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morphological measurement

Iwona Janica, Stefano Del Buffa, Agnieszka Mikołajczak, Matilde Eredia, Dawid Pakulski, Artur Ciesielski, Paolo Samorì
Phyllosilicates are layered materials possessing unique thermal properties, commonly exploited in their multilayered crystalline form as refractory insulators and heating elements. A more versatile use of such materials, however, would require their existence in the form of inks and dispersions ready to be patterned. Within this framework, the liquid-phase exfoliation of low-cost, low-purity materials such as bulk multiphasic minerals and powders represents an economically advantageous approach for the production of 2D nano-sized objects with a defined composition, size and morphology...
December 5, 2018: Nanoscale
Bernd Bittersohl, Chiara Benedikter, Alexander Franz, Tobias Hesper, Christoph Schleich, Gerald Antoch, Harish S Hosalkar, Rüdiger Krauspe, Christoph Zilkens
BACKGROUND: Rowing exposes the femoral head and acetabulum to high levels of repetitive abutment motion and axial loading that may put elite athletes at an increased risk for developing early hip osteoarthritis. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: Do elite rowers demonstrate characteristic hip cartilage lesions on T2 MRI sequences compared with asymptomatic individuals who do not row? METHODS: This study included 20 asymptomatic rowers (mean age, 23 ± 3 years; nine females, 11 males) who had a minimum of 5 years of intensive (≥ 12 hours/week) training...
November 27, 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Gulisa Turashvili, Daniel J Fix, Robert A Soslow, Kay J Park
Primary extrarenal Wilms tumor of the gynecologic tract is extremely rare with scattered case reports occurring in the ovary, uterine corpus and cervix. Only 9 cases of primary ovarian Wilms tumor have been reported to date. Here, we provide an extensive literature review and describe 2 patients with ovarian Wilms tumor: a 36-yr-old female (patient 1) and a 16-yr-old female (patient 2), both presenting with abdominal pain and suspected ovarian torsion. They were each found to have unilateral ovarian masses measuring >15 cm in size which were removed by unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy...
December 3, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Pathology
Lars Kirsten, Martin Schindler, Joseph Morgenstern, Mikael Timo Erkkilä, Jonas Golde, Julia Walther, Pascal Rottmann, Max Kemper, Matthias Bornitz, Marcus Neudert, Thomas Zahnert, Edmund Koch
An endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) system with a wide field-of-view of 8 mm is presented, which combines the image capability of endoscopic imaging at the middle ear with the advantages of functional OCT imaging, allowing a morphological and functional assessment of the human tympanic membrane. The endoscopic tube has a diameter of 3.5 mm and contains gradient-index optics for simultaneous forward-viewing OCT and video endoscopy. The endoscope allows the three-dimensional visualization of nearly the entire tympanic membrane...
December 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Merhan Mamdouh Ragy, Sabreen Mahmoud Ahmed
Diabetes and cardiometabolic risk factors including hypertension and dyslipidemia are the major threats to human health in the 21st century. Apoptosis in pancreatic tissue is one of the major causes of diabetes type 1 progression. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of C-peptide or l-arginine on some cardiometabolic risk factors, pancreatic morphology, function and apoptosis, and the mechanisms of their actions. Forty adult male albino rats were divided into four equal groups: 1-control nondiabetic, 2-diabetic (no treatment), 3-diabetic + C-peptide, and 4-diabetic +  l-arginine...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Sabra I Djomehri, Boris Burman, Maria E Gonzalez, Shuichi Takayama, Celina G Kleer
While 3D cellular models are useful to study biological processes, gel-embedded organoids have large variability. This paper describes high-yield production of large (~1 mm diameter), scaffold-free, highly-spherical organoids in a one drop-one organoid format using MCF10A cells, a non-tumorigenic breast cell line. These organoids display a hollow lumen and secondary acini, and express mammary gland-specific and progenitor markers, resembling normal human breast acini. When subjected to treatment with TGF-β, the hypoxia-mimetic reagent CoCl2 , or co-culture with mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC), the organoids increase collagen I production and undergo large phenotypic and morphological changes of neoplastic progression, which were reproducible and quantifiable...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
Günnur Onak, Mustafa Şen, Nesrin Horzum, Utku Kürşat Ercan, Ziyşan Buse Yaralı, Bora Garipcan, Ozan Karaman
Optimization of nanofiber (NF) surface properties is critical to achieve an adequate cellular response. Here, the impact of conjugation of biomimetic aspartic acid (ASP) and glutamic acid (GLU) templated peptides with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) electrospun NF on osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) was evaluated. Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) was used to functionalize the NF surface and thus to mediate the conjugation. The influence of the CAP treatment following with peptide conjugation to the NF surface was assessed using water contact angle measurements, Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)...
