho, I D B Marques, Didier Hans, David Dempster, Hua Zhou, Parth Patel, R M R Pereira, V Jorgetti, R M A Moyses, Thomas L Nickolas
The trabecular bone score (TBS) is a novel tool using grayscale variograms of the lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) to assess trabecular bone microarchitecture. Studies in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) suggest it may be helpful in assessing fracture risk. However, TBS has not been validated as a measure of trabecular architecture against transiliac bone biopsy with histomorphometry in CKD patients. We hypothesized that TBS would reflect trabecular architecture at the iliac crest in CKD patients...
August 8, 2018: Bone
Marat Fudim, Wayne L Miller
BACKGROUND: Calculated estimates of plasma volume (PV) have been developed using hemoglobin/hematocrit-body weight based methods. The accuracy of such formula-derived values has not been thoroughly evaluated. The objective of this analysis is the comparison of calculated vs. a quantitative measure of PV in patients with chronic heart failure (HF). METHODS: PV was measured using a standardized computer-based indicator-dilution labelled albumin technique in 110 patients with clinically stable chronic HF and correlated with paired Kaplan-Hakim (K-H) and Strauss formula estimates of PV...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Cardiac Failure
Alessandro Arrigo, Emanuela Aragona, Luigi Capone, Luisa Pierro, Francesco Romano, Francesco Bandello, Maurizio Battaglia Parodi
PURPOSE: To analyze optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) quantitative features in patients affected by new-onset choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in one eye and early/intermediate age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in the fellow eye. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTINGS: Clinical Practice. STUDY POPULATION: Thirty patients and thirty age-matched controls. OBSERVATION PROCEDURES: Both cohorts underwent complete ophthalmologic examination, including best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) measurement, biomicroscopy, fluorescein angiography (FA) and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) examination (Spectralis HRA; Heidelberg Engineering, Germany), OCT and OCTA scans (DRI OCT Triton; Topcon Corporation, Japan)...
August 8, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
David C LaFon, Moon H Nahm
Quantitative assays that measure immune response to pneumococcal vaccines are not only important for the evaluation of vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy, but are also utilized in the clinical diagnosis of immune deficiency syndromes. Analytical methods have progressed in order to meet changing demands in both of these areas, from early methods to ELISA, and most recently multiplex bead array assays and opsonophagocytosis assays (OPA). It is necessary to understand the evolution of such techniques and the criteria for their interpretation in order to better inform the application of currently available methods, and to guide future investigation into assay development...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
Wei Wang, Jiye Wang
BACKGROUND Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated signaling has been implicated in invasion, metastasis, and survival of various cancers. Activation of TLR4 can promote cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). However, little is known about the effects of TLR4/COX-2 in prostate cancer (PCa). MATERIAL AND METHODS In our study, TLR4 and COX-2 expressions were detected by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) in PCa tissues (n=34). Cell proliferation was measured by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) assays...
August 11, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Julian Prosenz, Claus Rath, Merisa Hadrovic-Avdic, Lena Hirtler
INTRODUCTION: Achilles tendinopathy and rupture of the Achilles tendon (AT) are frequent pathologies. Even though they may be associated with the twisted morphology of the AT, quantitative data on the extent of the twist of the entire AT are not available. The aim of this study was to investigate the torsion of the AT based on its individual parts, and to evaluate a possible correlation with the torsion of the long bones of the lower extremity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty embalmed lower extremities were included in this study...
August 11, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
Liang Hu, Ce Shi, Hong Jiang, Yingying Shi, Zubin Sethi, Jianhua Wang
Purpose: To investigate the factors affecting microvascular responses in the bulbar conjunctiva of habitual contact lens (HCL) wearers. Methods: A functional slit-lamp biomicroscope (FSLB) was used to image the temporal bulbar conjunctiva of habitual contact lens (HCL) wearers and non-contact lens (NCL) wearers. The vessel diameters and blood flow velocities (BFVs) were measured. Fractal analysis using Dbox as vessel density and D0 as vessel complexity were used to quantitatively analyze the microvascular network...