December 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Miaoting Yang, Zhijuan Chen, Chunxin Xiao, Waijiao Tang, Beijie Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of sera from rats fed with Huganqingzhi tablets (HGT) on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in a steatotic hepatocyte model of free fatty acids (FFAs)-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and explore the possible mechanism. METHODS: FFAs prepared by mixing oleic acid and palmitic acid at the ratio of 2:1. HepG2 cells were treated with the sera from rats fed with low-, moderate-or high-dose HGT (HGT sera) or sera of rats fed with fenofibrate (fenofibrate sera), followed by treatment with 1 mmol/L FFAs for 24 h to induce hepatic steatosis...
November 30, 2018: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
Yoshinobu Abe, Natsuo Yamamoto, Kiwamu Nakamura, Kazuaki Arai, Chiye Sakurai, Kiyotaka Hatsuzawa, Yasunori Ogura, Ken Iseki, Choichiro Tase, Keiji Kanemitsu
To investigate the role of IL-13 during a severe systemic Candida albicans infection, BALB/c control and IL-13-/- mice were examined for colony forming units (CFU) in the kidneys and survival days after intravenous infection. Proinflammatory mediators and cell recruitment into the tissue were measured by quantitative real-time PCR, a multiple ELISA system, and morphological cell differentiation. The IL-13-/- group exhibited a lower CFU number in the kidneys at 4 days and survived longer than the control mice, which was accompanied by significantly higher expression of C-X-C motif ligand 2 (CXCL2), IFN-γ, and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) in the infected kidneys...
November 24, 2018: Immunobiology
Reinier J de Vries, Peony D Banik, Sonal Nagpal, Lindong Weng, Sinan Ozer, Thomas M van Gulik, Mehmet Toner, Shannon N Tessier, Korkut Uygun
Loss of hepatocyte viability and metabolic function after cryopreservation is still a major issue. Although vitrification is a promising alternative, it has generally been proven to be unsuitable for vitrification of large cell volumes which is required for clinical applications. Here we propose a novel bulk droplet (3 to 5 mm diameter) vitrification method which allows high throughput volumes (4 ml/min), while using a low pre-incubated CPA concentration (15% v/v) to minimize toxicity and loss of cell viability and function...
December 4, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Myungwon Hwang, Wonsub Chung
Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating was obtained on AZ31 Mg alloy using a direct current in a sodium silicate-based electrolyte with and without a carbon nanotube (CNT) additive. The surface morphology and phase composition of the PEO coatings were investigated through field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The corrosion-resistance properties of the PEO coatings were evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in a 3...
December 2, 2018: Materials
Mary Ann Stepp, Sonali Pal-Ghosh, Gauri Tadvalkar, Alexa R Williams, Stephen C Pflugfelder, Cintia S de Paiva
Decreased corneal innervation is frequent in patients with Sjögren Syndrome (SS). To investigate the density and morphology of the intraepithelial corneal nerves (ICNs), corneal sensitivity, epithelial cell proliferation, and changes in mRNA expression of genes that are involved in autophagy and axon targeting and extension were assessed using the IL-2 receptor alpha chain (CD25 null) model of SS. ICN density and thickness in male and female wt and CD25 null corneas were assessed at 4, 6, 8, and 10/11 wk of age...
November 30, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Zhiwen Zhu, Hezhi He, Bin Xue, Zhiming Zhan, Guozhen Wang, Ming Chen
In this study, biodegradable poly(butylene succinate)/poly(lactic acid) (PBS/PLA) in-situ submicrofibrillar composites with various PLA content were successfully produced by a triple-screw extruder followed by a hot stretching-cold drawing-compression molding process. This study aimed to investigate the effects of dispersed PLA submicro-fibrils on the thermal, mechanical and rheological properties of PBS/PLA composites. Morphological observations demonstrated that the PLA phases are fibrillated to submicro-fibrils in the PBS/PLA composites, and all the PLA submicro-fibrils produced seem to have a uniform diameter of about 200nm...