August 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Katerina A Tetzloff, Rene L Utianski, Joseph R Duffy, Heather M Clark, Edythe A Strand, Keith A Josephs, Jennifer L Whitwell
Purpose: The aims of the study were to assess and compare grammatical deficits in written and spoken language production in subjects with agrammatic primary progressive aphasia (agPPA) and in subjects with agrammatism in the context of dominant apraxia of speech (DAOS) and to investigate neuroanatomical correlates. Method: Eight agPPA and 21 DAOS subjects performed the picture description task of the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) both in writing and orally. Responses were transcribed and coded for linguistic analysis...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Shinsuke Aida, Junko Aida, Miho Naoi, Mai Kato, Yukio Tsuura, Ichiro Natsume, Kaiyo Takubo
We estimated the telomere lengths of neoplastic and non-neoplastic mesothelial cells and examined their correlation with asbestos exposure and the expression of markers of mesothelial malignancy. Cell blocks of pleural effusion obtained from 35 cases of non-neoplastic disease (NN), 12 cases of malignant mesothelioma (MM) and 12 cases of carcinomatous effusion due to lung adenocarcinoma (LA) were examined. Fifteen of the 35 NN cases had pleural plaques (NNpp+) suggestive of asbestos exposure, and the other 20 cases had no pleural plaques (NNpp-)...
August 10, 2018: Pathology International
W Saoudi, M Badri, W Taamalli, O T Zribi, M Gandour, C Abdelly
Soil salinity is one of the most serious environmental factors affecting crop productivity around the world. In this study, we analyzed morpho-physiological variation in responses to salt stress in Tunisian populations of Hordeum marinum ssp. marinum. The plants were grown under two treatments (0 and 200 mM NaCl) until maturity. A total of 19 quantitative traits were measured before and during the harvest. It was observed that most studied traits are influenced by the increasing salinity. High to moderate broad-sense heritability (H2 ) were noted for most of parameters under control and salt treatment, implying that salt tolerance is moderately heritable and environmental variation plays an equal important role...
August 11, 2018: Plant Biology
Feng Zhou, Cheng-Liang Zhu, Zhi-Li Niu, Feng-Xia Xu, Hui Song, Xing-Hui Liu
BACKGROUNDS: The influenza virus is one of the major pathogens that seriously affect human health. It can cause a strong immune response and trigger a series of complications. Interleukin 37 (IL-37) is a newly discovered cytokine that plays an important regulatory role in infection and immunity. To date, there have been few studies on the correlation between influenza virus infection and IL-37. METHODS: Serum levels of IL-37 in 115 patients with influenza A virus (IAV) infection and 102 healthy subjects were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
Michael S Cohen, Melissa L Stewart, Richard H Goodman, Xiaolu A Cambronne
Free nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ ) serves as substrate for NAD+ -consuming enzymes. As such, the local concentration of free NAD+ can influence enzymatic activities. Here we describe methods for using a fluorescent, genetically-encoded sensor to measure subcellular NAD+ concentrations. We also include a discussion of the limitations and potential applications for the current sensor. Presented in this chapter are (1) guidelines for calibrating instrumentation and experimental setups using a bead-based method, (2) instructions for incorporating required controls and properly performing ratiometric measurements in cells, and (3) descriptions of how to evaluate relative and quantitative fluctuations using appropriate statistical methods for ratio-of-ratio measurements...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Michael B Schultz, Yuancheng Lu, Nady Braidy, David A Sinclair
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ ) is an essential redox cofactor and signaling molecule that controls the activity of enzymes involved in metabolism, DNA repair, and cellular survival, such as the PARPs, CD38, and the sirtuins. Here, we describe three methods for measuring the activity of these enzymes: the etheno-NAD+ assay measures NAD+ hydrolase activity using an NAD+ analog to produce a fluorescent product that is measured in real time; the PNC1 assay converts a native product of NAD+ hydrolysis, nicotinamide, into a quantitative fluorescent readout; and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is used to characterize the entire NAD+ metabolome in a sample...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ina Vernikouskaya, Alexander Pochert, Mika Lindén, Volker Rasche
OBJECTIVES: A common limitation of all 1 H contrast agents is that they only allow indirect visualization through modification of the intrinsic properties of the tissue, making quantification of this effect challenging. 19 F compounds, on the contrary, are measured directly, without any background signal. There is a linear relationship between the amount of 19 F spins and the intensity of the signal. However, non-uniformity of the radiofrequency field may lead to errors in the quantified 19 F signal and should be carefully addressed for any quantitative imaging...
August 10, 2018: Magma
Aldo Fontes-Pereira, Paulo Rosa, Thiago Barboza, Daniel Matusin, Aline Soares Freire, Bernardo Ferreira Braz, Christiano Bittencourt Machado, Marco Antônio von Krüger, Sergio Augusto Lopes de Souza, Ricardo Erthal Santelli, Wagner Coelho de Albuquerque Pereira
Bone mineral density is an important parameter for the diagnosis of bone diseases, as well as for predicting fractures and treatment monitoring. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential of Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS) to monitor bone changes after calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium loss in rat femurs in vitro during a demineralization process. Four quantitative ultrasound parameters were estimated from bone surface echoes in eight femur diaphysis of rats. The echo signals were acquired during a decalcification process by Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid (EDTA)...
August 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
S N Gettinger, J Choi, N Mani, M F Sanmamed, I Datar, Ryan Sowell, Victor Y Du, E Kaftan, S Goldberg, W Dong, D Zelterman, K Politi, P Kavathas, S Kaech, X Yu, H Zhao, J Schlessinger, R Lifton, D L Rimm, L Chen, R S Herbst, K A Schalper
The biological determinants of sensitivity and resistance to immune checkpoint blockers are not completely understood. To elucidate the role of intratumoral T-cells and their association with the tumor genomic landscape, we perform paired whole exome DNA sequencing and multiplexed quantitative immunofluorescence (QIF) in pre-treatment samples from non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients treated with PD-1 axis blockers. QIF is used to simultaneously measure the level of CD3+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), in situ T-cell proliferation (Ki-67 in CD3) and effector capacity (Granzyme-B in CD3)...
August 10, 2018: Nature Communications
Thai H Tran, Fransiscus E Utama, Takahiro Sato, Amy R Peck, John F Langenheim, Sameer S Udhane, Yunguang Sun, Chengbao Liu, Melanie A Girondo, Albert J Kovatich, Jeffrey A Hooke, Craig D Shriver, Hai Hu, Juan Palazzo, Marluce Bibbo, Paul L Auer, Michael J Flister, Terry M Hyslop, Edith P Mitchell, Inna Chervoneva, Hallgeir Rui
PURPOSE: Parathyroid Hormone-related Protein (PTHrP) is required for normal mammary gland development and biology. A PTHLH gene polymorphism is associated with breast cancer risk, and PTHrP promotes growth of osteolytic breast cancer bone metastases. Accordingly, current dogma holds that PTHrP is up-regulated in malignant primary breast tumors, but solid evidence for this assumption is missing. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We used quantitative immunohistochemistry to measure PTHrP in normal and malignant breast epithelia, and correlated PTHrP levels in primary breast cancer with clinical outcome...
August 10, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Davi da Silva Barbirato, Mariana Fampa Fogacci, Heloisa Gusman, Christina Maeda Takiya, Denise Pires de Carvalho, Carmelo Samsone
Among the systemic conditions that impact negatively on the planning and execution of surgical procedures, diabetes mellitus (DM) is the primary clinical condition responsible for complications. This study investigated bone formation in critical defects surgically filled with hydroxyapatite (HA) in diabetic rats. A descriptive, randomized sample and blinded analysis were conducted to test bone regeneration in critical bone defects surgically performed in rat calvaria. Twenty adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: control, normoglycemic animals (CG); and test, streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic animals (TG)...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Steven A Buechler, Yesim Gökmen-Polar, Sunil S Badve
INTRODUCTION: Early stage estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer may be treated with chemotherapy in addition to hormone therapy. Currently available molecular signatures assess the risk of recurrence and the benefit of chemotherapy; however, these tests may have large intermediate risk groups, limiting their usefulness. METHODS: The EarlyR prognostic score was developed using integrative analysis of microarray data sets and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded-based quantitative real-time PCR assay and validated in Affymetrix data sets and METABRIC cohort using Cox proportional hazards models and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis...
July 17, 2018: Clinical Breast Cancer
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