November 30, 2018: Materials
E Yuluğ, S Türedi, Ö Yıldırım, E Yenilmez, Y Aliyazıcıoğlu, S Demir, S Özer-Yaman, A Menteşe
Cisplatin (CP) is a chemotherapeutic agent used to treat various types of cancer; nephrotoxicity is the most common adverse effect of the drug. We investigated the protective effects of propolis against CP induced kidney injury. Thirty-six male rats were divided into six equal groups: untreated control group, 50 mg/kg/day propolis group, 100 mg/kg/day propolis group, single-dose 7 mg/kg CP group, 7 mg/kg CP + 50 mg/kg/day propolis and 7 mg/kg CP + 100 mg/kg propolis. Rats were sacrificed after 14 days and kidneys were removed for histopathological and biochemical analyses...
December 4, 2018: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
Mark A Jenkins, Nicolas H Hart, Timo Rantalainen, Paola Chivers, Robert U Newton, Sophia Nimphius
OBJECTIVES: To quantify between-day reliability of upper-body diaphyseal measurements (radius, ulna, humerus) using peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT). METHODS: Fourteen males (age: 25.8±2.3 years,) underwent repeat pQCT scans (one to two days apart) at mid-shaft ulna (60%), mid-shaft radius (60%) and mid-shaft humerus (50%) cross-sections of the non-dominant limb. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and coefficients of variation (CV) were determined for musculoskeletal morphology variables...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Musculoskeletal & Neuronal Interactions
Mahdi Mohammadi Ghaleni, Abdullah Al-Balushi, Shayan Kaviani, Elham Tavakoli, Mona Bavarian, Siamak Nejati
Desalination of oil-contaminated saline water using membrane distillation requires hydrophobic membranes with underwater superoleophobic surfaces. For designing such membranes, the chemistry and morphology of the interfacial domains in contact with the contaminated water need to be adjusted such that a stable water layer, adhering to the surface, prevents oil droplets from wetting the membrane. In this article, we present an approach that relies on the controlled functionalization of the surface of Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) membranes; we adjust the surface topography of the membranes and introduce chemical heterogeneity to them...
December 4, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Davood Zolfaghari, Hamid Tebyanian, Reza Sayyad Soufdoost, Askar Emamgholi, Aref Barkhordari, Gholam Reza Herfedoost, Gholam Reza Kaka, Jamal Rashidiani
Polylactide-co-glycolide acid (PLGA) is known as a biodegradable and biocompatible polymer. This polymer has been highly used in tissue engineering. In this study, the biological behavior of Schwann cells (Rat) was investigated in co-culture with L lysine/gelatine coated PLGA nano-fiber. In this study, PLGA was dissolved in a hexafluoro propanol based solvent and nanofiber prepared by an electronic method. They were coated with gelatin and poly-L-lysine individually. These polymer properties were investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis and contact angle measurement...
November 30, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Biology
C L Nieman, S M Gray
The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of different forms of elevated turbidity on the visual acuity of two native Lake Erie fishes and to assess the response of fishes from different trophic levels to elevated turbidity. Additionally, the role of visual morphology (e.g., eye and optic lobe size) on visual acuity was evaluated across visual environments. Reaction distance, a behavioural proxy for measures of visual acuity, was measured for a top predator, walleye Sander vitreus and a forage fish, emerald shiner Notropis atherinoides...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Xiuyun Liu, Lara L Zimmermann, Nhi Ho, Paul Vespa, Xiaoling Liao, Xiao Hu
OBJECTIVES: Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring is a common practice when treating intracranial pathology with risk of elevated ICP. External ventricular drain (EVD) insertion is a standard approach for both monitoring ICP and draining cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). However, the conventional EVD cannot serve these two purposes simultaneously because it cannot accurately measure ICP and its pulsatile waveform while the EVD is open to CSF drainage. A new Integra® Camino® FLEX Ventricular Catheter (Integra Lifesciences, County Offaly, Ireland) with a double-lumen construction has been recently introduced into the market, and it can monitor ICP waveforms even during CSF drainage...
December 3, 2018: Neurocritical Care
Azile Nqombolo, Anele Mpupa, Aphiwe S Gugushe, Richard M Moutloali, Philiswa N Nomngongo
In this work, cobalt-methylimidazolate framework has been used as an adsorbent in the removal of Pb(II) from acid mine drainage in adsorption batch system. X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmet-Teller and transmission electron microscope were used for structural, morphological, and surface characteristics of cobalt-methylimidazolate framework. The concentration of heavy metal ions in water samples was measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Different experimental factors/variables (such as contact time, dosage, and pH) affecting the adsorption of Pb(II) from acid mine drainage were optimized by response surface methodology based on central composite design...
December 3, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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